Illustrate leadership style:
- Democratic, Authoritarian, and Laissez-faire
- Transformational and Transactional
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Which of the above leadership styles do you think your immediate manager adhere to? Support your assumption.
Compare Theory X, Y, and Z. Which one would you prefer in your organization? Why?
Theory X assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work.
As a result of this, management believes that workers need to be closely supervised and comprehensive systems of controls developed. According to this theory, employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. Theory X managers rely heavily on threat and coercion to gain their employee's compliance, believe that everything must end in blaming someone and that his or her employees do not really want to work, that they would rather avoid responsibility and that it is the manager's job to structure the work and energize the employee.
Beliefs of this theory lead to mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and a punitive atmosphere. Usually these managers feel the sole purpose of the employee's interest in the job is money. They will blame the person first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. Theory Y assumes that people are creative and eager to work. Workers tend to desire more responsibility than Theory X workers, and have strong desires to participate in the decision making process.
Theory Y workers are comfortable in a working environment which allows creativity and the opportunity to become personally involved in organizational planning. Creativity and imagination are increasingly present throughout the ranks of the working population. These people not only accept responsibility, but actively seek increased authority. In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties.
Theory Y managers believe that employees will learn to seek out and accept responsibility and to exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. They believe that the satisfaction of doing a good job is a strong motivation. Many people interpret Theory Y as a positive set of beliefs about workers. Theory Y managers are more likely than Theory X managers to develop the climate of trust with employees that is required for human resource development.
This would include managers communicating openly with subordinates, minimizing the difference between superior-subordinate relationships, creating a comfortable environment in which subordinates can develop and use their abilities. This theory is a positive view to the employees, meaning that the employer is under a lot less pressure than someone who is influenced by a theory X management style. Another theory which deals with the way in which workers are perceived by managers, as well as how managers are perceived by workers, is William Ouchi's "Theory Z".
Often referred to as the "Japanese" management style, Theory Z offers the notion of a hybrid management style which is a combination of a strict American management style (Theory A) and a strict Japanese management style (Theory J). This theory speaks of an organizational culture which mirrors the Japanese culture in which workers are more participative, and capable of performing many and varied tasks. Theory Z emphasizes things such as job rotation, broadening of skills, generalization versus specialization and the need for continuous training of workers.
Much like McGregor's theories (Theory X an Y), Ouchi's Theory Z workers have a high need to be supported by the company, and highly value a working environment in which such things as family, cultures and traditions, and social institutions are regarded as equally important as the work itself. These types of workers have a very well developed sense of order, discipline, moral obligation to work hard, and a sense of cohesion with their fellow workers. Theory Z workers can be trusted to do their jobs to their utmost ability, so long as management can be trusted to support them and look out for their well being.
One of the most important tenets of this theory is that management must have a high degree of confidence in its workers in order for this type of participative management to work. Theory Z stresses the need for enabling the workers to become generalists, rather than specialists, and to increase their knowledge of the company and its processes through job rotations and continual training. In fact, promotions tend to be slower in this type of setting, as workers are given a much longer opportunity to receive training and more time to learn the intricacies of the company's operations.
The desire, under this theory, is to develop a work force, which has more of a loyalty towards staying with the company for an entire career, and be more permanent than in other types of settings. It is expected that once an employee does rise to a position of high level management, they will know a great deal more about the company and how it operates, and will be able to use Theory Z management theories effectively on the newer employees.
McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y managers seem to have a much more formal leadership style than do Ouchi's Theory Z managers.
McGregor's managers seem to both have different views of the workers, while their views of the tasks remains the same in both cases: that is, one of specialization, and doing a particular task. Theory Y suggests that the workers would become very good at their particular tasks, because they are free to improve the processes and make suggestions. Theory Z workers, on the other hand, tend to rotate their jobs frequently, and become more generalists, but at the same time become more knowledgeable about the overall scheme of things within the company.
