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Artificial Intelligence in Healthcare

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CSC 1208 – BASIC COMPUTING ASSIGNMENT 2 Technology is evolving from time to time. As time goes by, new technology has come into place replacing the aged technology. However, we realized that without the previous technology, it is impossible for the new generation to enjoy the benefit of the technology we have today.

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To appreciate the golden aged technology, discuss in your group about an elder technology right from the beginning until how their evolved and improved to the latest technology today in a variety of fields including in education, finance, government, health care, science, publishing, travel, manufacturing, hospitality and media.

Marking Scheme This assignment is 10% of coursework. Your assignment must include the following: 1. Assignment Cover Page 2. Assignment Marking Scheme 3. Assignment Question 4. Table of Content 5. List of Figures 6. List of Table 7. Introduction – Synopsis 8. Objectives 9. History 10. Evolution 11. Latest technology 12. Contribution of the technology 13. Room for Improvement 14. Conclusion 15. References 16. Appendix – Presentation slides . Table of Contents: Acknowledgementvi Technology in Robotics based on Artificial Intelligence Perspective. 1. 1 Objectivesvii 1. Introduction to Robotics based on Artificial Intelligenceviii . Introduction to Roboticsix 3. Introduction to Artificial Intelligencex 4. History of robotics. xii 5. History of Artificial Intelligencexiii 6. History of robotics based on artificial intelligencexiv 7. Evolution in technology in robotics. xvi 8. Evolution of Artificial Intelligencexvii 9. Latest Technology in Roboticsxix 10. Contribution of Robots to the human society. xx 11. Latest Technology in Artificial Intelligencexxi 12. Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Artificial Intelligencexxiii 13. Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligencexxv 14. Conclusionxxix 15.

Appendixxxx * Acknowledgement We would like to express our deepest gratitude to Mr. NorShahriel for his guidance and help in carrying out this project. We also wish to thank INTI’s library, Tan Sri Abdul Majid for the resources that was used for this research. We would like to thank the creators of google, Larry Page and Sergey Brin for creating such a wonderful website and helping us save time from having to travel to the library. * Technology in Robotics based on Artificial Intelligence Perspective. 1. 1 Objectives * To understand the computer science branch, ‘Artificial intelligence’ To appreciate the benefits of Artificial Intelligence in Robotics. * To be aware of the growth of Artificial Intelligence in Robotics. * To keep updated with the evolution in the technology in Robotics. * To learn how human’s view on robots have changed according to different times. * To bring attention to the contribution of artificially intelligent robots in the human society. * To understand how Artificial Intelligence came about. Introduction to Robotics based on Artificial Intelligence In robotics, you can never deny that artificial intelligence is the most exciting field you can find.

Despite that, it has it controversial moments as well because as we all know robot can do work as it has been programmed, but can it ever be as intelligent as a human? This question lingers in the mind of researchers and to resolve this particular statement, it will definitely take a long time. Therefore, people should put it aside and continue to improve robots for the sake of a better future. As everyone is aware, robots can only absorb a certain amount of knowledge compared to humans but what humans don’t have is a guaranteed error free day.

Robots can be programmed to not make the same mistakes that humans always do. But then again, even if humans are smarter, it is hard to avoid certain habits which lead to repeated mistakes over and over again. To see the ability of robots, recently in Japan, researchers have taught robots how to dance. Dancing used to be a skill only a human was able to do, but now even robots are able to do it. This shows how technology has improved through the years. Robots are able to help in the education field too, as robots can now interact socially with humans.

Since the world’s population has limited working educationist/teachers/lectures in this modern world, robots would make a great addition to the educational field. Although this might take a few more years to make it perfect, the base is already in progress now, and as time passes by, robots will get even better. Robots are also key in the manufacturing sector as quantity is important when it comes to gain in profit. A robot can work 24 hours in a day without stopping and this makes everything move faster and therefore increases production.

Fewer work forces will be used and thus it will not be time consuming anymore. But the presences of humans are still necessary in the manufacturing sector to keep a watchful eye on these robots to make sure that it is error free. In the future, robots will continue to evolve in line with artificial intelligence itself and will benefit the society in so many ways. There will be a time when people go to a supermarket one day, and see it all operated by robots and not a single human in sight except for the manager in charge.

This will be an amazing sight to see but it needs a lot of planning and work. Researchers are currently working on both of these elements to create and modify what people have now into something great. One day, yes. Introduction to Robotics As a generation very dependent on technology, robots have certainly played a major role in the modern day society. Over the years, the definition of robots has varied from person to person. Many may perceive them to be androids, human-like dolls made out of metal with computerized brain that has been instructed to obey everything a human says.

