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A Syudy on Fast Food

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SOCIOLOGY AND ANTHROPOLOGY OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE-IFE. GROUP WORK SOCIAL REFORMATION CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. 0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY Dunn, Mohr, Wilson and Wittert (2007) argued that the definition of fast food is inconsistent even within a simple sample.

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This has allowed participants to define fast food from list of different food items. The common menu items at fast food restaurants include fish and chips, sandwiches, hamburgers, fried chicken, French fries, chicken nuggets, tacos, pizza, hot dogs, and ice cream (Ayse, Lale & Metin, 2007).

Moreover there are studies done at Berkeley University in 2009, the closer people live to a fast food restaurant, the higher their risk of becoming obese (Davis, 2011). Although, people indicated a very broad definition of fast food when asked what style of foods classified as fast food(including burgers, fish and chips, meat pies and pasties and brought (sand-wiches), when discussing fast food, they gave example which focused only on traditional fast food items such as burgers and chips from large franchises.

Fast food according to the Oxford Dictionary of Contemporary English- is hot food that is served very quickly in special restaurant and often taken away to be eaten in the streets. Equally, fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served with low preparation time. The food is sold in a restaurant or store with preheated cooking ingredients and served to the customers in a package form for take-out or take away. The term “Fast Food” was recognized by Merriam-Webster in 1951.

In as much as the importance of fast food in contemporary society cannot be overemphasized, it is pertinent to tilt focus to the emergence of fast food, and how it became pivotal in feeding and satiating the society to a remarkable extent. The historical background of fast food can be traced to urban development. The development was deeply rooted in sociological inevitability. Furthermore, in the Middle Ages, large towns and major urban areas such as London and Paris supported vendors that sold dishes such as pies, pastries, pancakes, wafers and cooked meats.

In Roman cities during the antiquity, 1 many of these establishments catered for those who had no means to cook on their own. Travelers, as well such as pilgrims en route to a holy site were among the customers. The United Kingdom and United States also had notable developments in the fast food sphere, following the advent of the World War I. Equally, as fast food outlets became popular and more affordable, drive – in restaurants were introduced, alongside franchising in 1921 by A & W Root Beer which franchised distinctive syrup.

In the traditional African society, Fast Food as an institution is equally evident. There have been hawkers of fast food items in these societies since time immemorial, and these have evolved into restaurants and fast food outlets. Fast food outlets existed in the traditional Nigeria society. The corner seller of Suya, Akara (fried bean cake), roasted plantain, Fried yam, roasted corn has been an age old feature of many Nigeria towns serving snacks for those on the go for everyone from little children to working adults.

While traditional fast food delicacies still remain as well as mobile market fast food vendors, what has contributed significantly to the growth of fast food outlets in Nigeria has been increased urbanization and changing work roles. Since the 1960s, (U. S Library of congress), Nigeria has had one of the fastest population growth rate in the world. In 2010, almost half of all the population lives in the cities. As more people choose to settle in Nigeria crowded cities, the time to prepare meals has become more demanding.

With more women joining the work force, their traditional roles have changed. This can further be explained by individualization thesis by Beck- Gernshein, (1998). Fast food can also be found in every nook and cranny of Nigeria, Tertiary institution like Obafemi Awolowo University is not an exception to this phenomenon of fast food. The example of contemporary and traditional fast food outlets such as Forks and Fingers, Banwill, sell contemporary meals while traditional meals such as Suya, Eba and Egusi soup, Semo are sold within OAU CAMPUS.

The patronage of fast food outlets on campus has factors that influence it; these factors are dependent on the student economic status, family background, genders, e. t. c. 2 1. 1 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: There is a general assumption in the Nigeria society that males patronize fast food outlets more, this assumption is backed up by the sexist patterning of division of labour (Bem, 1993; Friedan 1963; Lorber, 1994; Pateman, 1999; A. Rossi, 1964; Schaeffer, 2001). This study seeks to establish the kind of correlation existing between gender and patronage of fast food outlet.