Several parallels indeed exist between these two theorists. Namely McGregor's Theory Y, and Ouchi's Theory Z both see the relationship between managers and workers in a very similar light. They both are more group oriented than the Theory X assumptions, which seem to be more individual oriented. One of the most notable similarities between McGregor's Theory Y and Ouchi's Theory Z appears in the form of the type of motivation that makes the workers perform in a way that enables them to be more productive.
While the Theory X worker is said to require coercion, threats, and possibly even disciplinary action, Theory Y and Theory Z workers are, again, self motivated. This allows them to focus on the task, and also their role within the company. Their desire is to be more productive and enable the company to succeed. Theory X workers, on the other hand, seem to have just enough self motivation to show up at work, punch the time clock, as it were, and do only that which is necessary to get the job done to minimum standards.
I would prefer Theory Z in our organization because people in this theory are innately self- motivated to not only do their work, but also are loyal towards the company and want to make the company succeed. I like theory Z managers having a great deal of trust that their workers could make sound decisions. Therefore, this type of leader is more likely to act as "coach", and let the workers make most of the decisions. The workers have a great deal of input and weight in the decision making process. Theory Z also emphasizes more frequent performance appraisals 4.
Describe at least three factors that affect human behavior. Attitude is one of the factors that affect human behavior. It is a complex mental state involving beliefs, feelings and values and dispositions to act in certain ways. Another is Social Norms. This is the influence of social pressure that is perceived by the individual to perform or not perform a certain behavior. Perceived Behavioral Control is also factor that affect human behavior. This is defined as the individuals belief concerning how easy or difficult performing the behavior will be. Illustrate using a table a comparison of the ff leadership style: c. Democratic, Authoritarian, and Laissez-faire d. Transformational and Transactional C
The people have a more participatory role in policies and procedures, decides what goals are faire (French for, allow to pass or let go) the decision making process. One person retains to be achieved, and directs and controls all leaders try to give least possible guidance to final say over all decisions but allows others activities without any meaningful participation|subordinates, and try to achieve control to share insight and ideas by the subordinates through less obvious means. They believe that highly effective form of leadership. People are people excel when they are left alone to more likely to excel in their positions and respond to their responsibilities and develop more skills when they feel empowered, obligations in their own ways. People are empowered when they are involved in the decision-making process. Often lead to a more productive and higher quality work group.
- Leaders arouse emotions in their followers which motivates them to act beyond
- Leaders are aware of the link between the effort and reward. The framework of what may be described as exchange relations.
- Leadership is responsive and its basic orientation is dealing with present
- Leadership is proactive and forms new expectations in followers.
- Leaders are distinguished by their capacity to inspire and provide
- Leaders rely on standard forms of inducement, reward, punishment and individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation and idealized influence to sanction to control followers.
- Leaders motivate followers by setting goals and promising rewards for
- Leaders create learning opportunities for their followers and stimulate desired performance.
- Leadership depends on the leader’s power to reinforce subordinates for their
- Leaders possess good visioning and management skills to develop strong successful completion of the bargain.. emotional bonds with followers.
- Leaders motivate followers to work for goals that go beyond self-interest.
Which of the above leadership styles do you think your immediate manager adhere to? Support your assumption. Our manager adheres to transactional leadership style. She works through creating clear structures whereby it is clear what is required of her subordinates and the rewards that we get for following orders.
Punishments are not always mentioned, but they are also well-understood and formal systems of discipline are usually in place. Whenever our manager allocates work to us, we are considered to be fully responsible for it. When things go wrong, then we are considered to be personally at fault, and were punished for our failure just as rewarded for succeeding. Our manager makes clear of what is required and expected from us. The contract specifies fixed salary and the benefits that will be given. Rewards are given to us for applied effort.
She sometimes uses incentives to encourage us for greater productivity.
Differentiate a leader from a manager; management from leadership?
A leader is defined as one who guides or is in command or one in a position of influence or importance. A person who guides others toward a common goal to achieve the objectives set for certain purpose.
Interested in risk-taking and exploring new ideas and relates to people personally in an intuitive and emphatic manner. A leader have no official appointment to a position in the organization while a manager is a person appointed officially to the position whose function is to plan, organize, lead and control. Manager is a person tasked with overseeing one or more employees or departments to ensure these employees or departments carry out assigned duties as required, relates to people according to their roles, has the power and authority to enforce decisions.
