Cooperative Learning for Positive Interdependence
The Effectiveness of using Cooperative Learning in Enhancing Reading Comprehension for English for Communication II students in Universiti Utara Malaysia. Chapter 2: Literature Review 1. John Myers (Cooperative Learning Vol 11 #4 July 1991) points out that the dictionary definitions of “collaboration”, derived from its Latin root, focus on the process of working together; the root word for “cooperation” stresses the product of such work.
According to Ted Panitz (1996), he summarize from Johnson, Johnson & Smith (1991) the six principles of their definition of a new paradigm of teaching and define cooperation is a structure that was designed to help and guide the specific of product or aims through people that working together in a group. 3. According to Skinners, et. al (2001), cooperative learning is also one of approach under The Communicative Approach where it involves a group of learners been instructed by one teacher when they are working together to complete the task instead of competitively working on it. . Weidner (2003,p. 29) states that cooperative learning is a special form of group teaching which accentuates and structures social processes in learning and makes them a subject of discussion. 5. “ Cooperative learning is the instructional use of small groups os that students work together to maximize their own and other’s learning” (Johnson, Johnson & Holubec, 1998,p. 15) 6. Robert Slavin (1987), suggested that cooperative learning occurs when instructional methods enable students to work and learn in small heterogeneous – ability groups.
When this happens, cooperative learning is able to lead students into the social power of learning (Zemelman, Baniel & Hyde, 1993) 7. Roger T. and David W. Johnson (1994), says that even though these three interaction patterns are not equally effective in helping students learn concepts and skills, it is important that students learn to interact effectively in each of these ways. Students will face situations in which all three interaction patterns are operating and they will need to be able to be effective in each.
They also should be able to select the appropriate interaction pattern suited to the situation. An interpersonal, competitive situation is characterized by negative goal interdependence where, when one person wins, the others lose. 8. Borchmann & Kirchmann (2006), found that there 5 basic elements in cooperative learning which is interpersonal and small group skills, face to face interaction, individual and group accountability, positive interdependence and group processing. 9. Cowie and Rudduck, (1988, p. 0), state that cooperative learning offers a view of learning which is socially based. 10. Artzt and Newman(1990), define that cooperative learning is an activity involving a small group of learning who work together as a team to complete a task or accomplish a common goal. 11. Davidson (1990) says that cooperative learning is a task of group discussion and resolution (if possible) requiring face to face interaction, an atmosphere of cooperation and mutual helpfulness and individual accountability. 12.
Spencer, Kegan (1990), provided as definition of collaborative learning by looking at general structures which can be applied to any situation. He defines collaborative learning as the structured approach to collaborative learning which is based on the creation, analysis and systematic application of structures or content- free ways of organizing social interaction in the classroom. 13. Goodsell, Maher and Tinto (1992) describe cooperative learning as a working in groups of two or more mutually searching for understanding, solutions or meanings or creating a product. 4. O’Donnell (2002) is that this cooperative method enhances social interaction that is important for learning because higher mental functions, such as reasoning, comprehension and critical thinking, originate in social interactions and are then internalized by individuals. 15. From Collins Online Dictionary 10th Edition, reading comprehension is a text that students use to help them improve their reading skills by reading and answering questions relating to the text. Sometimes, used as a test or examination of reading skills.
A reading comprehension can be in the students own or another language. 16. According to Snow, Catherine E (2002), in her report entitled ‘Reading For Understanding; Towards an R&D Program in Reading Comprehension”, defines reading comprehension as the “process simultaneously extracting and constructing meaning through interaction and involvement with written language”. 17. Aarnoutse, Van den Bos,&. Brand-Gruwel, 1998; Jenkins et al. , (2003), believe that vocabulary knowledge, fluency, word recognition, and listening comprehension are necessary skills for reading comprehension. 18. s a process that requires how to decode through the development of an extensive repertoire of sight words, learning the meanings of vocabulary words encountered in the texts, and learning how to abstract meaning from text. It represents how well readers understand literal comprehension which concentrates on explicit meaning and inferential comprehension which concentrates on implicit meaning in the reading text. 19. Pressley (2000), states that the development of comprehension skills is a long term developmental process which depends on language and text experiences from early stage of life.
Learning how to decode and learning how to abstract the meanings of vocabulary words are commonly encountered in texts. 20. Tahir, (1988, p. 24), “Reading comprehension involves visual mechanical skills of recognition, remembering of meaning of words, integrating grammatical and semantic clues and relating to the reader’s own general knowledge and the knowledge of the subject being read”. 21. Daniel E. Himes (2007), in his article entitled “How to Improve Reading Comprehension”, he supports that cooperative learning is one of the method to improve reading comprehension. 2. Erly Wahyuni (2006) in his journal article entitled “The Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning Technique in Increasing the Students’ Comprehension of Literary Texts” said that the learners’ responses to the cooperative learning in literary text was good and interesting as they were able to discuss the literary text together. 23. Kassim Shaaban (2007,) from his article “An Initial Study of the Effects of Cooperative Learning on Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary Acquisition, and Motivation to Read” that cooperative learning improves learners’ motivation to read.