A limited time offer!

urgent 3h delivery guaranteed

Challenges Facingwork Place Diversity at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute

Essay Topic: ,

CHALLENGES FACING WORKPLACE DIVERSITY MANAGEMENT AT KENYA AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE: A CASE STUDY OF NYAHURURU AND KABETE ANNE MUTHONI WANYIRI NYH/0129 Research project submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of Diploma in Business Management (Business Management option) to the Kenya Institute of Management DECEMBER 2012 DECLARATION Declaration by student This research report is my original work and has not been presented for a diploma to any other institution. No part of this research should be reproduced without the author’s consent or that of the Kenya Institute of Management.

NAME: ANNE MUTHONI WANYIRI ADM NO: NYH/0129 SIGNATURE:………………………………………………….. DATE:…………………………………………………………. Approval by supervisor This research report has been submitted with my approval as the Kenya Institute of Management Supervisor NAME: DR ZAKAYO ONYIEGO LECTURER BRANCH: NYAHURURU SIGNATURE:…………………………………………………… DATE:…………………………………………………………… DECLARATION BY MANAGEMENT For and on behalf of Kenya Institute of Management BRANCH EXECUTIVE: NAME: FLORENCE WAIRIMU SIGNATURE:…………………………………………………… DATE:…………………………………………………………… ii DEDICATION

I dedicate this report to my daughter Catherine for her support and understanding during the course of my studies. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I acknowledge my supervisor Dr.

We will write a custom essay sample on Challenges Facingwork Place Diversity at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute

or any similar topic only for you

Order Now

Zakayo Onyiego for his invaluable support in helping me develop this report. I also acknowledge the entire Kenya Institute of Management staff for their leadership and support during the development of both proposal and the report. Specifically I would like to acknowledge Mr. Mwathe for his selfless support. I will not forget my fellow classmates Nyahururu center for their contributions towards my completing my course.

To all I say a big thank you. iv ABSTRACT Workplace diversity management is broadly defined as the systematic and planned commitment by the organization to recruit, reward and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees. Workforce diversity can have a positive factor on organizational effectiveness. The researcher set out to understand the challenges facing management at KARI in their efforts to address issues of workforce diversity with a focus on socioeconomic factors, diversity management training programs, diversity policies in place and existing strategies on diversity.

The overall goal of the proposed research was to establish challenges faced by workforce diversity management at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. It was set out as a case study at both Nyahururu and Kabete centers. The study was significant in exposing underlying Diverse Workforce issues. It also provided information on the framework for the management of workplace diversity in the institution, with an aim of documenting knowledge on diversity workforce management that could help it meet the demand on diversity under a new constitution and within globalization.

The report of the study added to the existing literature on the effects of workforce diversity management and organizational effectiveness in Agricultural based institutions. The researcher took 10% of the total number of staff as the sample. Total number of staff is 320 thus the sample size was 32, of which 31 were returned. The researcher used stratified sampling so as to get the best response from those most likely to offer informed data. Data analysis was done descriptively through Microsoft excel and results presented through pie charts. There were four objectives n the study that included understanding whether workforce diversity management challenges existed at KARI. In addition, the researcher wanted to examine the presence of diversity management training programs at KARI, the existence of both policies and a strategic plan. Rate of response was 97%. This means outcome of data analysis had a considerable reflection on the target population. All the variables considered had various responses which indicated they were relevant in this research. Interpretation showed several challenges existed that face the diversity management at KARI.

Social, psychological and religious all returned values from respondents indicating some form of discrimination existed in the population. Responses on training indicated training is present while on policies it was indicative policy on diversity management exists though not many were aware. This is the same on strategic plan, meaning some were aware that this strategic plan existed while others were not. What seem to be lacking is mainstreaming of diversity management. As per the findings, KARI got a policy and a strategic plan on diversity management issues. However, it is evident that some staff members are aware on diversity management.