Management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established, the process of obtaining, organizing resources and of achieving objectives through other people while leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow. It’s a process of empowering people through persuasion and one of the function of management. Leadership is “ the process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task. "
Observe a nurse manager in your workplace and note the different management activities she performs identified by Tappen.
As I observed our nurse manager in our workplace I noticed that she does the following activities of the effective manager as noted by Tappen:
- Assumes leadership of the group.
- Actively engages in planning the current and future work of the group.
- Provides direction to staff members regarding the way the work is to be done.
- Monitors the work done by staff member to maintain quality and productivity.
- Recognizes and rewards quality and productivity
Our nurse manager perform the following 5 ( leadership, planning, directing, monitoring and recognition ) out of 7 components of effective management by Tappen. I was not able to observe the other 2 components;
- fostering the development of every staff member
- represents both administration and staff members needed in discussions and negotiations with others.
Submit 1 reading related to this module. Include your comments/ reaction and source. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People is a popular book, published by Simon & Schuster, and written by Stephen R Covey. It provides a useful, sequential framework for understanding much about the process of Personal Development. Many highly successful people seem to have naturally developed these principles of effectiveness. Stephen Covey's principled approach is not a quick-fix prescription for personal growth.
But, says Covey, if you work hard at acquiring these principles, if you learn them well, think about them deeply and teach them to others, they will eventually become internalized. They will lead to fundamental change because they will affect who you are - your character - for the better. Your personality was formed as the result of specific behaviors you internalized as you grew up. These behaviors are not things we need to think about, they represent little success strategies or ways of coping with life that we have found to be helpful. If you take a look at what Seneca said about human character, you will see how acquiring new habits leads to a fundamental change of character.
Sow a thought, reap an action Sow action, reap a habit Sow a habit, reap a character Sow a character, reap a destiny. - Seneca
Stephen Covey Stephen Covey was born in 1932. He lives with his wife, Sandra, and their family in Utah; in the Rocky Mountains. Covey achieved international acclaim, and is perhaps best known, for his self-help book The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People which was first published by Simon ; Schuster in 1989 and has sold around 12 million copies word-wide. Covey has a Harvard MBA and has spent most of his career at Brigham Young University, where he was professor of organizational behavior and business management. In addition to his MBA, he also has a doctorate which he completed whilst at Brigham Young University. Dr. Stephen R Covey has received the Thomas More College Medallion for continuing service to humanity and has additionally been awarded four honorary doctorate degrees. Covey is also a co-founder of the Franklin-Covey organization, which specializes in the application of Covey's principle-centered approach to leadership and management. He is widely acknowledged as one of the world's leading authorities on the subject of time-management. Thousands of organizations across the world, including many of the Fortune 500 companies, have adopted his innovative techniques on leadership, teamwork, and customer-focused service. His best-selling book on time-management, First Things First, co-authored with A. Roger ; Rebecca R. Merrill, according to Simon ; Schuster is the best-selling time management book ever.
The seven principles he presents in the 7 Habits are not original thoughts - he does not claim to have originated the ideas but simply to have found a framework and a language for articulating the time-less principles embedded into the seven habits. The 7 habits are to be found, he says, in all the major world religions. He believes the principles themselves to be 'self-evident', that is, 'you cannot really argue against them'. His view is that all highly effective people, and enduringly effective organizations, have utilized the 7 habits, to a greater or lesser extent, to sustain their success. Covey says that the 7 habits are 'common knowledge' but, he adds, are not necessarily 'common practice'. In fact, it could be argued that the habits actually run counter to basic human nature.
By our nature, we are reactive creatures and we are inclined to act mainly out of self-interest. But we are also as human beings capable of much higher thoughts and actions and by working hard to internalize the 7 habits we are able to develop a proactive attitude. By so doing, we can take charge of our own destinies and we are capable of exerting influence on other people for the collective good. Summary Stephen Covey is an excellent speaker and so his audio books, in addition to his written books, are well worth obtaining. A full list of relevant resources appears at the foot of this page. In this section, however, we examine what Stephen Covey says about his work.