Others might identify robots as a device, programmed to do various tasks in places such as factories where human abilities are inadequate and labor cost are high. In anyway, robots have been created and developed to make peoples’ work easier and their lives more comfortable. Robots for many years have been a subject of interest for many sci-fi movies, books and animations while also being one of the most challenging fields in science where scientist have struggled to create the most human-like mechanical doll movies and cartoons have portrayed robots to be. Cool Japan’, one of the programs belonging to the Japanese news channel, NHK world recently discussed on the view of robots around the world and it was proven that the Western side of the world viewed humanoid robots negatively and didn’t encourage the creation of the robots that are able to feel and think like a man, as they have been stereotyped by books and movies that to be life threatening that could cause the human race to be enslaved by them.

Meanwhile, the Eastern side of the world (countries such as Japan, Korea, China, etc) viewed robots in more open minded ways and actually promoted building robots that can act and think like a human. Scientists have still yet to create the a perfect robot that can act and respond to any actions or words out of their programmed instructions but as technology develops in a rapid speed, it might not be long before the robot who can feel and think like humans might be invented. Introduction to Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science that is embedding human characteristics into the machineries by performing simple tasks by fixing specifically programmed rules. It’s also commonly known to be Computer Science but however it branches out to many more fields such as Mathematics, Psychology, Biology and Philosophy. The fundamental point of Artificial Intelligence is that every programmed set of rules is expressed as an algorithm. There’s no denying that computers are able to process logic but the ability if a machine can think remains unknown to scientist and researchers.

Figure 1 – The four approaches of Artificial Intelligence Figure 1 – The four approaches of Artificial Intelligence As you can see in Figure 1 – It shows Four Approaches of Artificial Intelligence. We can then divide the approaches into ‘human centered approach and rationalist approach’. The first human centered approach would be The Cognitive Modeling Approach where machines are able to think humanly. Basically, this approach relies more on Human Psychology. We would have to analyze how the mind works so then it would be implement and express the theory as a computer program into the machine.

If the computer program is able to match the timing and human behaviors then it would be possible to program machines like the operations that are already in humans. Then you have the first rationalist approach of “Laws of Thought” which is when machines are able to think rationally. Aristotle, the Greek philosopher was the first to attempt to classify “right thinking”. He basically provided the given argument structures which will always generate the correct conclusions given that it is in right environment.

The laws that he laid out for the future, became the operation of the mind which then was categorized as logic. With this as their basis, it allows Logicians to build programs within Artificial Intelligence to create intelligent systems in the future. The second human centered approach is the Turing Test approach when computers are able to act humanly when given a set of questions that were prepared by a human. In order for the computer to pass the test it would have to fulfill these criteria: To enable the computer/machine to communicate successfully in English * To store what the computer/machine what it knows or hears * To use stored information to answer questions and to draw new conclusions * To adapt to new circumstances and to detect and conclude patterns Lastly, you would have the second rationalist approach which is the Rational Agent approach where machines are able to act rationally. An agent is something that acts and computer agents have attributes that differentiate them from the other typical programs.

A Computer Agent is able to operate by observing their environment, persistence, adapting to change and capable to take on another goal – like humans do. Rational Agent is when it acts to achieve the best outcome even when the situation is vague it is still able to give the ‘best expected outcome’. History of robotics. The early name for Robots was ‘Automaton’ and was very different from modern day robots. They were merely mechanical (often made out of wood), operating in a limited amount of steps. They were mainly created as toys.

However, the origin of robots can be dated all the way back the early civilizations and even in myths and legends. The earliest concept of Automaton recorded in history was in 400 B. C when Archytas of Tarentum, a Greek mathematician (also the inventor of screws and pulley) built a mechanical bird of which he called, “The Pigeon,” This mechanical bird is also believed to serve as one of the first models for modern airplanes. In the period when building robots was believed to be impossible due to lack of resources and limited knowledge, various individuals had their own description/ idea of how a robot should be.

They all had different versions but the basic concept was a piece of man-made doll built to serve mankind. The famous artist, Leonardo DaVinci himself had drawn a design consisting of what resembled an armored knight from the medieval times. During the time when computer was yet to be invented, the earlier form of robots came with the use of simple Physics principles consisting of few processes that were repeated throughout and none of them had a brain like today’s robots. Such forms include the Flute player which played 12 different songs, invented by a French Inventor, Jacques de Vaucanson in 1738.

The 19th century was the peak for most robot creations. The term ‘robot’ was first coined by a Czech author, Karel Capek in 1921, where it was introduced in his play, R. U. R (Rossuum’s Universal Robots). The first invention of modern robots only arrived in the early 1950s by George Charles Devor, who invented the first industrial robots (machine arms used in factories). Robots enjoyed their popularity in the 1970s mainly due to the Hollywood movie, ‘Star Wars’ by George Lucas where the plot was set in a future where human beings lived together with robots.

The movie allowed people to visualize themselves in the far future and therefore its fame was celebrated widely all over the world. History of Artificial Intelligence The first time that Artificial Intelligence was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy in the Dartmouth Conference. He is one of the founders of AI research and he defined the field by ‘getting a computer to do things when done by people, are said to involve intelligence’. However, in 1950 it was Alan Turing that introduced the Turing Test which is machine learning, genetic algorithms and reinforcement learning.

