Oxygenated vs deoxygenated states of blood: One hemoglobin can carry 4 oxygen Deoxygenated hemoglobin is not bound to oxygen If a person has low oxygen level, a bluish hue will result and a low pulse oxygenation will register as a measurement of the difference between oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin.*”Hemoglobin transports oxygen to cells and C02 to lungs to be exhaled.**Deoxygenated hemoglobin is concave shape; oxygenated is planar shape and red in arteries Hemoglobin (2013) Bohr Effect Lower blood pH or higher blood C02 = hemoglobin proteins – oxygen
Lower C02 or higher pH = hemoglobin + oxygen Myoglobin has no allostery, does not display Bohr effect High C02, high H+, low partial = oxygen from hemoglobin High C02 or low pH = increase of oxygen in tissues Bohr Effect (2013) Oxygen Affinity and pH Bohr Shift Carbonic acid = lower blood pH Lower blood pH = Bohr Shift (oxygen from hemoglobin) wolfe (2000) Hemoglobin and Myoglobin Myoglobin Binds iron, stores oxygen ‘OF2 ADnormal, result 0T an Injury to muscle Myoglobin = heme + iron + 8 amino acid chains in alpha helix Hemoglobin
Transports oxygen from lungs to tissues Contains iron (Hemoglobin 2013) Sickcle Cell Abnormal, sickle cell shaped RBC’s Sickle cells stop blood flow, very painful Problem: valine in place of glutamic amino acid causing cells to stick together Problem: cells are rigid and inflexible Problem: normal RBC’s live 90-120, sickle cells live 10-20 days, shorter lifespan results in anemia Inheritance Autosomal recessive disease inherited from parents Carrier parents will produce offspring with a 1:4 chance of inheriting sickle cell disease.