Coal Bed Methane

Last Updated: 16 Jun 2020
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TABLE OF CONTENTS 1. 0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… 5 1. 1 About CBM…………………………………………………………………………… 5 1. 2 Origin of methane………………………………………………………………… 5 2. 0 CBM In India, An Overview…………………………………………………….. 5 2. 1 India’s Energy Scenario………………………………………………………… 5 2. 2 CBM Activities In India…………………………………………………………. 6 2. 3 Development Of CBM In India……………………………………………… 7 2. 4 CBM Statistics In India…………………………………………………………. 7 3. 0 CBM Reserves & Indian Status……………………………………………….. 9 3. 1 CBM Reserves………………………………………………………………………. 9 3. 2 CBM Production Status In India…………………………………………… 10 3. Development Of CBM, Indian Initiative……………………………….. 11 4. 0 CBM Projects In India……………………………………………………………. 12 5. 1 CBM Current Projects In India (By CIL)………………………………. 12 5. 2 CBM Miscellaneous Projects In India………………………………….. 12 5. 0 CBM Market In India……………………………………………………………… 14 6. 3 Cost Benefit Analysis………………………………………………………….. 15 6. 4 Market Competitors & Their Share…………………………………….. 15 6. 5 SWOT Analysis For Different Companies…………………………….. 16 6. 0 Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Rounds in India……………………………… 17 7. CBM Round I & II………………………………………………………………… 17 7. 7. 1 Allotment In Round-I (under First Order of Bidding)….. 17 7. 7. 2 Blocks Awarded On Nomination Basis……………………….. 18 7. 7. 3 Blocks Awarded Under CBM Policy……………………………. 18 7. 7 Round- II Awarding Of Blocks …………………………………………… 18 7. 8 Allotment In Round-III ……………………………………………………… 19 7. 0 Development Of CBM (Indian Initiatives) ……………………….. ……. 20 8. 9 Indian Policies for CBM……………………………………………………. 20 8. 10 Fiscal Terms ……………………………………………………………………. 20 8. 0 CBM Future In India ……………………………………………………………. 2 9. 11 Challenges In Implementation………………………………………. 22 9. 12 Prospects Of CBM In India ……………………………………………. 23 8. 3 Opportunities Of CBM In India ………………………………………. 23 8. 4 Awareness About CBM …………………………………………………. 23 9. 0 Concluding Remarks …………………………………………………………… 25 10. 0 Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………….. 25 1. 0 INTRODUCTION 1. 1 ABOUT CBM The history of CBM goes back to 1908, when the organization was founded by the German Pastor Ernst Jacob Christoffel. Since then, CBM has become one of the leading professional organizations for people with disabilities worldwide.

Currently, CBM supports over 1000 projects in over 100 countries. CBM's vision is of an inclusive world in which all persons with disabilities enjoy their human rights and achieve their full potential. 1. 2 ORIGIN OF METHANE Coal bed methane evolves during the transformation of the organic matter in the swamp, which later converts into peat after burial under reducing condition. As temperature increases the peat converts into lignite followed by sub-bituminous, bituminous low-volatile medium volatile, high volatile anthracite and graphite.

This process is known as coalification. During this process at early stage biogenic methane evolves, later thermogenic methane is formed. Much of the methane generated by the coalification process escapes to the surface or migrates into adjacent reservoir or other rocks, but a portion is trapped within the coal itself. In early stages of coalification, biogenic methane is generated as a by-product of bacterial respiration. Aerobic bacteria (those that use oxygen in respiration) first metabolize any free oxygen left in the plant remains and surrounding sediments.

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In fresh water environments, methane production begins immediately after the oxygen is depleted. Species of anaerobic bacteria (those that don’t use oxygen) then reduce carbon dioxide and produce methane through anaerobic respiration. When a coal’s temperature underground reaches about122°F and after a sufficient amount of time, most of the biogenic methane has been generated, and about two-thirds of the original moisture has been expelled, the coal attains an approximate rank of sub-bituminous.

As the temperature increases above 122°F through increased burial or increased geothermal gradient, thermogenic processes begin and additional water, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen are generated as coalification proceeds to approximately the rank of high-volatile bituminous. Maximum generation of carbon dioxide, with little methane generation occurs at about 210°F. Generation of thermogenic methane begins in the higher ranks of the high volatile bituminous coals, and at about 250°F, generation of methane exceeds generation of carbon dioxide. Maximum generation of methane from coal occurs at about 300°F.