This discovery was not categorized as Artificial Intelligence but Turing was articulate in his 1950 article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” which became the step before Artificial Intelligence was recognized by John McCarthy in 1956. The Dartmouth Conference was a stepping stone as it expanded due to a range of theories and principles by dedicated researchers. The first computer was built back in 1941 – but it was not until 1950’s that scientists realized that the link between human intelligence and machines weren’t too farfetched.

The concept of Artificial Intelligence was a slow on-going process as it took nearly a decade for scientists and researchers to re-examine the ideas that were formed in the Dartmouth Conference. Nevertheless, it introduced all the major figures of Artificial Intelligence to each other. Evidently, for the next 20 years Artificial Intelligence was dominated by lecturers, students, and colleagues at MIT, CMU, Stanford and IBM. After the Dartmouth Conference, two researchers from Carnegie Tech Newell and Simon developed the ‘Logic Theorist’. In the eyes of other researchers and scientists it was an ‘overoptimistic vision’ from the two scientists.

Logic Theorist was a theory that was based on Even though it was a breakthrough for the newly found Artificial Intelligence branch it led them to a bigger success which was the ‘General Problem Solver’. The two researchers Newell and Simon redeemed themselves with their creation of the ‘GPS’. It is a computer program that imitates the way humans solve problems. History of robotics based on artificial intelligence Robotics is one of the sub divisions in artificial intelligence and as you might not know, it definitely has a rich history behind it. As we all know, history is very important when it comes to understanding a certain topic.

We might know a certain something based on what it is now, but what we usually do not know is where it all started. History is something that will enrich your mind about a certain something and will definitely be a helping factor in understanding certain topics. Since, robotics has a really long and wide history, understanding and doing research about it needs a proper timeline to help us keep track of the progressions of it. In 1932, the first real robot was made in Japan. This specific robot was called ‘Lilliput’. It was just merely 15 cm tall and was made out of tinplate.

The Japanese had made a big step in innovation and they have been evolving ever since. In 1950, the great Alan Turing proposed a test to determine a fact that stated if a machine had the power to think for itself. In order to determine if the machine could pass the test, it was required to be indistinguishable from a human during conversation. This test was named the ‘Turing test’. During the year 1954, the first robot arm was invented by George Devol and John Engleberger. This creation became the first robot to complete general and tasks including multitasking on a factory assembly line in the company General Motors.

In 1957, ‘Sputnik’ was launched by the Soviet Union and was called the first artificial orbiting satellite. This marks the beginning of the space race between them and the American people. In 1964, the first computer started to mass produced by IBM 360. The computers we are using today are all based on this particular computer by IBM. In 1969, the United States finally made themselves on to the moon. Using the latest technology of space and robotics, they sent Neil Armstrong onto the moon. The famous ‘R2D2’ from the movie Star Wars is now famous among all of us as the talking robot could interact with humans and also perform certain tasks.

In 1986 Honda launched the making of a walking humanoid robot. Based on the images describe in movies, Honda wanted to build a similar object which was real. Although it was tough, Honda tried their best. Also in the same year, LEGO started producing educational products that was done to contribute to younger generation to give them a clearer picture of how robots were like. Until today, we can see LEGO products still on shelves at supermarkets and toy stores. From the small picture of robot, to the real thing, it shows that it all started from an idea to a real one. In 1994, the University of Carnegie invented an eight-legged walking robot.

This spectacular robot was used for a historic evolution in robotics. This robot was used to collect volcanic gas samples from Mt spur. The name of this robot was ‘Dante II’. After the successful project, it proved that humans were able to build a robot that was heat-resistant. This was important because humans managed to achieve an incredible feat because robots could now be used to go to places that even humans will have a hard time going. On May 11 1997, a world was chess champion was defeated at this own game by an IBM built computer which was called ‘Deep Blue’.

This achievement was amazing due to the fact that now a machine built by humans could now challenge a complex human mind. In the same year, Lego launched the first Robotics invention system that used small components that are also educational for kids. This small model was key to the development of robots because humans could experiment future creations. In 1999, Sony released the first version of AIBO which was robotic dog which had the ability to entertain, learn and also communicate with its owner. This invention was a hit in the market and SONY made plenty of profit from t and production was continued with newer and more sophisticated models. The main target market for this product was for children, many of them were amazed by the abilities of this robotic dog, and all of this was made possible by the evolution of robotics itself. In the millennium of 2000, Honda made an improved version of its creation by introducing the robot ASIMO which was a new generation of humanoid robots. Honda which is a car company took a risk of venturing out of their field to robotics and all of it paid off when the robot made an incredible display at many international technology exhibitions worldwide.