This should be communicated to all staff members. During orientation of new recruits, communication on existing strategic plan on diversity management plus the policy should be communicated. Gender mainstreaming should also be done guided by the constitutional requirement that a third of workers should not be of the same gender. v TABLE OF CONTENTS DECLARATION ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii DEDICATION ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ii ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. iv ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. v TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… vi List of tables ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… iii List of figures ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. ix Operational Definition of terms ……………………………………………………………………………………………… x Diversity Challenges……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… x Diversity Advantage ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… Workforce Diversity ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… x CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 1. 1 Background to the study …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 11 1. 2 Statement of the problem ……………………………………………………………………………………………. 13 1. . Objective of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 14 1. 4 Specific objectives of the study …………………………………………………………………………………… 14 1. 5 Research Questions ……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 14 1. 6 Significance of the study …………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4 1. 7 Scope of the study ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 14 1. 8 Limitation of the study ………………………………………………………………….. …………………………… 15 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW …………………………………………………………………………. 16 2. 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 6 2. 2 Theoretical Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………….. 16 2. 3 Analytical Literature Review………………………………………………………………………………………. 32 2. 4. Summary ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 35 2. 5 Gaps to be filled by the study ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5 2. 6 Conceptual Framework ………………………………………………………………………………………………. 36 CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY …………………………………………………………… 37 3. 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 37 3. 2 Research design …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 3. Target population ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 37 3. 4 Sampling Design and sampling procedures ………………………………………………………………….. 37 vi 3. 5 Data collection instrument and procedure ……………………………………………………………………. 37 3. 6 Data Analysis and procedures …………………………………………………………………………………….. 38 3. 7 Data analysis techniques ………………………………………………………………….. ……………………….. 39 CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION OF FINDINGS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40 4. 0 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40 4. 1 General Information …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 40 4. Issues confronting diversity manager at KARI …………………………………………………………….. 43 4. 3. The extent of Training Programs on Diversity Management at KARI …………………………… 49 4. 4. Awareness on policies handling diversity issues …………………………………………………………. 51 4. 5 Existence of strategic plan for workforce diversity ………………………………………………………. 54 4. 6 Summary …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 57 5. 1 Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 5. 2 Summary of findings ………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 57 5. conclusion and recommendations ……………………………………………………………………………….. 59 5. 4. Suggestion for further studies …………………………………………………………………………………….. 60 References ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61 Questionnaire ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 WORK PLAN …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68 Research Budget …………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 69 vii List of tables Table 1: table showing Response rate …………………………………………………………………………………… 40 Table 2 Time of service with KARI ……………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Table 3 the department where staff serves …………………………………………………………………………….. 42 Table 4 Table showing how respondents felt about the presence of discrimination ………………….. 44 Table 4. 5 A table major discrimination concerns …………………………………………………………………… 45 Table 6 Table on accommodation of religious diversity …………………………………………………………. 46 Table 7 A table feeling of discrimination due to age ……………………………………………………………… 7 Table 8 Overall rating of diversity management at KARI ………………………………………………………. 48 Table 9 A table on availability of training on diversity management ………………………………………. 49 Table 10 Understanding of Diversity Management issues………………………………………………………. 50 Table 11 A table showing awareness on Diversity Management Policies ………………………………… 52 Table 12. A table on whether existing policies support diversity…………………………………………….. 3 Table 13 Awareness levels on existing strategic plan …………………………………………………………….. 54 Table 14: A table of respondents feeling about the strategic plan………………………………………….. 55 viii List of figures Figure 1 A diagrammatic representation of diversity …………………………………………………. 17 Figure 2Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………………….. 36 Figure 4. 1 Response Rate ………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Figure 4. 2 Working Experience ……………………………………………………………………………….. 42 Figure 4. 3 Working Department of the respondents …………………………………………………… 43 Figure 4. 4 Whether respondents felt there was discrimination ……………………………………. 44 Figure 4. 5 Discrimination Factors……………………………………………………………………………. 45 Figure 4. 6 Accommodation of Religious Diversity ……………………………………………………. 46 Figure 4. A pie chart of feeling of discrimination due to age…………………………………….. 47 Figure 4. 8 Overall Rating of Diversity Management …………………………………………………. 48 Figure 4. 9 Training on Diversity Management ………………………………………………………….. 49 Figure 4. 10 Understanding of Diversity Management Issues ……………………………………… 51 Figure 4. 11 Awareness on policies that govern diversity issues ………………………………….. 52 Figure 4. 12. On whether these policies sufficiently support diversity …………………………. 3 Figure 4. 13 Strategic plan on workforce diversity ……………………………………………………… 54 Figure 4. 14 Respondents feelings about the strategic plan …………………………………………. 55 ix Operational Definition of terms Diversity Challenges Those issues and challenges that management must tackle in order to entrench diversity management at KARI Benefits that accrue to an organization as a result of mainstreaming workforce diversity management Diversity refers to the co-existence of employees from various social-cultural backgrounds within the organization.

Diversity Advantage Workforce Diversity x CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 1 Background to the study Workplace diversity management is broadly defined as the systematic and planned commitment by the organization to recruit, reward and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees (Bagshaw, 2004). Organizations do encounter challenges when dealing with a diverse workforce which has an effect on organizational effectiveness. Though ideally every person should be treated equally on job recruitment, career advance and fair, equal treatment at the workplace in reality, it is always not the case.

Usually there is unfair treatment based on gender, culture, race, ethnic origin, age, education level, marital status, religion and lifestyle. The discrimination still exists in hiring, firing and promotions. Many organizations are placing emphasis on people who fit their cultures when hiring. A major issue is the Kenyan Constitutional demand (Ch 4 pt 2) that the State shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against any person on any ground, including race, sex, pregnancy, marital status, health status, ethnic or social origin, color, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief, ulture, dress, language or birth and that a person shall not discriminate directly or indirectly against another person on any of the grounds specified or for any benefits to be on the basis of genuine need. In addition to this, the State shall take legislative and other measures to implement the principle that not more than twothirds of the members of elective or appointive bodies shall be of the same gender. The extent to which managers recognize diversity and its potential advantages and disadvantages defines organization’s approach to managing the diversity (Price, 1997).