Many observers are quick to point at the economic gap between the rich and poor and the rich. Due to the unequal distribution of resources in the study, some people do not have the access to these resources. In the patronage of fast food outlet, there are different fast food on campus, the rate at which students patronize one fast food outlet the others varies for example forks and fingers vary with the rate at which they patrons Banwill. This finding seeks to explore if the socio-economic status of students is a determinant of fast food patronize on campus.

The rate at which students patronize Banwill which is more expensive than others like forks and fingers varies. This is as a result of unequal distribution of economic resources in the society. Nevertheless, both the students from low and high income family still patronize fast food outlet despite their difference in socio economic status. 1. 2 RESEARCH QUESTION: The research questions include the following: 1. To what extent does family background influence student’s patronage of fast food outlets? 2. How does gender influence the patronage of fast food outlets? . How does income level affect fast food outlets patronage? 3 1. 3 OBJECTIVES The broad objective of this research is to look at the social correlates of fast food outlet patronage among OAU students. In achieving the broad objective of this research, the specific objective is to: 1. Determine the extent to which family background affects student’s patronage. 2. Evaluate if gender can influence student patronage of fast food outlets. 3. Determine if the income level of students can affect their patronage of fast food outlet. 1. 4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study will help to draw the attention on the reasons why OAU students patronize fast food outlets, it will also explain the gender differences in the patronage of fast food outlets, it will help to understanding the adverse effects of patronizing fast food outlets, it will further explain the rationale behind varied opinions on sparing point of students’ time or hours cooking for themselves. The findings will assist in understanding the Socio-economic influence that pre-dispose students from different family background to patronize or not patronize fast food outlets. CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Base on previous studies there are lack of studies regarding on fast food consumption locally and there are limited information on these study. Most of the studies regarding on fast food were studied at well developed foreign countries. In addition, there are lack of fast food research specifically consider the attribute of the consumer preference and consumption pattern. For example law, Hui, and Zhao (2004) showed that sta attitude, food quality and variety and environment ignificantly affect customers satisfaction in fast food outlet. Pettijohn and luke (1997) found that quality, cleanliness and value to be three most important attribute in fast food restaurants, while atmosphere and menu variety were relatively unimportant. When consumer considered the convenience and prices of eating place, the utilitarian value (task specific and economical aspect of product and services) of eating out plays an important role in restaurant evaluation and selection (Johns and Pine,2002:Park,2004).

However these research do not specifically consider the attribute of consumers who show preferences for fast food product such as important of fast food, consumers concern on health and diseases and child preference of fast food and outlets. Fast food have become an omnipresent part of the moving consumer Goods (FMCG) sector in most development is relatively a new phenomenon that has occurred mainly over three to four decades (Anon, 2007). Fast food is define as ready-to-eat dishes sold by commercial establishment that may or may not have on site dinning accommodation ( Ozcelik,Akan&surucuoglu 2007:43).

According to the institute of medicine,( 2006) Fast foods can also be describe as food and meals design for ready availability use or consumption. These food are sold at eating establishment focusing on quick availability or “take aways” These food tend to be hi in saturated fats and carbohydrates (institute of medicine, 2006). Most fast foods are high in fat and sodium and low in fibre, vitamins and some minerals (Anon 2007) Although fast food in some form of other has been the immemorial, the current fast food phenomenon beyond these contexts is relatively recent.

It began in the USA in July 1912 with the opening g of the fast food restaurants called Automat in New York. This restaurant caused such stir and became so popular that numerous other Automat restaurants were soon built around the country. This popularity lasted through the 11920’s well into the 5 1930’s (Schlosser, 2002:15). Kang Chung survey analysis explain that about 13. 3% of the students patronize fast food once a week; about 46. 7% of the students patronize fast food twice a week, about 23. 3% of the students patronize fast food thrice a week, and the remaining 16. % patronize fast food more than thrice a week. Hence, it shows that students usually patronize fast food twice a week. Out of the students patronizing fast food once a week, 75% of the students are female and the remainders are male. Out of the students patronizing fast food more than thrice, 60% of the students are male and the remainders are female. Hence, it shows that male patronize fast food more than female. According to Okome, Mojbol Olfnk, It has been argued that pre-colonial Nigeria had a gendered division of labor. However, the nature and implication of such a division of labor is often misinterpreted.