In 2008, robotics made a grand entrance into the household department by the introduction of the Roomba robotic vacuum which has since sold over 2. 5 million units worldwide. A huge demand was set for this robotic mechanism and is still being produced until today. Lastly, by the timeline explained above, we get to see how robotics has vastly improved in the field of artificial intelligence. It was also beneficial from the olden times until the new era of today. Without the inventions and ideas that were given by inventors of the past, robotics has since developed into a field that humans need in their daily lives.

Status is temporary, history is permanent. Evolution in technology in robotics. The birth of robots were mainly celebrated in the West but as time passed, the East had done more for the development and growth in technologies in the robotic field of which Japan is one of the leading countries, contributing to positive opinions among the public regarding humanoid robots. For a form of entertainment for the aristocrats in the 18th century to helping hands in the 19th century, robots have almost taken over job sectors where accurate thinking and high workforce is needed.

From Mechanical automatons made partially out of wood that were just invented to awe the public, technology in robots have been developed to act autonomously, which means a robot can do a task without the presence of a human. The field of artificial intelligence has given life to modern day robots. Hundred years back, it would have been controversial for a robot to replace a man’s job but robots have been slowly implemented into the contemporary society over the years that it has become a norm to find a factory once filled with people, now with just the presence of the repetitive monotonous sound of machines.

Evolution of Artificial Intelligence Artificial intelligence as it is today, had taken a lot of improvements and is still improving. All of this was made possible by the evolution of it. Evolution plays an important role in anything. Without evolution a new technology could not be vastly improved. To start if off, in 1941 the first electronic computer was named Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) and was introduced to the world. At this time artificial intelligence was not fully recognized yet but this was where it all started. In 1949, the first computer stored program was created. This program was also made commercial.

BINAC was a big success because it made a big leap for technology as a whole. In ran a test program which consisted of 23 instructions. Although, it did not have full working functionality, it was still considered the first commercial stored program. In 1956, the Dartmouth conference was held in Dartmouth College in New Hampshire. This was where artificial intelligence was born. This particular conference gave scientists and idea of the benefits of artificial intelligence to humans around the world. Furthermore, this conference did set some critical goals to be achieved in the future. In 1958, the lisp language was invented.

This is a programming language which was created to develop a clear list of programming language. In addition to that, lisp machines were specially designed to run lisp programs. Without the creation of these machines, the lisp language could not used to its fullest potential. Today, lisp language still dominates the artificial intelligence category and is still widely used around the world. In 1963, ‘DOD’ started their advanced research projects. Now, ‘DOD’ is called DARPA which stands for Defense Advanced Research Project Agency was created after the launch of ‘SPUTNIK 1’ which was the first artificial satellite to be placed in orbit.

This agency first dealt solely on space-related projects. When all the agenda’s were taken over by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, they were almost closed down. But that did not prevent them from continuing their verge into the depths of artificial intelligence; they started to conduct research into stealth technology and continuously branched out step by step. Without this particular agency, research into Artificial Intelligence would have stopped long ago. This agency played a big role into the evolution of artificial intelligence as a whole unit.

In 1968, the first Micro world Program was invented. This program was named SHRDLU. This program was created to improve the evolving nature of artificial intelligence. Usually, normal scientist will tend to ignore less relevant details. They want to concentrate more on the important details. In artificial intelligence, this could not be done due to the delicate and in-depth nature of it. With this program, artificial intelligence could ensure that programs were capable of intelligent behavior in such a way that simpler forms of the artificial world can be accessed to micro worlds.

In 1970 the first expert system was developed. This system was developed by Edward Feigenbaum and Joshua Ledeberg from the University of Stanford in California. Basically, this program was invented to overcome manpower. This program is able to do tasks that regularly need human expertise to complete. With this creation, manpower was reduced significantly. In the year 1972, Prolog Language was revealed. This programming language became a serious competitor to LISP which was widely used before. Until today, these two programming languages are still competing with each other until present.

The new significant difference that Prolog Language brought to the world was its ability to make us give emphasis on logical relations between object and entities that are relevant to a certain problem rather than taking procedural steps to deal with it. This gave people a choice of which programming language they preferred. In the year 1986, a total of 425 million U. S dollars was earned from the sales of artificial intelligence based software. During this time artificial intelligence proved that it had an actual stronghold area in the market which was demanded by the world.

In 1991, the Artificial Intelligence system was put to test in a military test system which was called ‘Desert Storm’. This was an effective evolution in artificial intelligence. Artificial Intelligence system was used in missile systems by the military and also other military advancements. In addition to that, Apple Macintosh and IBM started to use voice recognition systems that make computers more user-friendly. Day by day the demand for the Artificial Intelligence technology has risen more and more day by day.