Management of diversity in organizations is dependent upon the acceptance of some primary objectives to which employees are willing to commit, such as survival of the firm (Marthur, 1998). In today’s fast-paced work environment a successful organization is one where diversity is the norm and not the exception (Lawrence, 2001). This study aims at examining workforce diversity management at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute centers of Nyahururu and Kabete and how this affects organizational performance. KARI was established in 1979 as a semi-autonomous government 11 nstitution through the amendment of the Science and Technology Act Cap 250, following the collapse of the East African Community (EAC) in 1977. The new institute took over research activities from the East African Agricultural and Forestry Research Organisation (EAAFRO), East African Veterinary Research Organisation (EAAVRO) and later the Ministries of Agriculture and Livestock Development. Further, in 1986 the Kenyan government recognized the challenge to meet long-term food production constraints in the country as recognized in Sessional Paper No. of 1986 entitled “Economic management for renewed growth. ” More recently, the Kenya Veterinary Vaccines Production Institute (KEVEVAPI) and the Kenya Tripanosomiasis Research Institute (KETRI) have been integrated into KARI. Currently, the Institute has 22 main research centers and 14 sub-centers located throughout the country. The centers are allocated mandate areas within their locality for adaptive research and strategic research mandates depending on their comparative advantages to carry out this research.

Since its inception, the Institute has undergone tremendous development in its human and physical resources but even more in its approaches to research planning and implementation (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, 2005). KARI has moved from undertaking research activities that are designed from outside by expatriates to participatory, client and demand-driven planning processes by Kenyan scientists. The Institute has also moved from separate, isolated projects into a strategic organization that is responding to key relevant development agenda and leading in research and development in the country and in sub-Saharan Africa.

The government has recognized the need to further strengthen its agricultural research system by placing these research centers under KARI to create an institutional framework to effectively manage, reorganize and consolidate agricultural research within the country (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, 2007). KARI Kabete Centre which is popularly known as the National Agricultural Research Laboratories (NARL) was started in 1903 as Scott Agricultural Laboratories (SAL) and was the first agricultural experimental station in Kenya (Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, 2007).

In those early years, several crops such as wheat, coffee, pyrethrum, tobacco and sisal were tested in the center before the establishment of research stations in more suitable areas. The station receives an annual rainfall of 970 mm, occupies approximately 25 ha and lies at 1,740 masl. With time, the experimental 12 station directed its activities to the analysis of soil, plant tissues, water, fertilizer, crop protection research and associated services of plant inspection, pesticide analysis and plant clinic, soil surveys, irrigation and drainage in post independent period.

Due to concerns on the relevance and adoption of technologies that are generated and disseminated to various clients, the centre brought on board socioeconomics research to complement most of the research that focused on biophysical science. In addition, biometrics input was incorporated in the research process to ensure that the research being conducted by the scientists was of high scientific quality. KARI Oljorolok is a KARI center located near Nyahururu. It is core role is Sale of certified seeds and clean planting materials. It also deals with animal production research. 1. Statement of the problem Kenya Agricultural Research Institute as national body has a heterogeneous workforce comprising of different tribes, cultures, religious beliefs, gender, age, education levels and different conceptions. Research findings from industrial and organizational psychology and other disciplines cast doubt on the simple assertion that a diverse workforce inevitably improves business performance. Instead, research and theory suggest several conditions necessary to manage diversity initiatives successfully and reap organizational benefits (Michele & Robert, 2004).

However, it is true that effective workforce diversity improves performance. Konrad (2003) has stated three primary arguments in the business case for diversity. First, competition for the best talent requires organizations to reach out and embrace an increasingly diverse labor pool. Second, a global economy requires that organizations have a diverse workforce so that they can effectively deal with an increasingly diverse customer base Thus, a diverse workforce can lead to an increased market share, whereas lack of diversity in the workforce can lead to a shrinking market share.

At KARI Nyahururu, current women-men ratio based on official statistics is a poor of 3:11 (6 women to 16 men). This is indicative of a huge institutional challenge in the area of workforce diversity. If this ratio is not corrected KARI will be risking a legal challenge based on the constitution. This may exacerbate internal conflicts and reduce organizational performance and effectiveness. This is based on the fact that unmanaged workforce diversity could compromise the attainment of organizational goals and lead to ‘poor social and economical fit’.

This research proposed to understand the 13 institutional efforts being done to address legal demands for diversity which would lead to better socio-economic welfare. 1. 3. Objective of the study The purpose of the study was to establish challenges faced by a diversity manager at Kenya Agricultural Research Institute. 1. 4 Specific objectives of the study The specific objectives for the study were i. ii. To find out whether there are workplace discrimination issues at KARI To examine whether training programs on diversity management are done at KARI. ii. To learn the extent to which current policies influence work-place diversity management at KARI. iv. To study the nature of strategies in place for managing diversity at KARI. 1. 5 Research Questions The study sought information to address the following questions i. ii. iii. iv. What kind of workplace discrimination exists at KARI? What is the extent of diversity training programs at KARI? How do current policies influence work-place diversity management at KARI? What is the nature of strategies in place for diversity management at KARI? . 6 Significance of the study The study was significant in exposing underlying Diverse Workforce issues. It also provided the framework for the management of workplace diversity in the institution, with an aim of documenting knowledge on diversity at the institution that could help it meet the demand on diversity under a new constitution and within globalization. The report of the study added to the existing literature on the effects of workforce diversity management and organizational effectiveness in Agricultural based institutions. 1. Scope of the study The study focused on Kenya Agricultural Research Institute and limited itself to the following variables of the study; workplace discrimination that confronts a diversity 14 manager at KARI, conduct of diversity management training at KARI, current policies that influence diversity management and the nature of strategies in place designed to address diversity management. The area of study was KARI at Kabete and Nyahururu. It concentrated on period of time between September 2011 and September 2012. 1. 8 Limitation of the study

Reluctance of the management was sighted as a limitation since management would need to demonstrate that workplace diversity had been embraced in the organization thus their response could be biased. Too, the management might have been less willing to fill in questionnaire because this could have revealed confidential information about their organization. In addition, responses from the employees could have been influenced by shallow appreciation of diversity issues at the workplace. Fear of being victimized by the management was also expected to forestall some staff from being interviewed.