Here are a number of brief quotations which are taken directly from the book which provide a useful summary.
- Be Proactive "Taking initiative does not mean being pushy, obnoxious, or aggressive. It does mean recognizing our responsibility to make things happen. "
- Begin With the End in Mind "(This habit)... is based on imagination - the ability to envision, to see the potential, to create with our minds what we cannot at present see with our eyes... "
- Put First Things First "Create a clear, mutual understanding of what needs to be accomplished, focusing on what, not how; results not methods.
- Spend time.
- Be patient.
- Visualize the desired result.
- Think Win-Win Win-Win is a frame of mind that constantly seeks mutual benefit in all human interactions. Win-Win means that agreements or solutions are mutually beneficial and satisfying. "
- Seek First to Understand,Then be Understood. "'Seek First to Understand' involves a very deep shift in paradigm. We typically seek first to be understood. Most people do not listen with the intent to understand; they listen with the intent to reply. They're either speaking or preparing to speak. They're filtering everything through their own paradigms, reading their autobiography into other people's lives. "
- Synergize (Synergise) "Synergy works; it's a correct principle. It is the crowning achievement of all the previous habits.
It is effectiveness in an interdependent reality - it is teamwork, team building, the development of unity and creativity with other human beings. " Sharpen the Saw "This is the habit of renewal... It circles and embodies all the other habits. It is the habit of continuous improvement... that lifts you to new levels of understanding and living each of the habits. "
Each chapter is dedicated to one of the habits The First Three Habits surround moving from dependence to independence
- Habit 1: Be Proactive Take initiative in life by realizing your decisions are the primary determining factor of what kind of life you will have in the future. We are responsible for all the choices we desire and the consequences implied on it
- Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind Self-discover and clarify our deeply important character values and life goals.
- Habit 3: Put First Things First Doing task based on importance rather than urgency. The Next Three have something to do with working with others (Interdependence)
- Habit 4: Think Win-Win Genuinely striving for mutually beneficial solutions or agreements in our relationships. Valuing and respecting people by understanding a "win" for all is ultimately a better long-term resolution than if only one person in the situation had gotten his way.
- Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, then to be Understood Using empathetic listening to be genuinely influenced by a person, which compels them to reciprocate the listening, take an open mind to being influenced by you, which creates an atmosphere of caring, respect, and positive problem solving.
- Habit 6: Synergize Combining the strengths of people through positive teamwork, so as to achieve goals no one person could have done alone. The Last habit relates to self-rejuvenation;
- Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw The balancing and renewal of your attitude, principles, beliefs and practices to create a sustainable long-term effective lifestyle. There is a gap between stimulus and response, and the key to both our growth and happiness is how we use that space. The ability to use wisely the gap between stimulus and response, to exercise the unique endowments of our human nature, empowers us from the inside out.
To achieve unity with ourselves, our loved ones, our friends, and our working associates, is the highest, best, and most delicious fruit of the Seven Habits. Building a character of total integrity and living the life of love and service that creates such unity isn't easy. If we start with the daily private victory and work from the inside out, results will surely come.
Analyze the different phases of planning
The first phase of planning according to Tappen is DEVELOPING THE PLAN. The first step in developing the plan is to establish its purpose.
The purpose should be clear to avoid confusion and may be stated in broad terms until a broad thorough assessment of the situation is done. The second step is analyzing the situation which includes problem verification, identifying situational variables and the anticipated response to change. Formulating objectives is the third step. Objectives are formulated when the problems are already assessed. The objectives should be written as measurable outcomes so that they can later serve as guidelines for evaluation. The fourth step is generating alternative solutions. The last step in developing the plan is analyzing alternatives and selecting course of action. The second phase of planning is PRESENTING THE PLAN.