New advancements and technologies have started to become available to us. Artificial Intelligence has become inevitable for us not to use on a daily basis. In the future, the evolution of artificial intelligence will continue to prosper with time. If evolution stops, things will stay stagnant as it is and we would stop improving. Latest Technology in Robotics In recent years, there’s this ideology that ‘Robots could replace Humans in the Future’. It is a debatable subject in Robotics that due to the constant evolution of technology is making it easier for robots to replace Humans.

However, there’s still time for scientists to realize the full potential of Robotics with help from technology. This statement might be proven right as there’s already known robots that are able to execute tasks by thinking analytically by using the set of algorithms and rules that are already built into the robots in order to ‘think like a human’. Robots are the most commonly known examples of Artificial Intelligence and scientists are being more and more innovative by creating more sophisticated and user friendly robots to society.

Robots are applicable to any kind of field; it’s already used in Healthcare, Entertainment, Business, Communication and Psychology. So far, no machine is able to pass the ‘Turing Test’ but there are a few machines that made a mark in Artificial Intelligence History. Watson – IBM’s supercomputer that was able to defeat two human beings at the trivia game show Jeopardy. Not only that, this supercomputer managed to beat the reigning world chess champion Garry Kasparov. There’s still room for improvement but so far Robotics is just able to perform only a fraction of what human is able to do.

The latest technology is ECCEROBOT 2 (Embodied Cognition in a Compliantly Engineered Robot). It’s basically the first robot to mimic human form with not just the outward form of a human but it also copies the inner structures such as bones, joints, muscles, etc. With this new found breakthrough, researchers are still investigating its human like actions and interactions which has potential and should be built upon for the mere future. The Humanoid robots are finally getting recognition in society and are gaining support from all sci-fi geeks all over the world.

Contribution of Robots to the human society. In this modern era, where it has become easier for humans to lose social skills and the ability to take care of others, artificially intelligent robots have taken their place in society; doing the jobs that originally belonged to human. As people’s obligation to take care of their elderly has dissipated in most developed society where individuality mindset have been encouraged, technologies in the robotics fields like nursing robots have filled in the places of nurses and care takers.

Robots have not only been created to help the elderly and disabled but has been invented in order to keep children pre-occupied and entertained as the once male-dominated society slowly adapts to the emancipation of woman and the balance in the gender equality. Robots have filled in both the roles of younger caring generation and the elderly watchful eyes. Autonomous robots have been sent as far to space as well where human beings cannot survive due to the condition of it. They have brought back the evidences of outer space, travelling further than human beings and feeding nswers to curious minds. Mankind has created robots in order to serve them but as years have passed, these artificially intelligence machines have surpassed their own masters. Latest Technology in Artificial Intelligence Technology in artificial intelligence has never stopped developing since we stepped into the millennium due the abundance of technology that is found day by day. With that, latest technology in this field is an important thing to highlight due to the fact that it continues to amaze us by the things artificial intelligence can manage to do.

First of all, recently in 2011, an artist and composer by the name of Benjamin Grosser invented an interactive robotic painting machine. This was done after he decided to explore the realms of artificial intelligence and art. Basically, what the robot could do was it could listen to itself with the microphones placed into the machine. After listening to itself, it would paint out an image based on what it interprets after listening to the sounds. Two trays of paint would be placed in between a piece of canvas, and a mechanical arm will perform the painting.

Although this technology could not be classified as pass or a fail, it depends on different people. Some would like the fact that a robot can paint, and some would just prefer the old fashioned way. Furthermore, the invention of the SOINN robot by the Japanese has managed to impress us. SOINN which stands for Self Organizing Incremental Neural Network is a revolutionary robot which is able to perform tasks that are related to exploring a new situation and learning how to do it. For example, the robot is able to learn how to pour water into a glass and make it cold by placing ice cubes into the glass.

After that, it gives the water to a person. Before the robot starts the task, it tries to acclimatize itself to what is located around it. With this, it performs it tasks better. Moreover, what amazes us even more is when the robot has both of its hands full because it has to decide which item to put down in order to pick up another one. What the researches in Japan have done is create a robot with no specific list of pre-created commands that it has to follow. Therefore the robot is able to think by itself and decide what to do in any given situation.

The SOINN robot can also connect itself to the internet and also other robots to help gather information from the web. The researches have provided the robot with power to gain knowledge for it in order to complete any given task that is assigned to it without fail. What we gain for this is a generation of robots that are independent enough to think for itself and complete human related tasks that may seem impossible to complete before the invention of this prime piece of technology. As the research goes on, a new found technology by Toyota has been able to attract many people around the world.

Toyota has been able to create a prototype of a smart car which is fitted with voice recognition and also able to detect human motion. This smart car was inspired by video games and mainly the XBOX360. The reason behind this is mainly due to the kinect technology that has been introduced by Microsoft into its game platform. What kinect does is basically detecting human motion and turning it into a physical action that a human was supposed to perform. But now, with this technology, all a human has to do is just ensure that the machines understand the motions that are made.