To overcome these limitations, the researcher emphasized to the respondents that the research was purely academic. To the staff the researcher explained issues related to diversity so that they gave informed responses. Direct administration of the questionnaires by the researcher ensured close to 100% outcome of data collection. 15 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2. 1 Introduction This chapter looks at the concept of diversity, its history and its relevant role in organizational performance and development. The researcher then attempts to look at it within the context of an agricultural institution.

This includes a look into personal factors (age, sex and physical challenges) that make one susceptible to discrimination as well as socio cultural issues (marital status, religion and ethnicity) and their relevance at the workplace. Researcher then elaborates how management of workplace diversity could impact on job satisfaction at an organization and how therefore this could influence performance of the current staff. The researcher then attempt to expound on strategies existing that incorporates management practices responsive to workplace diversity.

This leads to formulation of the conceptual framework on which this proposal is founded. 2. 2 Theoretical Literature Review Diversity in the workplace in the United States was virtually non-existent for the first 150 years after the country’s founding(Webpronews, 1998-2012). Broadly defined, diversity management is the systematic and planned commitment by the organizations to recruit, retrain, reward and promote a heterogeneous mix of employees. Diversity refers to a mosaic of people who bring a variety of background styles, perspectives, values and benefits as assets to the groups and organizations with which they interact. 6 Figure 1 A diagrammatic representation of diversity Source: (360 degrees of Diversity, 2010) During World War I, the 1920s Jazz Age and a stronger voice among minority workers slowly changed the workplace from a white male domain to better reflect a multicultural society. Still, the passage of federal laws and the formation of activists groups did not guaranteed racial and gender equality in the workplace. (Demand Media, Inc, 1999). The modern workplace from the late 18th century to about 1930 was typically a man’s world with few exceptions. In 1870, female clerks accounted for 2. percent of the workforce, rising to 53 percent in 1930. Female clerk typists rose from 5 to 96 percent during the same period. Minorities, typically African-Americans, were segregated to work in the service industry, such as servants, porters and manual labor, according to earlyofficemuseum. com (Demand Media, Inc, 1999). During the 2nd world war the focus was on recruitment and selection and later on training; improving morale and motivation; discipline; health and safety; joint consultation and wage policies. This meant that a personnel department had to be established with trained staff.

In the 1990? s a major trend emerged where employers were seeking increasing flexible arrangements in the hours worked by employees due to 17 an increase in number of part-time and temporary contracts and the invention of distance working. The workforce and patterns of work are becoming diverse in which traditional recruitment practices are useless. Diversity management philosophy was developed as a philosophy in the late 1980s in North America with the publication of Workforce 2000, a report indicating changing labor market demographics. Worman, 2010) In the year 2000, growth in the use of internet meant a move to a 24/7 society. This created new jobs in e-commerce while jobs were lost in traditional areas like shops. This meant an increased potential for employees to work from home. Organizations need to think strategically about the issues these developments raise. HRM managers role will change as changes occur (Webpronews, 1998-2012). The “business case for diversity” stem from the progression of the models of diversity within the workplace since the 1960s.

The original model for diversity was situated around affirmative action drawing strength from the law and a need to comply with equal opportunity employment objectives. This compliance-based model gave rise to the idea that tokenism was the reason an individual was hired into a company when they differed from the dominant group. This primarily included race, ethnicity, and gender. Although affirmative action is the law, in most cases, U. S. employers are prohibited by federal and state laws from giving race or ethnicity any consideration in hiring or assigning employees including hiring to fill diversity quotas (The U.

S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2009). Over the last forty years, the word “diversity” has become part of the language and management of North American firms and increasingly of European-headquartered corporations as well(gardenswartzMASTER , 2003) Different continents got their distinct perception of diversity. Those varying interpretations stem from the user’s national context, political agenda, dominant culture, or minority group identity—making the term “global diversity” even more complex.

For example, many people in the United States connect issues of diversity to human rights and civil liberty; Europeans may connect them to cultural heritage and language differences; many in Latin countries focus their diversity dialogues around the innate dignity of the individual; and many Asian societies interpret diversity in terms of collective accountability. (gardenswartzMASTER , 2003) 18 In the 1990s and into the 2000s, rapid internationalization required a fresh look at diversity. Rolling out a U. S. -centric diversity program designed for the needs of one nation could not address the complexity of a multicultural, global workforce.