With even higher temperatures and higher rank coals, methane is still generated, but at somewhat lower volumes. Primarily adsorbed on or absorbed within micro pores of the coal. Coal bed methane is found associated with the coal/ lignite beds. This is the product that evolves during the process of coalification generally more in quantity than the coal can hold. Some of the gas escapes in the surroundings but some of it lie in the coal under hydraulic pressure. Coal is unique in its behaviour as it acts as a source as well as a reservoir rock. Generally the gas content increases with rank. 2. CBM IN INDIA, AN OVERVIEW India is potentially rich in CBM. The major coal fields and CBM blocks in Indian are shown in Fig. The Directorate General of Hydrocarbons of India estimates that deposits in major coal fields (in twelve states of India covering an area of 35,400 km2) contain approximately 4. 6 TCM of CBM. Coal in these basins ranges from high volatile to low-volatile bituminous with high ash content (10 to 40 percent), and its gas content is between 3-16 m3/ton depending on the rank of the coal, depth of burial, and geotectonic settings of the basins as estimated by the CMPDI.

In the Jharia Coalfield which is considered to be the most prospective area, the gas content is estimated to be between 7. 3 and 23. 8 m3 per ton of coal within the depth range of 150m to 1200 m. Analysis indicates every 100-m increase in depth is associated with a 1. 3 m3 increase of methane content. In India, commercial CBM production is yet to be started in full pace. Few E;P companies like ONGC Ltd. , GEECL and Essar Oil have started production, but field development is yet to be completed.

India ranks 134th out of 182 countries, the same as in 2006, in the 2009 Human Development Report and is home to 60-80 million people with disabilities (PWDs). CBM regional office for the South Asia Region has prioritised implementation of programs in states which have high percentages of people below the poverty line and high number of people with disabilities. CBM started to extend its support to India in 1967 and in 1975 the South Asia Regional Office was established in Trichy, Tamil Nadu to coordinate activities in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka.

In 1994, the Regional Offices in North and South were established to cater to the growing projects supported by CBM. 2. 1 INDIA’S ENERGY SCENARIO * India is one of the fastest growing economies. * The GDP growth is over 8%, likely to increase to over 10% in near future. * This GDP growth is required to eradicate poverty and meet country’s human development goal. * To sustain such growth 3/4 fold increase in primary energy requirement envisaged. * Integrated Energy Policy Document indicates total energy requirement of the country will increase from a current level of about 500 MTOe to 2000 MTOe by 2031-32. Efforts are on to utilize all possible energy resource- renewable, non-renewable, coal based additional resource etc to meet this gigantic target. 2. 2 CBM ACTIVITIES IN INDIA 1967 CBM extends support to India and the first Regional Office of CBM was opened in Trichy in 1975 for India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka. 1975 The comprehensive ophthalmic health program for Thiruchirapalli was started in Joseph Eye Hospital. Community ophthalmology was born! 1977 The first Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR) project at Musiri started with single disability. 1979