For example, when a person is walking towards the car, this prototype is able to detect it and will open the car door. All of this was inspired by the revolution of video gaming consoles. This prototype car will be power by a 100 volt AC voltage and is expecting to have many more features. Although this car is still at prototype level, it will take a few more years to make it into reality. With time, more improvements can be made to ensure the car is suitable for everyone in the world. In the health care industry, artificial intelligence has combined with biochemical understanding to help those in needs.

For example, recently it was Memorial Day for soldiers in the United States who have served in Iraq. And for one lucky soldier, Lt. Col. Greg Ganson, his dreams of walking again came to life when he was gifted a pair of prosthetic legs. These pair of prosthetic legs is called Power Knee2 which will enable amputees the walk again with more safety and confidence combined together. This is no ordinary prosthetic leg because this one users the combination of artificial intelligence and sensors to make the walking process a better one.

Furthermore what the inventors did was connect the prosthetic leg via sensors using Bluetooth to a laptop. This was done during the process of walking to make some required adjustments to the legs to ensure comfort. It is also fully customizable and differs from person to person. Moreover it gives everyone a better chance of achieving what they can get out of real legs. So far, this new invention has made some improvement based on the early 2006 model which was called power knee. This new model is able to adapt to situations such as if a person wants to sit down, climb a fleet of stairs or even lie down.

The inbuilt sensor will detect these situations and adjust the stiffness of the prosthetic legs. All in all, the latest technology in artificial intelligence has surpassed a lot of expectations and will definitely have the capability to expand even more with the sands of time. Regardless in any field, artificial intelligence benefited. Advantages and Disadvantages of Technology in Artificial Intelligence Technology in Artificial Intelligence is quite a controversial topic – the society’s opinions are quite divided but they cannot stop the Future of Technology as it is constantly evolving.

The pros and cons are quite straight forward. Based on several articles, there are several advantages that was constantly brought up * Evolving Relationship of Humans with Computation * Increases Job opportunities * Machines complete the task faster than a human The first point to be discussed would be the ‘Evolving Relationship of Humans with Computation’. The newer and older generation is welcoming this new era of Modern Technology being used in Artificial Intelligence. It’s at the society’s dispense – it will be there whenever users wants to use it.

The second point will be the increased job opportunities for humans to be more specialized in a specific field in order to be more innovative in building new and improved versions of Artificial Intelligence theories. The last and final point will be about technology constantly evolving. This would then increase the level of Artificial Intelligence which will make it even harder for humans to execute the tasks. Which means that it doesn’t require much resources as the machine has the ‘best outcomes’ possible built into the program.

This becomes less time consuming as it requires less time for the machine to gather information and resources in comparison if a human was handed this task. This is when Artificial Intelligence is at its advantage – they are emotionless, more efficient and lightens the burden on the human when it comes to doing dangerous or far too complex problems. Along with the pros, there will always be cons that go along with it. There are several disadvantages of Technology in Artificial Intelligence that is not really supported by the intelligent educated people that dare question the theories of Artificial Intelligence in Technology in general.

These are the several disadvantages that was brought up * Human Feel * Misuse of this technology * Ability to replace a human job The first disadvantage will be the ‘human feel’ – robots inability to feel the emotional understanding for humans. This will cause the machines lacking in the ability to sympathize with the human situation and this would cause them to act irrationally as a consequence. It’s beyond the company’s responsible for the robots – which results to no-one getting the blame for the machine’s faults. The second disadvantage will be the ‘misuse of this technology’.

Countries are always prepared for war, so with countries in the race of getting the best defense systems if this technology gets into the wrong hands it can inevitably cause mass damage. Artificial Intelligence is also getting incorporated into military training – getting autonomous robot troops to get sent first before the human troops. For example, in the US – they are already testing on this theory which cost them almost twenty five million dollars for just a test run. Its quite a huge risk to take if the technology aren’t able to support the specific needs to minimize damage on the humans.

Also, with technology evolving – people are able to hack the system of these robotic troops which can backfire the source control. The third and last disadvantage is that with technology constantly evolving humans are feeling threatened in fear of losing their jobs. Technology has different branches of Artificial Intelligence and robotics has played a major role in this new era of Technology taking over society. This would then lead to mass unemployment in the future if the future of Technology in Artificial Intelligence is progressing forward. Advantages and Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence

In everything single that you do in this world, no matter in what field, there will always be advantages and disadvantages. It’s how they co-relate with each other in everything that we do. In artificial intelligence, different people have different views about it and because of that this research aims to see what those advantages and disadvantages are and how they relate with us. First of all we will talk about the disadvantages of artificial intelligence to give us a better picture of the bad side to this technology phenomenon. The first one is over dependency.

When we feel too reliable towards something, we forget that those machines were made by humans. Therefore, machines are not perfect in every sense and can malfunction and any given point or time. If we are too reliable on them and they fail on us, we will be stuck at a point without any solutions to deal with the situation at hand. We always need to have some sort of backup plan to ensure that if the machines fail, we can overcome the situation straight away and not make any losses or any sorts. The second disadvantage is the lack of human feel. We humans always have a certain touch towards something and of course we have emotions as well.