Simplistic definitions related to parity and individual rights could not apply in countries that prescribe gender definitions or hierarchical societies. A new model was necessary, one that incorporates new perspectives of civilization and nationality as tools to use global resources (gardenswartzMASTER , 2003). By the very nature of their formation and being, African states have had serious problems with the management of diversity. First, their constituent groups were forcibly and arbitrarily incorporated by the colonizers. Although the leaders of the independence movements— the nationalists—were involved in the negotiations that shaped he emergent states, they could only do so within the frameworks stipulated by the colonizers. For instance, the leaders of Nigeria’s three powerful regions were the key actors in the various constitutional conferences that led to independence on the basis of a federal system, but the Colonial Office read the riot act to any group that thought of opting out of the ‘union’(CODESRIA & ICES,, 2004). In Kenya, issues of work force diversity have gained momentum over the last two decades. According to Institute of Human Resource Management, Socially the workforce is becoming diverse (Institute of Human Resource Management, 2010).

More women, minority group members and older workers enter the work place in large numbers. This brings differences in demographic factors such as age, sex, etc and variation in values and cultural norms to the fore. Effective management of this diversity is very important to management as it may affect employee relations in the industry. Following the new Employment Act that allows for women paid maternity leave of 3 months without forfeiting their leave, employers have fought this hard through the Federation of Kenya Employers arguing that it will translate to huge costs on the part of the employers.

The most affected would be firms whose workforce is mostly comprised of women such as in flower farms. This is because in their absence, during the maternity leave they would require to be paid while the employer seeks alternative resource to carry out the duties as business has be go on. The steady increase in greater female employment gives rise to new career conflict. Marriage ties can undermine secrets of the 19 organization and business intelligence. When an employee has a family relocation is disruptive especially where children are in school.

The problem of selling a home, leaving friends, purchasing new house, establishing a family unit in a new community, problem of relocating doctors and identifications of firm to carry out appliances repair for a family. These worries may affect performance and may result in employees refusing to take a transfer(Institute of Human Resource Management, 2010). This may result into disciplinary action being taken. Many older employees are likely to remain in employment due to termination of traditional benefit plans.

For instance, in the Civil Service, the government has realized that the Pension Scheme is unsustainable as more and more people live longer after retirement (Institute of Human Resource Management, 2010). The government therefore considered increasing the retirement age from 55 to 60 years. This retaining of older people is likely to occasion the need to retrain older workers in new technologies. There is also the challenge of generation gap which may lead to conflicts and affect the relations between the older and younger employees (Institute of Human Resource Management, 2010).

Organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of race, ethnicity, ability, age and other aspects of differentness. Diversity issues have also met resistance. Many companies today fail to follow the spirit of past legislation and pay women and minorities less money than their colleagues, according to womensmedia. com. Affirmative-action legislation, designed to level the employment playing field for whites and minorities, has been attacked as unfair to whites. However, the basic tenants of affirmative action were upheld in 2003 by the U. S.

Supreme Court in a University of Michigan case in which the justices ruled there is a “compelling” reason to maintain diversity in society, according to diversityworking. com (Demand Media, Inc, 1999). While many organizations have embraced diversity, others still consider it merely an issue of compliance with legal requirements. Effective diversity management has historically been used to provide legally defensive positions; that is, a firm with a diverse workforce could argue that they were not guilty of the prima facie case based on their workforce demographics, representing the demographic of the local community.

However, in more recent years, the view of diversity has changed to a more proactive 20 concept. Many business leaders are now beginning to believe that diversity has important bottom line benefits. Diversity in the workforce can be a competitive advantage because different viewpoints can facilitate unique and creative approaches to problem-solving, thereby increasing creativity and innovation which in turn leads to better organizational performance (Allen et al, 2004).

Theories and Techniques of diversity management have been developed and enthusiastically supported by a growing number of Chief Executives, training specialists, diversity consultants and academics (Saji;2004). Diversity can improve organizational effectiveness. Organizations that develop experience in and reputations for managing diversity will likely attract the best personnel (Careel, et al, 2000). Diversity refers to the co-existence of employees from various social-cultural backgrounds within the organization.

Diversity includes cultural factors such as race, gender, age, colour, physical and mental ability, ethnicity, etc. The broader definition of diversity may include age, national origin, religion, disability, sexual orientation, values, ethnic culture, education, lifestyle, language, beliefs, physical appearance and economic status (Wentling, and Palmarivas, 2000). Diversity requires a type of organizational culture in which each employee can pursue his or her career aspirations without being inhibited by gender, age, race, nationality, religion, or other factors that are irrelevant to performance (Bryan,1999).

Managing diversity means enabling the diverse workforce to perform its potential in an equitable work environment where no one group has advantage or disadvantage. The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect. It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences. These can be along the dimensions of race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, socio-economic status, age, physical abilities, religious beliefs, political beliefs, or other ideologies. It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment.

It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual (UN Studies Association, 2010). 21 According to a study done by Karen et al (2001), a multi-method field study of 92 workgroups explored the influence of three types of workgroup diversity (social category diversity, value diversity, and informational diversity) and two moderators (task type and task interdependence) on workgroup outcomes. Informational diversity positively influenced group performance, mediated by task conflict.

Value and social category diversity, task complexity, and task interdependence all moderated this effect. Social category diversity positively influenced group member morale. Value diversity decreased satisfaction, intent to remain, and commitment to the group; relationship conflict mediated the effects of value diversity (Karen, Gregory, & Margaret, 2001). ‘ 2. 2. 1. Discrimination at the workplace The opposite of discrimination is inclusion in which the workforce diversity emerges, mainly as furtherance of the availability of equal opportunities in the workplace.