Concept of integrated education was promoted by CBM. CBM has been included as a member of the Committee of the Rehabilitation Council of India dealing with Visual Impairment. 1999 Together with other NGOs and WHO, CBM initiates "VISION 2020: The Right to Sight", a global initiative for the elimination of avoidable blindness by the year 2020. 2004 CBM awarded by the Indian Govt. in appreciation of exemplary contribution towards elimination of Avoidable Blindness in India. 2006 CBM with other NGOs initiated programmed of Sound Hearing 2030. WHO SEARO has been supporting this initiative. . 3 DEVELOPMENT OF CBM IN INDIA Commercial production of CBM started and during 2008-09 it was 0. 15 MMSCMD (million Std cubic meter per day). The CBM production is expected to increase to 3. 6 MMSCMD by 2011-12 and to 7. 14 by 2014 2. 4 CBM STATISTICS IN INDIA * CBM Resource: 3. 4 TCM (CMPDI Estimate: 2008) * 26 Blocks allotted for Commercial Development * Production potential: 38 Million Cubic Meters per day, which can support power generation of 6700 MW. * Commercial production of CBM started and was 0. 15 million cubic meters per day. * Expected to rise to 3. million cubic meters per day in 2011-12, showing 24 fold growth in 2 years. * Allotment of 8 more blocks under consideration of the Govt. 3. 0 CBM RESERVES ; INDIAN STATUS 3. 1 CBM RESERVES IN INDIA SNo. | State| Coal Fields/Block| Area (Sq. Km)| CBM resources (BCM)| 1| West Bengal| Raniganj EastRaniganj NorthRaniganj SouthBirbhum| 1330| 144| 2| Jharkhand| JhariaBokaroNorth KaranpuraNorth Karanpura (West)South KaranpuraRajmahal| 1857| 322. 1| 3| Madhya Pradesh| Sohagpur (East)Sohagpur (West)SatpuraSohagpur (North)Singrauli (West)| 3059| 195. | 4| Chhattisgarh| SonhatTatapani- RamkolaMand- Raigarh| 2195| 119. 9| 5| Orissa| Talchir| 500| 35| 6| Maharashtra| Wardha| 503| 19. 9| 7| Andhra Pradesh| GodavariKothagudem (East)| 926| 63. 65| 8| Tamilnadu| Manargudi| 739| 27. 7| 9| Gujarat| Barmer-Sanchor-IIICambay- ICambay- II| 3010| 224. 2| 10| Rajasthan| Barmer- Sanchor-IBarmer- Sachor- II| 2065| 182. 8| Total| 16184| 1334. 55| 3. 2 CBM PRODUCTION STATUS IN INDIA SNo. | State| Prognosticated Resource (BCM)| Recoverable Reserves @ 20-25 % of Prognosticated Resource (BCM)| Production based on 20-25 % Recovery for 25 yrs. MMSCMD)| 1| West Bengal| 144| 28. 8- 36| 3. 15- 3. 94| 2| Jharkhand| 322. 1| 64. 42- 80. 52| 7. 0- 8. 8| 3| Madhya Pradesh| 195. 3| 39- 48. 8| 4. 27- 5. 35| 4| Gujarat| 224. 2| 44. 8- 56| 4. 9- 6. 13| 5| Rajasthan| 182. 8| 36. 56- 45. 7| 4. 0- 5. 0| 6| Maharashtra| 19. 9| 3. 98- 4. 97| 0. 44- 0. 54| 7| Chhattisgarh| 119. 90| 23. 98- 29. 97| 2. 63- 3,28| 8| Orissa| 35| 7. 0- 8. 75| 0. 77- 0. 96| 9| Andhra Pradesh| 63. 65| 12. 73- 15. 91| 1. 4- 1. 74| 10| Tamilnadu| 27. 70| 5. 54- 6. 92| 0. 61- 0. 76| Total| 1334. 55| 266. 91- 333. 64| 29. 5- 36. 56| 3. 3 DEVELOPMENT OF CBM, INDIAN INITIATIVE CBM resource in allotted (26)/ under allotment (8) CBM blocks: 1. 8 TCM, Area- 17700 sq km. * Production potential in allotted blocks: 38 Million Cubic Meter per day, which can support power generation of 6700 MW. * CBM well drilled: 280, Total investment: Rs 256 Crores (USD 57 million) * Reserve established by different operators in 5 blocks: 8. 4 TCF * 3 blocks (Raniganj South-GEECL, Sohagpur West and Sohagpur East- Reliance Industries Ltd) has entered in development stage 4. CBM PROJECTS IN INDIA 4. 