For machines, they don’t have the emotional values to relate with us humans therefore some decisions made could be fatal to us. The more we try to eliminate the number of manpower in our industries; we lack the human feel day by day. It might be good at a point of time or even fatal at another point of time. To stick on the safe side, we should keep the human feel present at all times to keep rationality present in what we do. Besides that, some people think that artificial intelligence is unethical in a way. To us, we believe intelligence is a gift from god and should be valued not cloned into something.

This form of so called ‘playing god’ is not fancied by many. On the other hand we can look at this in different ways. Some people might want to keep their intelligence to themselves but others might want to share it to the world in different forms. With this, everything goes both ways because if our intelligence is captured by the wrong people, misuse of it can lead to unwanted events. On the other hand, if we keep our knowledge to ourselves, the world will not expand in such a way because if we share it with many, more theories and more development will be present and therefore expand the network on artificial intelligence.

This is definitely crucial at this era. If machines are able to do all our jobs, we will definitely lose our jobs at the hands of those machines. When everything task is done by machines, the human workforce will definitely have a significant decline. The ones most affected will be the ones at the lower levels of management. The higher ones will act as supervisors and with a click of button, machines can be controlled. With many people not having jobs, the crime rate will definitely go up and people will end up committing suicide just to ease their pain.

Although machines are able to perform our daily tasks, we still need a workforce to operate them and ensure that everything is running smoothly. If the machines malfunction and there is no workforce, more money will be spent in fixing the machines rather than the salary of every single person working. Having a machine do something will definitely be less time consuming, but having a person operating it and making sure that it is running at full efficiency is something that will benefit us.

Furthermore, if machines keep on doing everything for us, the new generation will be born and labeled as a lazy bunch. The new generation will not know what doing work feels like because machines are doing everything for them. This will also lead to health issues such as obesity. More and more people will be staying at home instead of going out to work. This health issue poses a serious health risk for every country in the world. More and more people will be unhealthy and soon many problems will occur in this world.

We should move forward with time and technology but sometimes we just have to think of the consequences before doing a certain thing to ensure both time and consequence are well taken care of in every aspect possible. All these disadvantages stated should be always lingering in our minds so that we remember what will happen if we fail to deal with it. Although the disadvantages of artificial intelligence sounds bad in a way, but there is always some good in it. Listing the disadvantages first opened us up to the possible bad effects of artificial intelligence.

In the following page I will continue on discussing the advantages of artificial intelligence. When both of this combines, you will get to see a brighter picture on what artificial intelligence really mean to us. Seeing the disadvantages only might give us a bad impression straight away but when we the see the following advantages I will change our mind on our lives of artificial intelligence. To say it is a bad thing, we would jump to conclusions because we our ourselves are the ones who created artificial intelligence and for us not to see the good part it would be a waste to humanity.

We only live once and we must make the most of it every single time. The first advantage of artificial intelligence is dealing with the jobs that require human intelligence. Humans are complex organisms with a huge amount of capabilities. For a machine to clone the human brain is amazing and can be considered a good technology innovation. If machines are able to cope with jobs that are supposed to be done by humans, we will be more productive as now we have two brains working as one. With that, it expands the human knowledge in such a way to keep improving time.

Before the invention of these things, humans will have to risk their lives during things that seemed very hard to get done. Now, with machines being able to take over their place, it will be a safer method for humans to get work done and no lives have to be risked in the line of work. Safety is one of the main factors of job application in the working world. When people see that a job that used to be risky now has a new method to reduce it, more people would be interested in joining the workforce and thus eliminates the rater of poverty and also homeless people.

With more jobs offered, a country will prosper more in the economic sector due to more people working and will contribute in giving the company more help in combination with the machines. Secondly, machines do not stop and get tired. Machines are strictly powered by electric sources and therefore will keep on going no matter what are the odds. Humans on the other hand get tired and have certain hours of work; therefore they can only work for certain period of time. For example, if a company is producing cigarettes and needs to have more production done day by day.

If this needs to be done, humans can only do it to a certain extent because they need breaks and need to go home. If machines are there to continue the work left off during the night, by the next day double the production will be present. When machines are at work humans can rest and this makes everyone happier in such a way. Artificial intelligence also reduces the risk of anyone getting sick with illness. If a person has to work overtime and is always at the office, the risk of that person getting ill with be high.

And what was just pointed out was only for one person, what if it was a whole group of people? More and more people will be affected by this and increase the health risk posed. When machines are there, humans will not have to push to limit in everything they do, machines can do it for them and this will save all the hassle of getting ill and having to be admitted to hospital. If this is eliminated, everyone will be living healthy and happy at the same time due the good relationship between man and machine. Next, artificial intelligence has lead to serve as aids. Mainly it has contributed as health aids.