Diversity seeks sameness, discourages individuality, promotes conformance, rewards uniformity and punishes non-conformity because managing diversity is harder than managing uniformity. This equal opportunity philosophy is aimed at ensuring that the organization makes the most out of the differences from a diverse workforce rather than loosing talent which might assist the organization to be more efficient and effective (Bryan, 1999). The effectiveness of an organization can be measured in different criteria (French, Wendell and Cecil, 1983) among them is productivity, profits, growth, turnover, stability and cohesion.

According to research done by Ingkapattanakul (2001), he cited employment discrimination as one of the primary concerns in the work place environment, including the public sector. The report stated that despite legislation against this, employees are often treated unfairly and unequally (Ingkapattanakul, 2001). This report covered areas such as recruitment, promotion, employment benefit, working conditions and general treatment. It classified these into five categories: gender, race, age, handicap and sexual orientation and discusses the US laws available to protect the individual, together with brief examples of discrimination.

It provided results from recent studies showing the problem has not yet been resolved. 22 Examples of cultural factors that are sources of discrimination are marital status, religion and ethnicity. For instance, with the increase of single parents, this variable complicates diversity in the organization. The challenge for the management is to recognize these differences and use them as strengths. When a married lady reports she is proceeding for a maternity leave, the management may be prone to give permission as compared to when a single lady is seeking such a leave.

Extreme hostility during pregnancy in low wage workplaces is a common issue at workplaces. The most common involves discrimination and harassment when a worker becomes pregnant. Workers fired on the spot or immediately after announcing that they are pregnant; pregnant employees being banned from certain positions no matter what their individual capabilities to do the job; and pregnant employees refused even small, cost-effective adjustments that would allow them to continue to work throughout their pregnancies. (Bornstein, 2011) Workplace discrimination could be propagated based on factors such as sex, age or physically challenged conditions.

Discrimination is adverse work treatment of an employee or prospective employee based on a class or category of which the employee is a member. This is differentiated from employment treatment that is based on the employee’s individual merit. (Heathfield, 2012) This has made diversity to increasingly become a “hot-button” issue in corporate, political and legal circles. A major concern on discrimination is gender. In the year 2006-2008, it was expected that women would occupy up to 30% of the total labor force. This means that organizations must deal with family conflict, child care, dual career couples and sexual harassment.

One issue surrounding gender as a dimension is the “glass-ceiling” syndrome which refers to the difficulty women have in raising/ advancing. Only a handful of women reach top management positions in organizations. The other personal concern is age. The supply of young workers is dwindling with the result that older workers represent a significant component of the labor force. Both young and old workers present management with challenges, Older workers are more cautious, less likely to take risks, less open to changes through their experience make them high performers.

Young entrants in the labor force will present challenges in the field’s communication or management tracking. Age discrimination is adverse work treatment 23 of an employee based on a class or category that the employee belongs to – employees over age 40 – rather than on the employee’s individual merit. In the United States of America People who are age 40 and older are protected from employment discrimination based on age by the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967. Age discrimination is prohibited in any term, condition, or privilege related to employment.

Age discrimination is unlawful in any phase of employment including job postings, job descriptions, interviews, hiring, salaries, job assignments, merit increases, performance management and evaluation, training, disciplinary actions, promotions, demotions, benefits, employment termination, and layoffs. (Heathfield, 2012). In a research done by Emerald Group publishing (2007), In an age of increased sensitivity in the media and the workplace to issues of discrimination, ageism is something of a final frontier.

Jokes about age abound on TV, at work and are a genre of greetings cards laying in wait for those milestone birthdays. But now that sixty is the new forty, forty the new thirty and twenty, well still twenty, a cultural revolution is taking place (Emerald Group Publishing, 2007). The other major factor that is used to propagate discrimination is physical disability. This type of discrimination occurs when an individual is treated differently in the workplace based on his/her disability. Disability can be mental disability (person suffering from psychological problem) or physical disability (physically handicapped).

If a person is harassed or teased in the workplace due to his/her disability that amounts to disability discrimination. (Kesluk & Silverstein, Los Angeles Employment and Labor Law Attorneys, 2012). In Kenya, language that is usually associated with tribes is related to the ethnic background. Having more than forty tribes in Kenya and two official languages poses a great challenge to the organizations. Sensitivity needs to be shown in the choice and use of language policy within organizations.

Other factors include education, income, lifestyles, religion and social-economic backgrounds. According to a research done in Brazil by Vasconcelos (2008), workers were being sidelined by top-tier organizations. The purpose of the paper was to examine the demographic diversity of the so-called 100 best companies to work for in Brazil and probe whether they exhibit any age bias and discrimination and, if so, in what degree it occurs. The design methodology drew 24 predominantly on Great Place to Work Institute of Brazil lists.

The author developed, through a historical research method, the analysis of the published data of those organizations over the decade between 1998 and 2008. The results showed that older workers were being sidelined by top-tier organizations in Brazil. Further, the findings suggested that just some worker groups were being benefited by the 100 best organizations to work for; at the same time, it seemed that they are not interested in other ones. This Research implied that although some triangulations were done with the Minister of Labor statistics, this investigation it was not completely exempt of bias.

