Design of Byzantine Churches
In this survey three Byzantine Churches from KadA±kalesi ( Anaia ) , BaAYpA±nar and Aigai were selected as the instance countries to analyze the features of wall pictures from Byzantine period in Western Anatolia ( Figure 1 ) .
Figure 1. Location of Anaia, BaAYpA±nar and Aigai
( Beginning: Ramsey 1890 )
1. KadA±kalesi ( Anaia )
KadA±kalesi ( Anaia )
KadA±kalesi is an ancient colony located in Davutlarlar in the South of KuAYadasA± – AydA±n. It is located 8 kilometer from the Centre of KuAYadasA± . The site is surrounded by gazebos at the present ( Figure 2 ) .
KadA±kalesi is an upstate palace built in 12th century AD. It is a portion of Byzantine circle of defence against Turks. The ancient name of KadA±kalesi has been identified as Anaia. KadA±kalesi ( Anaia ) was founded in a location opposing Samos Island that controls the Samos Strait. It was bordered by Ephesos in the North and Miletos ancient metropolis in the South.
Figure 2. Aerial exposure of KadA±kalesi ( WEB1 )
Anaia is situated on a burial mound dating back to the prehistoric ages. Earliest ruins in KadA±kalesi is dated to late chalcolithic period. Six different colony strata from late chalcolithic to Byzantine have been determined by diggings ( Akdeniz 2007 ) . These are:
Stratum I- Islam-Byzantine ( Anaia )
Stratum II- Ancient Greece-Roman Empire
Stratum III- Late Bronze Age ( three stages )
Stratum IV- Middle Bronze Age
Stratum Va- Early Bronze Age III
Stratum Vb- Early Bronze Age II
Stratum Vc- Early Bronze Age I
Stratum VI- Late Chalcolithic Age
Name Anaia is first seen in the list of taxpaying towns of Attic-Delos Union in the first half of the 5 century BC. There is a deficiency of cognition for the Hellenistic period of Anaia. A temple dedicated to Hera had been present in Anaia in the Roman period ( 2neodymium– 3rdcentury AD ) . By the acceptance of Christianity as the official faith in 4Thursdaycentury AD Anaia had been an episcopate centre. In 13Thursdaycentury Anaia had been promoted to archbishop centre. The metropolis was transferred to the Genosians in 1261. Through the undermentioned 50 old ages the metropolis was occupied by the Genosians, the Venetians, the Catalans and the Turks. Anaia was captured by the Turks in the early 1300s. In the fourteenth century the country was under the regulation of AydA±noglu Emirate and so in the fifteenth century it became under the regulation of Ottomans ( Mercangoz 2007 ) .
Scientific digging in Anaia began in 2001 under the supervising of Prof.Dr. Zeynep Mercangoz ( Ege University ) . At first the purpose of the digging was to make some glade and allow the palace seen with all its impressiveness. But in 2005 a monumental church-monastery composite was uncovered. The Church has a basilical program with three naves and an apsis. Apse of the church is next to fortress wall. There is a five stepped brick synthronon in the apsis. On the west terminal of the church there are an esonarthex ( interior narthex ) and an exonarthex ( outer narthex ) that enclose the esonarthex at three sides. On the southeast corner of the esonarthex a chapel is located next to east wall of exonarthex and south wall of nave. There is a cistern associated with the church on the West of exonarthex ( Figure 3, 4 ) . Brick and rubble rock had been used in rows in masonry of church.
Figure 3. Partial program of the church composite ( WEB 2 )
Figure 4. Nave of the church
The church has been decorated with wall pictures which merely a little fragment is present. The most preserved pictures are located on the nathex walls, synthronon walls and trefoil planned infinite at the West of exonarthex ( Figure 5 ) .
Figure 5. Wall painting fragments on the walls of a: esonarthex, B: nave, degree Celsius: synthronon
A infrastructure located under the apsis of the church was uncovered during 2012 diggings. This infinite can be reached through an arched gap on the eastern terminal of the north frontage of the church. The walls of the infrastructure were built with cut rock blocks. Brick was used for the building of the vault. At a ulterior period a brace of buttresses and arches were added for support of the vault ( Figure 6 ) . The vault of the infrastructure has been decorated with intensive wall pictures ( Figure 7 ) .
Figure 6. General position of the infrastructure. A: from North to south, B: from South to north
Figure 7. Wall pictures on the vault of the infrastructure
Mount Nif is located on the E of A°zmir Bay. It is bordered with KemalpaAYa lowland on the North, Karabel sound on the E and TorbalA± lowland on the E. Former name of the Mount Nif was Olympos. Although there are many ruins of different civilizations dated from the eight century BC to the 13 century AD, most of them are from Hellenistic and Byzantine periods ( Tulunay 2008 ) .