People with disabilities now have a place to turn to and technology to help them get through life which is already tough at hand. Nowadays, more and more health related problems are thrown to us with a big bang without a certain solution. With the help of artificial intelligence and research, now medical treatment for these diseases and even machines have been created to help us get through these tough times. Now not only adults have health problems or disabilities, children are now climbing up the list of people with health problems. The death rate will definitely go down with these new inventions as we all have something that may help us n a way to cure the pain and the sickness. If we manage to overcome all these health problems with the help of technology, the world would turn into a happier place and not a place which leads us to endure suffering instead of happiness in our lives. Lastly, the power that artificial intelligence holds is limitless in such a way that it has the power to do everything that is thinkable and not thinkable. Humans tend to make errors and by us knowing this fact, we are able to program a certain machine to ensure that the machine does not make the same mistakes.

By doing this less mistakes will be made and everything will run smoothly as planned. Rather than us learning from our mistakes, we should program it to a computer because a computer does not make any mistakes. We would then expand the boundaries of everything on this earth because if we stop moving forward we will stop the flow of technology as a whole and thus stop improving on what we have now. At the end of the day, all we can do is look at the future and ensure that we have now will get better in time.

We definitely are not able to predict the future and the challenges we are going to face but what we can do is take good care of the resources in technology that we have now and nurture and improve them day by day until we reach the future. All we can do is hope for the best and that everything we have now will be relevant in the upcoming years of our lives. We should ensure that the advantages of artificial intelligence do not turn into disadvantages and the disadvantages should be always remembered and not turn into something far more worst.

We strongly believe that artificial intelligence has gave us and is going to give us more good than bad because it was invented by humans for a reason and the main reason is to help other humans. If it was bad, we could have seen far worst consequences. Even though I think of it as a good thing, we should always remember not to let it fall in the wrong hands with crazy minds to protect this world. Conclusion As the world becomes very advanced in technology, it has been hard to keep up with the ever-so growing advancement into the computerized world. The robotic technology has benefited the human kind greatly in various ways.

However, as people lose their heads in this advanced society, they have failed to realize that robots are a helping hand and a guide, not a replacement. There are fields robot cannot fill in the position for a human but as robots become more intelligent, people find themselves turning lazier. Half of the population in the developed world has become dependent on robot personals and misuses robots by over-using them. Robots have made people’s lives comfortable and safer. However, at the same time they have caused the world’s employment rate to plummet and some jobs to extinct.

As the popular belief goes “If you suffer now, you will enjoy later- if you enjoy now, you will suffer later”, this is a very true saying that shows that in order to achieve happiness, people have to go through hardship but however, if we are lazy and don’t go through any hardship, there will be a time we pay the price for it which here could be set as an example for a sluggish human being relying on robots to do everything. For people who encourage the full implementation of robots with artificial intelligence into the working sector, they have failed to see beyond their own comfort and at other people’s situation.

If the society was one day supposed to be run by robots, then there wouldn’t be any need for human kinds. Therefore, although there is the resource and the knowledge to create robots, while appreciating the tasks they have done for us, we also have to realize our limits and set a bar to how dependant on robots do we really want to be? Appendix Anonymous, [No Date], Automata, mechanical toys, http://www. mechanical-toys. com/History%20page. htm, [Accessed time: 7/11/2012] Anonymous,1998, Robotics: A brief history, http://www-cs-faculty. stanford. edu/~eroberts/courses/soco/projects/1998-99/robotics/history. tml, [Accessed time: 6/11/2012] Bambi Turner, 2012, 10 Ways Artificial Intelligence Will Affect Our Lives, http://dsc. discovery. com/tv-shows/curiosity/topics/ways-artificial-intelligence-will-affect-our-lives. htm, [Accessed time: 7/11/2012] Dr. E, 2011, Advantages and Disadvantages for Artificial Intelligence, http://www. infobarrel. com/Advantages_and_Disadvantages_for_Artificial_Intelligence_The_Pros_and_Cons_of_AI, [Accessed time : 8/11/2012] Hans Moravec, 2009, Rise of the Robots- The future of Artificial Intelligence, http://www. scientificamerican. com/article. cfm? d=rise-of-the-robots, [Accessed time: 7/11/2012] Ian Paul, 2011, Tech of the Future, Today: Breakthroughs in artificial intelligence, http://www. pcworld. com/article/220685/tech_of_the_future_today_breakthroughs_in_artificial_intelligence. html, [Accessed time: 9/11/2012] James Isom, , 2005, Brief history on robots http://robotics. megagiant. com/history. html [Accessed time: 5/11/2012] Marcus du Sautoy, 2012, AI robot: how machine intelligence is evolving, http://www. guardian. co. uk/technology/2012/apr/01/ai-artificial-intelligence-robots-sautoy, [Accessed time : 5/11/2012]

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