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Describe this model. 5. What is meant by membrane fluidity? Describe the movements seen in the fluid membrane. 6. Describe how each of the following can affect membrane fluidity: decreasing temperature phospholipids with unsaturated hydrocarbon chains cholesterol 7. Membrane proteins are the mosaic part of the model. Describe each of the two main categories: integral proteins peripheral proteins 8. Use Figure 7. 9 to briefly describe major functions of membrane proteins. Function Description Transport Enzymatic activity Signal transduction Cell-cell recognition
Intercellular joining Attachment to cytoskeleton and ECM 9. Membrane carbohydrates are important in cell-cell recognition. What are two examples of this? Distinguish between glycolipids and glycoproteins. Label the following structures: glycolipid, glycoprotein, integral protein, peripheral protein, cholesterol, phospholipid, ECM fibers, cytoskeleton microfilaments, integrins (go back to Chapter 6) Concept 7. 2 Membrane structure results in selective permeability Distinguish between channel proteins and carrier proteins. Are transport proteins specific?
Cite an example that supports your response. 14. Peter Agre received the Nobel Prize in 2003 for the discovery of aquaporins. What are they? 15. Consider the following materials that must cross the membrane. For each, tell how it is accomplished. |Material |Method | |CO2 | | |Glucose | |H+ | | |O2 | | |H2O | | Concept 7. 3 Passive transport is diffusion of a substance across a membrane with no energy investment 16. Define the following terms: diffusion concentration gradient passive transport osmosis isotonic hypertonic hypotonic turgid laccid plasmolysis 17. Use as many words from the list above to describe why a carrot left on the counter overnight would become limp. Underline each word you use. What is facilitated diffusion? Is it active or passive? Cite two examples. Label the hypotonic solution, isotonic solution, and hypertonic solution. What is indicated by the blue arrows? Label them. Which cell is lysed? Turgid? Flaccid? Plasmolyzed? Apply all these labels. Why doesn’t the plant cell burst? Concept 7. 4 Active transport uses energy to move solutes against their gradients 21. Describe active transport.
What type of transport proteins are involved, and what is the role of ATP in the process? The sodium-potassium pump is an important system for you to know. Use the following diagram to understand how it works. Use the following terms to label these figures, and briefly summarize what is occurring in each figure: extracellular fluid, cytoplasm, Na+, K+, ATP, ADP, P, transport protein. On the diagram below, add these labels: facilitated diffusion with a carrier protein, facilitated diffusion with a channel protein, active transport with a carrier protein, simple diffusion.
For each type of transport, give an example of a material that is moved in this manner. What is membrane potential? Which side of the membrane is positive? What are the two forces that drive the diffusion of ions across the membrane? What is the combination of these forces called? 26. What is cotransport? Explain how understanding it is used in our treatment of diarrhea. Concept 7. 5 Bulk transport across the plasma membrane occurs by exocytosis and endocytosis 27. Define each of the following, and give a specific cellular example. ndocytosis phagocytosis pinocytosis exocytosis receptor-mediated endocytosis 28. What is a ligand? What do ligands have to do with receptor-mediated endocytosis? 29. Are the processes you described in question 23 active or passive transport? Explain your response. Testing Your Knowledge: Self-Quiz Answers Now you should be ready to test your knowledge. Place your answers here: 1. _______ 2. _______ 3. _______ 4. _______ 5. _______ Reproduce the diagram for question 6, and draw arrows as instructed. 6b. ______ 6c. ______ 6d. ______ 6e
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