1 CBM CURRENT PROJECTS IN INDIA (BY CIL) * UNDP/GEF/GoI funded Demonstration project at Moonidih ; Sudamdih mines of BCCL. * CIL-ONGC commercial projects in Jharia and Raniganj CBM blocks * Successfully implemented at Moonidih mine of BCCL. * 3CBM wells drilled and 3 potential seams in each well hydro- fractured 2 CBM wells are producing gas after dewatering. * Dewatering being taken up in 3rd well after which CBM production will start. Fig:-Hydro-Fractured Unit of 3rd Well 4. 2 CURRENT PROJECT ON CBM IN INDIA Great Eastern Energy Corporation Ltd (GEECL) has begun the production and sale of coal-bed methane (CBM), the first such commercial project in India. GEECL is targeting initial production of 1. 5 million standard cubic feet per day (MMSCFD); estimated in-place gas in the block is 1. 92 trillion cubic feet (TCF) per Netherland, Swell and Associates, Inc. (NSAI) on 1 June 2007. * As of June 2007, GEECL had drilled, perforated and fractured 23 wells and installed the pumps. Nine wells are currently in production, delivering 991 thousand cubic feet (MSCFD) per day, along with 8,030 barrels of product water—a current water-gas ratio of 8. barrels of water per MCF of gas. Over time, the water ratio decreases and gas production increases as the beds are dewatered. * India’s Directorate General of Hydrocarbons (DGH) has approved investing $150 million for drilling 100 production wells in four years. * Reliance Industries (RIL) and Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC), the country’s two biggest exploration and production companies of conventional oil and gas, have also begun recovering some gas from coal beds. RIL has estimated in-place gas reserves of 3. 5 TCF, and ONGC has reserves of around 1. 2 TCF. * RIL is likely to start commercial production by the end of 2007; ONGC is planning commercial production in 2008. 5. 0 CBM MARKET IN INDIA * The present scenario of rapidly increasing demand of CBM is highly encouraging for the year 2006-2007 the demand was of 231 MMSCMD and supply was 95MMSCMD and expected to grow from 168 MMSCMD supply demand was 313 MMSCMD in the year 2011-12 and in the year 2024-25 supply would be 170 MMSCMD while demand is expected to grow up to 391 MMSCMD. Directorate of Hydrocarbons recently took new areas for CBM exploration activities in CBM-III BIDDING. Based on the characteristic properties viz; occurrence of thick coal seams at favorable depth, high seam density, good thermal maturity, favorable permeability, good gas content, sizeable coal reserves. * Recently, Govt. of India further announced 10 blocks in order to explore and produce (CBM). Out of these, two blocks each are located in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan and one block each in Jharkhand and West Bengal (MOP ; NG, 2006). For CBM contribution of 1% of total energy output, @ 1 well per 60 acre, the development area would be approx 360,000 acres, i. e. 1,450 sq km; Exploratory Block area will be still larger. Approx 8,000 sq km of the coal bearing area is still unexplored for CBM. 5. 1 COST BENEFIT ANALYSIS IS PLACED BASED ON FOLLOWING ASSUMPTIONS Assumptions| | | Parameter| Unit| Details| Well Productivity| SCM/Day| 3500| Well Capital Cost 1. Construction Cost 2. Collection/ Compression/ Waste Disposal Cost | $/well| 778000291000| Capital Cost Escalation| %| 2|