In light of this possibility, future research should focus on those organizations that show an undeniable age bias in their workforce demographic diversity composition. The paper argued that behind the ageism concept lies an inadequate appreciation for some human beings. As a result, organizations that are concerned with better corporate reputation and images should hunker down to eliminate the signals of ageism and the lack of demographic diversity within their workforces (Vasconcelos, 2012). This paper shows the results of a qualitative research design focused on Brazilian corporate settings reality.

It examines the demographic diversity of the 100 best companies to work for in that country and identifies, in which degree, age bias and discrimination were found inside them, specifically over the period between 1998 and 2008 (Vasconcelos, 2012). 2. 2. 2 Diversity Management’s Training at Workplace Diversity training is training for the purpose of increasing participants’ cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills, which is based on the assumption that the training will benefit an organization by protecting against civil rights violations, increasing the inclusion of different identity groups, and promoting better teamwork (Vaughn, 2007).

Managing workforce diversity is one of the most difficult and pressing challenges of modern organizations. Successful organizational change starts with a clear awareness and understanding of the organization’s internal and external environments (Bean, 2000). Leaders are responsible for leading change, fostering desired behaviors, and ensuring that: Organizational systems, policies, and practices support the vision and are responsive to change; The workplace is inclusive; and ensuring Managing diversity principles are integrated into the operations of the organization(The U.

S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, 2009). There are four common internal reasons for diversity 25 management failure: 1) Failure to understand and articulate the relationship between discrimination and diversity management, 2) The belief that sameness and difference are mutually exclusive, 3) Failure to understand the legacy of fairness programs, and 4) Failure to create and articulate a valid framework for evaluating which differences should be leveraged and which should be rejected(Bean, 2000).

Understanding the internal environment also yields motivation for change, but it’s primary purpose is to clarify the context in which change will take place, to enable effective tailoring of change activities. According to a research done Barbara and Ethel, (2007) by after reviewing the curricula at 50 NASPAA (National Association of Schools of Public Affairs and Administration) accredited-schools, the study concluded that teaching diversity in the public administration/public affairs curriculum is not, in fact, overlooked.

However, the findings that the topic of diversity is relatively neglected in the published scholarship indicated a need for public affairs education programs to support such scholarship (Barbara & Ethel, 2007). The internal environment contains forces that press for and against the success of a change effort. These include organizational culture, organizational demographics, past success or failure of similar efforts, management and labor relationships, the attitudes of organization members and senior leader commitment to change(Milkovich & John, 1991. ).

The equal opportunity philosophy is aimed at ensuring that the organization makes the most out of the differences from a diverse workforce rather than loosing talent which might assist the organization to be more efficient and effective (Bryan, 1999). Ironically, although the number of organizations with diversity initiatives is steadily increasing, the number of discrimination complaints is on the rise(Flynn, February 1999). The effectiveness of an organization can be measured in different criteria (French, Wendell and Cecil, 1983) among them is productivity, profits, growth, turnover, stability and cohesion.

Diversity is important to companies because with a diverse environment people can benefit and learn from others’ ideas. Other reasons for the importance of diversity in many organizations are the recognition of differences as prerequisites for high performance and continuous improvement, enhancing effectiveness and creativity of the 26 organization, and valuing conflicts as opportunities for effective decision-making and problem solving (Outtz, James L, 2004). Diversity seeks sameness, discourages individuality, promotes conformance, rewards niformity and punishes non-conformity because managing diversity is harder than managing uniformity. It is more challenging, expensive, time consuming, demanding and prone to fail. However, organizations and their management teams of ten define diversity too narrowly by tolerating rather than embracing government guidelines about inclusion of gender, race and sexual diversity in the workplace; focusing on the avoidance of legal risks rather than the benefits of diversity; and doing the minimum necessary, rather than the maximum to promote diversity.

In the end, organizations promote uniformity rather than diversity and understand only those customers who are most like their employee (White, 1999). Lack of inclusion or discrimination due to management failure when diverse teams are not managed well communication and trust can break down, resulting in lower performance(National Integration working group for workplaces, 2011). Despite organizations investing millions in workforce diversity to boost employee morale and improve performance, they rarely achieve their expected benefits.

With a heterogeneous workforce in terms of race, ethnicity, culture, language, sexual orientation, religion, conceptions, organizations face a very complex task to safeguard society or business organizations from potentially destructive conflicts that arise easily in a radically pluralistic or diverse organization (Dass and parker, 1996). In this age of globalization, external factors are relevant to diversity management in a modern organization.

Globalization has united different communities in the world to collaborate together, which brings out the importance of diversity management to provide workers from different background an environment in harmony to work efficiently(International Management Five, 2011). Managers in public and private organizations will have to understand, predict and manage this intriguing nature of the diverse workforce to avoid job turnover. An understanding about the history of diversity gives an idea about the evolution of the interest in a diverse workforce in organizations.

According to a study done by Todd & Kenneth (2008) using a pretest-posttest research paradigm, a Reaction-To-Diversity Inventory to students enrolled in a workplace 27 diversity course at a regional Midwestern university was administered. Results showed that the diversity experience produced an increase in the number of positive and negative perceptions among students associated with workplace diversity. Gender also played a significant role in determining diversity perceptions.