Plans for projects are usually presented to administration or management for approval. The plan must be presented in an organized manner, delivery of the presentation must be done convincingly and professionally, planner needs to be persuasive, concise and direct to the point in order to obtain approval and acceptance by administrators IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING is the third phase (last phase) of planning. It includes the following steps: Organizing the implementation of a plan includes;
- Identifying and arranging activities according to sequence
- Setting target dates for completing each activity
- Assignment of responsibilities to particular individuals and
- The allocation of resources
Techniques have been developed to organize and monitor implementation of proposed plans such as Schedules which is easy to make and use, Gantt charts which is a highly developed schedule that specifies in detail the task to be performed and the time they are expected to be completes, program evaluation and review technique (PERT) graphically illustrates the sequence of events and their interrelationships using circles for events and arrows for activities and the critical path method (CPM) that’s very similar to PERT of which one can have a realistic estimate of when the project can be completed. 2. Differentiate strategic planning from operational planning. Give example of each. Strategic planning and operational planning involve two different types of thinking. Strategic decisions are fundamental and directional. Operational decisions, on the other hand, primarily affect the day-to-day implementation of strategic decisions. While strategic decisions usually have longer-term implications, operational decisions usually have immediate (less than one year) implications.
Strategic Planning is defined as continuous, systematic process of making risk-taking decisions today with greatest possible knowledge of their effects in the future. Views future as unpredictable, planning as a continuous process, expects new trends, surprises and changes. It considers a range of possible futures & emphasizes strategy development based on assessment of the organization's internal (strength and weaknesses) and external (opportunities and threats) environment. In strategic planning one of the keys example is something called SWOT. SWOT stands for strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Everyone in the strategic planning group makes up a list of the company's SWOTs.
This gives the company/organization a picture as to where the weaknesses and strengths lie and what opportunities and threats face them. This helps with planning in several ways. First by knowing their strengths they can work to enhance them. The weaknesses can be ignored, but a way of managing or lessening their impact can be developed. Opportunities are analyzed and the best ones chosen. Finally threats: the economy, government regulations and competition are addressed. Strategic Planning ask this question: "Based on our current understanding of environment, are we doing the right thing? How can we best use our resources to achieve our mission? "
Example of Strategic Planning
Operational Planning views future as something that needs to be implemented now.
Focuses on setting short-term (less than one year) objectives and assumes much more detailed planning regarding who and how activities will be accomplished Operational planning ask this question: "What do we need to be doing for the upcoming year/immediately to best accomplish our mission. "
Example of Operational Planning Operational Plan Terra Engineering
The following section will identify the proposed operational plan for Terra Engineering. Included are the general operating procedures, human resources, insurance, and working capital requirements of the business. Also included is a table outlining the office space requirements, asset acquisition and an outline of Terra Engineering's operational workflow. General Operating Hours Terra Engineering intends to operate Monday thru Friday from 9 am to 5 pm. Terra Engineering will be operational year round. Human Resources Mr. Johnson and Mr.
Smith will be the sole employees of Terra Engineering for the first two years of operation. When additional human resources are needed, Terra Engineering has identified the persons qualified and able to assist on a contract basis for the same rate as the owner. They include: Mr. Wes Aaron, and environmental engineering technician will be sub-contracted to complete work as needed. It is estimated that Mr. Aaron will eventually be hired full time by Terra Engineering once demand warrants growth. Mrs. Leanne White holds a Masters in Environmental Engineering and will also be sub-contracted to perform work for the company. Eventually, Terra Engineering intends to hire Mrs. White full time. Mr. Charles Pearson holds a Bachelors of Science Degree in Environmental Engineering and has a vast technical experience base in the environmental assessment area and will be retained when needed.
Once the business reaches 60% of its operational capacity this will represent 1300 hours, Terra Engineering will offer the above environmental professionals full time positions. Also at this time, an administrative assistant will be sought. A professional user of Auto Cad will be sought to perform various jobs for the company. It is unknown at this time who will fill this position, however, job advertisements will be put in the local papers and organizations to attract a good pool of respondents. Once hired, all employees will be covered by the Workers Safety and Insurance Board and covered for Employment Benefits. Insurance Requirements
Terra Engineering will have to incur costs for business liability insurance. The estimated cost for this requirement is $4,000 per year. Operating Capital Requirements Due to the demands imposed at start up, Terra Engineering will require that the business have sufficient working capital to meet all operational responsibilities of the business for the first three months. It is estimated that the business will need approximately $20,000 in working capital to sustain and ensure the business meets all opening and on-going financial obligations. Also, throughout the year there tends to be periods of low activities. Consequently, the company will experience financial pressures during these months.