Well Operating Cost 1. Operating Cost 2. G;A Cost| $/well| 1720049600| Operating Cost Escalation| %| 2| Exploration ; Development Phase| Years| 3-5| Peak Production After Start of Commercial Operations| Years| 3-5| Gas Price| $/mmBtu| 5. 10| 5. 2 MARKET COMPETITORS ; THEIR SHARE Company/ Major Shareholder| No of Blocks| % of total blocks| Area under Exploration (sq. Km)| % of total area| In-place CBM (BCM)| % of total BCM| ONGC| 9| 30| 3214| 19. 5| 446| 26| RIL| 5| 17| 3885| 23. | 320| 19| Essar Oil Ltd| 5| 17| 2733| 16. 6| 259| 15| Arrow Energy| 5| 17| 2388| 14. 5| 416| 24| RNRL| 4| 13| 3266| 20| 194| 11| GEECL| 2| 7| 976| 6| 65| 4| Total| 30| 100| 16462| 100| 1700| 100| 5. 3 SWOT ANALYSIS FOR DIFFERENT COMPANIES To enter into the market of CBM, various companies have their SWOT analysis, based upon which they decide to enter into the venture. The following table shows SWOT analysis for different competitors in India. Companies| Strength| Weakness| Opportunities| Threat|

ONGC| Strong Opening MarketSubstantial Reserve Placement RatioIntegrated Operations| PSU ; Constrained to Faster Decision Making| Expansion through inorganic growthNew energy sources| Intense competitionOil ; Gas price fluctuations| REL| Dominant foothold in the marketExpanding market share in sectorVertical IntegrationEfficient Operations| Opportunities Conventional sourcesKG-D6 block commencement| Lack of mid-stream operations| Low-cost petrochemical productsHighly competitive domestic market| Essar Oil Ltd. Expanding market share in sectorConsiderable asset baseHorizontally integrated EnterpriseVast retail network| Low return on equityLimited liquidity positionNegative operating margin| New asset acquisitionExpansion plansCBM operations| Stringent regulationIntense domestic competition| GEECL| Existing operations in CBMGas transformation| Limited operations to CBM ; relatively limited acreage| Expansion thorough inorganic growth| Intense competition ; entry of large players in CBM sectorsOil ; Gas price fluctuation| 6. 0 CBM ROUNDS IN INDIA 6. CBM ROUND I ; II * A TOTAL OF 16 BLOCKS AWARDED UNDER CBM-I ; CBM-II ROUNDS OF BIDDING AND NOMINATION BASIS AS ON DATE. * A TOTAL AREA OF 7810 SQ. KM. OPENED UP FOR EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION OF CBM. * THE TOTAL CBM RESOURCE IN THESE 16 BLOCKS IS ESTIMATED TO BE AROUND 820 BILLION CUBIC METRES. * THE APPROXIMATE PRODUCTION OF CBM GAS ESTIMATED FROM THESE BLOCKS IS 23 MMSCMD AT PEAK PRODUCTION LEVELS. 6. 1. 1 Allotment in Round-I: (Under first order of bidding) 6. 1. 2 Blocks Awarded On Nomination Basis:- 6. 1. 3 Blocks Awarded Under CBM Policy:- 6. Round –II Awarding Of Blocks:- 6. 3 Allotment in Round- III:- 7. 0 Development of CBM (Indian Initiatives) To facilitate the development of CBM, Govt. Of India formulated CBM policy in 1997. The highlights are as under:- * Blocks to be awarded through open international competitive bidding system. * No participating interest of the government. * No upfront payment. * No signature bonus. * Exemption from payment of customs duty on imports required for CBM operation. * Freedom to sale gas in the domestic market. * A seven years tax holiday. 7. 1 Indian policies for CBM The GOI, in order to utilize the CBM potential in the country formulated a CBM policy July’ 97. * Ministry of P;NG became administrative ministry and DGH became implementing agency for CBM policy. * DGH did commendable work to operationalize the CBM policy. * DGH identified blocks for CBM exploration after interaction with the ministry of coal and other agencies in the known high rank coalfield areas. * Blocks offered through global competitive bidding by Ministry of P;NG. * Fiscal, contractual and operating regime and model contract put in place with one of the best terms. Very liberal fiscal terms offered to attract investors. 7. 2 Fiscal terms * No participating interest of the government. * No signature bonus. * Allotment of blocks through global bidding. * Provision for bidding for more than one block. * 10% ad-valorem royalty payable to state govt. * Additional production linked payment biddable. * Payment on sliding scale for every 0. 5 MMSCMD incremental gas Production beyond 1. 0 MMSCMD. * Freedom to sell gas in the domestic market – determined prices. * Fiscal stability provision in the contract. * No customs duty on imports required for CBM operations. Arbitration provisions to be governed by the arbitration and Conciliation act, 1996, which is based on uncitral provisions. * Nominal commercial bonus of us$ 0. 3 million after discovery. * New petroleum tax guide to facilitate investors. * Corporate income tax payable as per income tax act, 1961. * Model contract to serve as guideline. * 7 year tax holiday from the date of commencement of Commercial production. 8. 0 CBM Future in India While GEECL’s initial confirmed customers are industrial operations in West Bengal (the site of the project), the company forecasts high demand for CBM as an alternative fuel for transportation.

Demand in Kolkata alone could reach 35 MMSCFD. Other West Bengali district vehicle demand could tally an additional 10 MMSCFD. Vehicle demand in neighboring Jamshedpur (200 km away) could reach 18 MMSCFD, according to the company. In India, commercial CBM production is yet to be started in full pace. Few E;P companies like ONGC Ltd. , GEECL and Essar Oil have started production, but field development is yet to be completed. Steel, Glass, Ceramics and Paper manufacturing companies are showing keen interest to put up their plants in the region.

