Blood Lab Report Introduction A blood experiment was performed testing four different patients blood to find out their specific blood types. Blood types are categorized in four blood groups based upon the antigen ( proteins on the surface of blood cells that can cause a response from the immune system) ("Rh factor" 2006) on the surface of the red blood cell. The blood groups are A, B, AB and O, names which are broken down from the ABO blood group system. Although simulated blood was used for the experiment a standard blood typing outcome was still obtained.
After conducting the experiment I was able to identify each patients blood type by comparing the antigens and antibodies found within the blood. Materials and Methods Simulated blood, plastic slides, and antiserum were the materials used to perform this experiment. In order to specify each patients blood type it was necessary to place two drops of the simulated blood in each well on the plastic slide labeled A, B, and Rh. After dropping the blood into the specified wells the appropriate antiserum was added to determine the blood type.
The three antiserums A, B and Rh were placed accordingly to the matching blood type on the slide, a toothpick was used to mixed the the two together, if agglutination occurred a positive result was indicated. If all three wells on the slide were without agglutination the blood type of the specific individual was identified as O. By concluding which antigens are present in the blood I was also able to figure out which antibodies are present. The antibodies in the blood attack the foreign red blood cells by binding to them.
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For example type A blood has A antigens and B antibodies, the B antibodies are ready to attack or destroy B antigens (since those antigens would be foreign in this particular persons red blood cells). ("Blood typing," 2001) Results The results of the experiment yielded four different blood types. Mr. Green’s blood type is AB+, Ms. Brown is O-, Mr. Smith is A+ and Mr. Jones has a B- blood type. The chart below depicts exactly how I came to these results..... Individual Antigens Antibodies Donate Receive Outcome present present to: from: blood type: 1. Mr. Green A, B, Rh None AB+ universal AB+ . Ms. Brown None A, B, Rh universal O- O- 3. Mr. Smith A, Rh B A+, AB+ O+,O-,A+,A- A+ 4. Mr. Jones B A, Rh B+,B-,AB+,AB- O-,B- B- Discussion The first individual Mr. Green had antigens A, B and Rh present but no antibodies present thus concluding Mr. Green had AB+ type blood. AB+ blood can only be donated to those with the same blood type but can be recipient of any blood type (universal recipient). The second individual tested was Ms. Brown, her tests results indicated she had no antigens present on her blood which means she has antibodies A, B, and Rh in her blood. Ms.
Brown’s blood type is O- making her a universal donor but can only be a recipient of O- blood during a transfusion. The third individual Mr. Smith had the presence of antigens A and Rh and antibodies B within his blood. Mr. Smith’s blood type is A+. People with A+ blood can only be a donor to people with A+ and AB+ blood, but can receive from blood types O+, O-, A+ and A-. The fourth and last individual tested was Mr. Jones his tests concluded he has B- type blood. Those results came from finding B antigens present as well antibodies A and Rh within his blood. Mr. Jones can donate blood to people with B+, B-, AB+ and AB- blood.
He is however only to receive blood from people with O- and B- blood types. Although none of the individuals tested had an O+ blood type it is considered to be the most common blood type. ( American Red Cross) The testing was done very carefully and strategically but does not mean that the results could not yield from a possible error. Errors could have occurred from mixing to much antiserum with the respected blood types giving a false outcome. An error could also happen from not mixing serums well enough to get agglutination leading to the conclusion that the antigen was not present in the blood.
According to all the data obtained I feel each individuals’ blood type was identified properly and carefully utilizing all materials and methods required. Answers from questions in lab book: Based on what has been observed I think the antiserum contain antibodies against specific antigens located within the simulated blood. The blood type considered to be the universal donor is O- and the universal recipient is AB+. I believe that not all people with Rh negative blood have the antibodies for Rh positive blood but, I do think that your body is able to produce them when needed.
A perfect example is an Rh negative woman who becomes pregnant with an Rh positive baby. A woman body may produce antibodies in response to the Rh positive baby. “If a small amount of the baby's blood mixes with your blood, which often happens, your body may respond as if it were allergic to the baby. Your body may make antibodies to the Rh antigens in the baby's blood. This means you have become sensitized and your antibodies can cross the placenta and attack your baby's blood. They break down the fetus's red blood cells and produce anemia (the blood has a low number of red blood cells).
This condition is called hemolytic disease or hemolytic anemia. It can become severe enough to cause serious illness, brain damage, or even death in the fetus or newborn. ” (“Rh Factor” 2006). The game online helped to demonstrate, even more, how important it is to be precise when figuring out someone blood type. Giving the wrong blood type to a patient during a transfusion or even surgery could lead to their death. Works Cited.. American Red Cross, . Blood types. Retrieved from HYPERLINK "http://www. givelife2. org/aboutblood/bloodtypes. asp" http://www. ivelife2. org/ aboutblood/bloodtypes. asp (2001, December 3). Blood typing. Retrieved from HYPERLINK "http:/nobelprize. org/educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/readmore. html" http://nobelprize. org/ educational_games/medicine/landsteiner/readmore. html (2006, April). Rh factor: . Retrieved from HYPERLINK "http://www. americanpregnancy. org/pregnancycomplications/rhfactor. html" http: www. americanpregnancy. org/ pregnancycomplications/rhfactor. html VanPutte, Regan, Russo, . (2009). Seeley's essential of anatomy & physiology. New York, Ny: McGraw-Hill.
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