The implications were discussed related to findings for the design, implementation, and evaluation of diversity learning experiences in academic and corporate settings (Todd & Kenneth, 2008). 2. 2. 3 Management policies on diversity In a corporate environment, human resource factors such as sources of discrimination are marital status, religion and ethnicity got a bearing on diversity management. These issues are that relevant that they need policy guidelines.

For instance, with the increase of single parents, this variable complicates diversity in the organization. The challenge for the management is to recognize these differences and use them as strengths. When a married lady reports she is proceeding for a maternity leave, the management may be prone to give permission as compared to when a single lady is seeking such a leave. Extreme hostility during pregnancy in low wage workplaces is a common issue at workplaces. The most common involves discrimination and harassment when a worker becomes pregnant.

Workers fired on the spot or immediately after announcing that they are pregnant; pregnant employees being banned from certain positions no matter what their individual capabilities are to do the job; and pregnant employees refused even small, cost-effective adjustments that would allow them to continue to work throughout their pregnancies(Bornstein, 2011). How well an organization achieves its purposes is known as organizational effectiveness. To be successful, organizations requires the co-operation of all people working in the organization, commitment and support of decision makers. Molt,1982) This gives emphasis to an organization’s ability to adapt itself to the changes in the environment. Accordingly, there are two important factors in organizational effectiveness, viz, capacity and capability to change according to the circumstances while participating in the process of resource mobilization to achieve the organizational purpose. Price (1968) made a distinction between effectiveness as an achievement of group process and efficiency as the extent to which the group provides satisfaction to the members of the group in the 28 ontext of organizational effectiveness. According to Michalman and Hans (1978), effectiveness refers to achievement of higher levels of goals in an organization. Others define effectiveness as the achievement of goals which contribute to the overall objective of goals which contribute to the overall objectives of the firm through optimum utilization of resources. Thus, organizational effectiveness as seen from the various definitions is a function of achieving organizational goals. An effective organization is the one which achieves the goals continuously over an indefinite long time.

Organizational effectiveness as a concept and a field of study appear to be little. According to Marthur (1983). Only a modest number of organizations studies have focused on performance or effectiveness. To reap from diversity, businesses must have a more diverse workforce in order to meet the growing needs of consumers. Individuals and groups need to overcome stereotypes or prejudices and recognize that actual dissimilar others have unique and valuable information that can support group process and performance.

Openness to perceived similarity describes the receptivity to perceived dissimilarity of individual, group or organizations (Hartel, 2004). Workforce diversity is a complex phenomenon to manage in an organization. The management of workforce diversity as a tool to increase organizational effectiveness cannot be underscored, especially with current changes sweeping across the globe. It is argued that organizations that value diversity as a matter of policy will definitely cultivate success and have a future in this dynamic global labor market (Goetz, 2001).

According to study done by van Ewijk (2011) defining diversity and diversity policy is an uncommon habit both in the professional practice and in academic studies. The purpose of this paper was to offer scholars an analytical framework to identify what the fundamental choices are in the definition of diversity (the what), in the motivation for diversity within organizations (the why), and in diversity policy as an organizational strategy (the how).

It also hoped to stimulate diversity professionals to reflect upon the underlying assumptions of their policies and, if needed, provide inspiration as to how to align them towards a more coherent approach. Design methodology was Academic contributions from political, social and management theory on diversity and diversity policy as analyzed on their conceptual coherence to identify important research gaps and construct an analytical framework that could serve to fill these gaps. Findings showed 29 hat although increasing societal diversity challenges many organizations to change and facilitate diversity within their structures, defining diversity and diversity policy is an uncommon habit both in the professional practice and in academic studies, while this definition influences the scope and validity of research results and can have a considerable impact on the practical consequences of diversity initiatives. Authors explained that the few studies in this field tended to be quantitative and jump to explanations for differences.

The proposed analytical framework contained fundamental choices in the definition of diversity (the selection, interpretation, and categorization of modes of differentiation), the motivation for diversity within organisations (the desired base of difference is individual or collective, and arguments are moral or practical), and the diversity policy approach (the intensity is high or low, and the relevance of collective difference is high or low).

A theoretical exploration of the concept of diversity and diversity policy drew on sources from three distinct disciplines that have not been combined in such a way before, resulting in a new analytical framework that facilitated theory building and policy learning on the topic (Ewijk, 2011). 2. 2. 4 Strategies of diversity management Historically, most companies instituted diversity programs such as affirmative action to be in compliance with the law, but they have found that there are some good solid business reasons to do so(Tong, 2011).

The concept of diversity management is a strategic business objective that seeks to increase organizational capacity in a workplace where the contributions of all employees are recognized and valued(U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 2004). Workforce diversity management has become an important issue for both government and private sector organizations. Its importance has mainly been brought about by the free movement of labour due to globalization and the fight for human rights by certain minority groups who feel excluded from the employment sector.

The goal of diversity management is to enable all employees to reach their full potential in pursuit of the organization’s mission. This includes fostering an environment where diversity is commonplace and enhances execution of the agency’s objectives. Diversity management means creating a workplace where differences in heritage, background, style, tradition and views are valued, respected and used to increase organizational capacity. As