The first Archaeological diggings began in 2006 in Mount Nif. Excavations continues on four different colonies which are Karamattepe, BallA±caoluk, DaAYkA±zA±lca and BaAYpA±nar ( Figure 8 ) . An antediluvian colony which was used as cemetery at Hellenic period in Karamattepe, munition walls in BallA±caoluk, a cemetery in DaAYkA±zA±lca and a Byzantine composite in BaAYpA±nar was discovered ( Tulunay 2008 ) .
Figure 8. Excavation countries of Nif ( Olympus ) Mountain Research and Excavation Project ( WEB 3 )
Figure 9. General position of BaAYpA±nar Church
BaAYpA±nar is located on the southeasterly incline of Mount Nif. Excavations on BaAYpA±nar began in 2007 as a portion of “Nif ( Olympus ) Mountain Research and Excavation Project” under the supervising of Prof.Dr. Elif Tul Tulunay ( A°stanbul University ) .
Ruins on BaAYpA±nar is a Byzantine composite of two next churches and a chapel located on the South of churches ( Figure 9 ) . The church on the North ( Building A ) is a three aisled basilica with a apsis which is round from inside and polygonal from outside ( Tulunay 2012 ) . The church is 20*17 m in dimension. The church on the South ( Building B ) has a cross-in-square program with three round apsiss ( YalcA±n 2011a ) . There is a simple synthronon in the cardinal apsis. Narthex is located on the West of churches.
Figure 9. Aerial Photograph of Church composite
Brick and rubble rock had been used in rows in masonry of churches ( Figure 10a ) . Although the floor covering of the churches was damaged by illegal diggings in some parts “opus sectile” covering is preserved ( Figure 10b ) . Constructing A had been decorated with intensive wall pictures which merely a little portion survived today ( Figure 10c, 10d ) . These pictures represent different edifice phases due to two different completing beds ( Figure 10e ) . Paintings are by and large cosmetic geometric bordures and conventionalized flowered designs. Harmonizing to the building technique, pallet and cosmetic features of pictures and features of the clayware covered through diggings the church composite is dated to Lascaris Period ( 13Thursdaycentury AD ) ( YalcA±n 2011b ) .
Figure 10. General positions from BaAYpA±nar Church. a: brick and rubble rock rows in masonry, B: Opus sectile floor covering, c-d: wall picture fragments, vitamin E: plaster beds
The ancient metropolis of Aigai was located on Mount Gun at the 2 kilometer South of YunddaAYA± Koseler Village in Manisa. Aigai was one of the 12 metropoliss of Aeolia founded by Aeolians migrated from Greece and settled in north-west Anatolia ( Strabon 2005 ) . Archaeological diggings indicate that the foundation of Aigai goes back to the first half of the 7th century BC ( DoAYer 2007 ) . Aigai make a base against Iranian laterality in 547 BC and maintained its independency. The metropolis had been dominated by the Kingdom of Pergamon until 133 BC. After that Aigai had been dominated by Roman Empire. Aigai was abandoned due to Arabic foraies in 7th century AD. In 12 – 13th centuries the colony contunied as a little Byzantine fortress on a limited country behind the Iron Gate ( Sezgin 2013 ) .
Figure 11. Site program of Aigai ( Source: Bohn and Schuchhardt 1889 )
The first research on the Ancient metropolis was carried out by S. Reinach and W.M. Ramsay in 1881. The first diggings in Aigai was conducted by Gallic research worker M.A. Clerck in the summer of 1882. The most extended survey was conducted by Pergamon digging members R. Bohn and C. Scuchhardt ( Figure 11 ) ( Sezgin 2013 ) . Recent digging ( since 2004 ) in Aigai is carried out by a squad from Ege University Archaeology Department under the presidential term of Prof. Dr. Ersin DoAYer.
Figure 12. Agora wall of Aigai
Figure 13. Theatre of Aigai
The most of import constructions survived in Aigai are bouleterion, agora, theater, macellum, necropolis, cisterns, Tiberius Gate, Iron Gate and Byzantine Chapel ( Figure 12-13 ) .
Byzantine Chapel is located near eastern metropolis wall on the field called the Iron Gate. The Chapel is a simple edifice with a rectangular program ( 12.40*6.20m ) and a individual apsis ( Figure 14 ) . Due to the tomps on the nor’-east corner of the apsis wall, it is thought that the edifice has served as a burial chapel for the little Christian community. Walls are constructed with spolia rock blocks on the outer parts and jumping brick and rock stuff on the inner parts. Mud howitzer is used. Traces of lime plaster are observed on the interior sides of the walls. Byzantine coins and glassy claywares found in chapel during diggings prove that the edifice was in usage in 12 – 13Thursdaycenturies ( DoAYer and Sezgin 2012 ) .
Figure 14. Byzantine Chapel
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