While male dominance was built into the social system of some Nigerian ethnic groups, women played a significant and vital role in all aspects of the lives of their community For some scholars, this is due to the complimentarily of male and female roles and functions. This explains that, from time immemorial, division of labour has been separated between male and female. Women have been saddled with the responsibility of cooking. When you think about fast food, there are something that you must not forget which is the most factor in fast food is gender.

Christine Ton Nu, Patrick Macleod, Jacques Barthelemy(1996),effects of age and gender on Adolescents Food Habits and Preferences. They reported Reasons among Food Quality and Preference (251-262). This study explored food habits and preferences of 222 French adolescents of 10 to 20 years old. They completed a questionnaire about their eating habits and quoted 10 of their favourite and 10 of their most disliked food or beverages. They also mentioned any change in their preferences. These results show that food habits and tastes are mostly related to age and gender.

Girls pay more attention to dietetics and snack less than boys. Young adolescents prefer bland and familiar foods whereas older ones learn to appreciate ‘adult’ foods. As they grow older, chicken snack more, skip more meals and seem more interested in foreign foods. Before puberty teenagers reject many foods they previously liked. After puberty they begin to appreciate some foods they didn’t like before. Their food repertoire widens at this period because of social and cognitive influences. 6 Schlosser, E. , (2001) pointed out the most frequently reported reason for eating at fast food outlets is quick service.

Laroche and Parsa, (2000) agreed with Schlosser, E. , and said that people decide to chose fast food outlets because they were worried about time. To prepare home meal food, it may take much of time to cook and served it compared to taking fast food. French S. A Et. al (2001) summaries that some people have other reason why they chose fast food outlets which might be in order for them to chose time with family, friend, by along with eating at fast food outlets, because they are quick and easy to get to and also a way of socializing with friend and family.

Drewnowski and Spectre, (2000) contends that another factor that may influence consumption of fast food is by socioeconomic status. There have totally difference between people who have high wages with people who is have low wages in their life. Usually people who have low economic status, they more prefer to choose food that something not has high nutrition, but more reasonable and inexpensive price while wealthy person they prefer to choose branded restaurants rather than realized the ingredients and nutrients contain in the food.

Herman and Polivy, (1984) contradicts/protests and emphasizes that the factor that influence of fast food consumption based on residential areas. He observed that people who stay at the rural areas are less consumed of fast food rather than people who stay at urban area because urban/town residential areas are nearer by the fast food outlets. 7 CHAPTER THREE THEORECTICAL FRAMEWORK 3. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the theoretical framework of the social correlate of fast food outlet among OAU students.

Thus, the purpose of a good theoretical framework is to explain a given social phenomenon and to define the interrelated concepts, definition and propositions that represent a systematic view of the subject of study (Ogunbameru 2006). Although, there are many theories that can be used, in this study, rational choice theory and Mcdonaldization theory are employed. 3. 1 RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY Rational choice theory is derived from the neo-classical economics (as well as utilitarianism and game theory, Levi et al,1990,Linden berge,2001;Simpson,2007).

The focus in rational theory is on actors. Actors are seen as being purposive or as having intentionality that is actors have ends or goals towards which their actions are aimed. Actors also are seen as having preferences (or values, utilities). Of importance is the fact that action is undertaken to achieve objectives that are consistent with an actor’s preference hierarchy. Although, the rational choice theory starts with actor’s purpose or intentions, it must take into consideration at least two major constraints on action.

The first constraint is the scarcity of resources. Actors have different resources as well as differential access to other resources. The attainment of ends may be for those with lo of resources, the achievement of ends may be relatively easy. However, for those with few, if any, resources, the attainments of ends may be difficult or impossible. Related to scarcity of resources is the idea of opportunity cost (Friedman and Hechter, 1998). In pursuing a given end, actors must keep an eye on the costs of forgoing heir next-most-attractive action.