While much of this time will be spent developing proposals and marketing strategies, there will be a need to maintain sufficient working capital to cover these periods. A long term strategy to maintain a positive cash flow during these periods will be to diversify the company and develop environmental training programs for certain communities. These training programs will be given during these months. Office Requirements and Asset Acquisitions Terra Engineering will lease office space on located at: 459 Duncan Avenue, Suite 1003 Detroit, Michigan The office space is leased and will accommodate the necessary office equipment such as computers, fax machine, photo copier, and other engineering equipment.
This facility will require an estimated $5,000 to renovate in a style that is aesthetically pleasing to the clients as well as the owners. These facilities will be leased at $500 per month. In addition, Terra Engineering will require specialized environmental equipment. These are the estimated costs associated with those investments: Office Renovations $5,000 Office Equipment and Furniture $6,000 Specialized Field Equipment $27,000 Specialized Software $10,000 Total Capital Costs $48,000 The above noted capital purchases will increase work effectiveness, enhance professionalism and will prepare the business for the forecasted demand for services.
Further, the equipment may be leased out to partner associates during times of low activity. Operational Workflow As with any consulting firm, the operational workflow for the business is quite uniform and simple to follow. The following is a step by step outline of how contracts are completed on a regular basis: Step 1 Terra Engineering will respond to a request for proposal (RFP) with a professionally prepared proposal for service; Step 2 At this point, the potential contract is awarded to either Terra Engineering or other companies which submitted proposals for services. Therefore, communication is made by the contract to the successful consulting firm.
If Terra Engineering is successfully selected to perform the work, the contract is then triggered to begin; Step 3 Terra Engineering will collect a deposit from the client and will begin the project. Deposit values vary depending upon the size and location of the project; Step 4 Terra Engineering will go ahead and start the project while keeping communication with the client. Once the project reaches 60% - 70% completion, funds will be given to the business by the client to complete the rest of the work; Step 5 Once the work is completed to the satisfaction of both, Terra Engineering and the client, the final payment for the contract will be made. The above operational workflow is very standard, easy to understand and within industry's norm.
Terra Engineering will accept cash, cheque and visa payments. These payments are well within industry standards. The business will provide credit to larger account holders. It is estimated that the length and terms of payments are net 30 for all clients. This will allow the business to avoid cash flow problems. Late payment charges are 2% of the projects outstanding balance. Get a sample copy of different types of planning and give your analysis as to their contents. A Tactical Plan Here is what a tactical plan might look like. Note how we begin by showing how the tactical plan relates to the Marketing plan. It is the tactics that will execute that strategy.
Too often, firms do not have a proper marketing plan and instead go directly to tactics.
New Product Plans
Our strategy assumes that we will launch new products throughout the year to maintain our image of leadership in the meal solutions market. Our marketing strategy is to provide consumers with tasty, nutritious, quick-to-prepare meals.
We will launch four new products over the plan year, each of which will:
- Score an average of 7. 5 or more in consumer taste panels (10 = excellent taste, 1 = very unappetizing) with three test groups.
- Include two vegetables and one meat or meat substitute item.
- Contain no more than 450 calories per serving.
- Require no more than six minutes per serving microwave cooking time.
Lab staff will develop meal solutions whichmeet the above criteria such that one new product is ready to market every three months. Only products which meet the last three criteria should be taste tested. At least one of the new items must be meatless, but no more than two should be. Controls: Lab staff are to submit monthly progress reports to the marketing manager indicating the number of items under development and data on all four criteria, as available, for each item. The key goal is that there must be four marketable items by the end of the plan year.
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