The possible industries that can use CBM may be: * Fertilizers, chemicals ; petrochemicals * Town Gas ; Industrial fuel supply * Power generation * Cement * Paper and paper products * Sponge iron ; steel * Ceramics * Glass * Textiles 8. 1 CHALLENGES IN IMPLEMENTATION * CBM Resource Assessment technique in de-stressed coal seams. * Techno-economic evaluation of identified CMM Project area. * Utilization technology of recovered methane. * Capture and Utilization Technique of low concentration of methane in ventilation air. 8. 2 PROSPECT OF CBM IN INDIA To increase the pace of exploration and development of CBM the Government of India under CBM-III round of international bidding has identified 7 additional blocks in different coalfields, located in the States of Madhya Pradesh, Chattisgarh, Jharkhand,West Bengal, Andhra Pradesh ; Rajasthan and hold sizable resources of CBM showing good prospectivity. 8. 3 OPPORTUNITIES OF CBM IN INDIA The CBM terms offered by Government are definitely the very best in the world:- * Seven years tax holiday from the date of commencement of production. * Fiscal stability provision in the contract. * No participating interest of the Government. No signature bonus. * No custom duty on imports required for CBM operations. * Freedom to sell gas in the domestic market at market determined rate. * During the last 3 years more than 75 exploratory / pilot wells have been drilled in the 16 CBM blocks awarded during the last two rounds of international bidding. * Significant finds reported in Jharia, Raniganj, Bokaro ; Sohagpur Coalfields in the Eastern and Central part of India * Test production of CBM in these blocks have yielded encouraging quantities of gas and commercial exploitation of Coalbed Methane (CBM) in India is no longer a myth but a reality. . 4 AWARENESS ABOUT CBM * Promotional “Road Shows” to be organized in January / February 2006 at USA, Canada, Australia, Russia, UK and India. * All the road shows to be presided over by the Hon’ble Minister of Petroleum ; Natural Gas, besides the senior officials of the Ministry of Petroleum ; Natural Gas, Ministry of Coal and Directorate General of Hydrocarbons, Government of India. * A brochure giving details on the blocks on offer, the Geographical Location on a map of India, the Terms ; Conditions, Bid Format, a copy of the Modal CBM Contract and Price List will be made available free of cost. The Hard Copies ; Digital Copies (on work stations) of the Basin Information Dockets and Data Packages will be made available for inspection at data viewing centers in India and abroad. 9. 0 CONCLUDING REMARKS * Commercial exploitation of Coal Bed Methane (CBM) in India is no longer a myth but a reality. * The CBM gas flared in the test wells in Raniganj, Jharia and Sohagpur Coalfields in the eastern and central part of India bear ample testimony to the stories of success in the formative stage of CBM operation. India endowed with large resources base of coal and lignite contains sizable quantities of CBM gas. Initial test production in CBM fields of India shows encouraging results. * India has adopted a time bound aggressive strategy for exploration and development of CBM. * CBM an unconventional alternative source of natural gas has good future prospects in India. * CBM technology is proceeding with good space to prove itself as a cleaner energy security to India as well as the World. However, production strategy of methane from CBM is very much different from conventional gas reservoir.

The study revealed that the coal type, rank, volatile matter and fixed carbon are strongly influence the adsorption capacity of methane into the coal bed. With increasing depth maturation of coal increases and generation of methane gas also increases. Gondwana basin as the most prospective CBM field is being developed now. From the studies, it is observed that Singareni coal field under Gandowana basin contains low gas Hence, presently it is not considered for CBM exctraction. However, in future this field may be considered for methane extraction using advanced technology and in emergency condition.

Sequestration of CO2 helps in mitigation of global warming, at the same time helps in recovery of methane gas from coal bed unveiled otherwise. However, detailed and intensive studies are required for efficient and economic production of coal bed methane. India with ~4. 6 TCM of methane reserves in coal bed can enrich its per capita energy demand by successful exploitation of CBM. 10. 0 BIBLIOGRAPHY (Internet Based Methodology Only) 1. Singh, A. K. “Activities on Development of CBM In India”. ;Coal Sub-committee Meeting, New Delhi;. March 5, 2010. 2. Ojha, K. K. “CBM In India: Difficulties ; Prospects”. lt;International Journal of Chemical Engineering ; Applications, Vol. 2;. August, 2011. 3. Rana, Ashish “Future for Energy Options for India”. ;Reliance Industries Ltd. ;. 4. Singh, M. P. “Status of CBM Investigations In India”. 5. “Overview of India’s CBM Policies ; Regulations”. ;Methane to Market Conference;. 6. “Coal Bed Methane”. ;Indo-US Coal Working Group Meeting;. November, 2005. 7. Sawhney, Prem “Developments In India, CBM. March 3, 2010. 8. Dutta, Shishir “Economics of CBM”. June 28-30, 2011. 9. GECL. “Markets ; Distributes CBM in India for 1st Time”. February 28, 2008.

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Coal Bed Methane. (2017, May 03). Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/coal-bed-methane/

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