A second source of constraints an individual action is social institution. The institutional constraints provide both positive encourage certain action and discourage others. Friedman and Hechter put it that individual’s actions are checked from birth to death by family and school rules, churches, synagogue and mosques, hospitals, etc. By 8 restricting the feasible set of course of action available to the individuals, enforceable rules of the game include norms, laws, agendas etc. 3. 2 RELEVANCE OF RATIONAL CHOICE THEORY TO THE STUDY

The central theme and the main lesson that may be learnt and applicable to this study from the rational choice approach is that students have the goals or aims to achieve good grade or graduate from the university, but there are some challenges they have to go through. In a case where a student is being instructed by his or her lecturer to finish a project or assignment within a given period of time, such student will have to choose between alternative of forgoing his or her cooking time for his or her project or assignment, he or she may choose to save time by patronizing fast-food. More so, another rea of relevance to this study is that some students have the intention to forgo cooking for reading, but the resources (money) needed to buy the food are limited. Students always make use of this slogan “Aye o Po”, (i. e. No time to do anything else on campus like, cooking and other things). That is despite the differences in the income level among students they still patronize fast food outlet not minding their class in the society or social economic status. Being rational-calculative beings, the time it takes to prepare food compared to patronizing the fast food outlets has been rationally analyzed by the students.

It obviously takes more time for preparing food than patronizing the fast food outlets such as the option of patronizing is high. Some students maintained that it cost more to prepare food than opting to fast food centers; calculating the cost of obtaining the raw food stuffs with the stress involved and the constraint of the time-table/academic course work, it appeared to them that the best option available is to get their food-(prepared food) from the fast food centers on campus.

In a situation where the time table does not allow leisure, for example having a class from 8:00am till 12:00pm at a stretch, such student involved considered that the best option is to patronize the fast food joint because of nonavailability of time to cook due to the constraint created by the lecture schedule and time-table. The intention and decision by students varies i. e. ambivalent; depending on the income level in term of pocket money or allowance gotten by the students. 9

Since society is stratified, the family background of the students will be a factor that influences the decision and intention of the students. This tries to explain that humans are pleasure seekers according to Jeremy Bentham but the constraint from social institutions e. g. (family, peer, school, church) and the non-availability of resources due to the variance in its distribution has a major role to play in their decisions, goal attainments etc. The allowance of the students from home also contributes to the decision of patronizing the fast food outlets.

For some students that claimed to have little or insufficient allowance from home, they prefer to maintain the little on them, buying raw food stuffs and reduced to cooking compare to patronizing the fast food outlets contrary to those with high and sufficient weekly or monthly allowance from home that have considered patronizing the fast food outlets as better option in so far that there is financial ability in their disposal. 3. 3 MCDONALIZATION THEORY This theory explains that the drive towards bureaucratization and rationalization is largely motivated by profit.

Companies believe they cut cost and increase profits through rationalization. The phenomenon of ‘’McDonaldization’’ which Ritzer elicits from his analysis of McDonald’s fast food restaurants encompasses both Production and consumption and is applied to a broad scope of economic, political, social and cultural artifacts and mechanisms. Ritzer is able to apply his concept to phenomenon ranging from work to leisure, from food to media, from education to politics. Such mode of post modern theory help us to critically view key social dynamics institution and problem the exemplifying the major strength of social theory.

McDonald’s restaurant has become a better exemplar of current form of rationality and its ultimately irrational and harmful human consequences. McDonaldization’s institution is part of a general drive to rationalization. 10 They aim to increase: 1. Efficiency: choosing the best quickest or least difficult means to a given end. 2. Calculability: Emphasis on the quantitative aspects of the product being sold. 3. Predictability: involves the customer knowing what to expect from a given producer of goods and services. 4. Control: A way to keep a complicated system running smoothly. . 4 RELEVANCE OF MCDONALIZATION THEORY TO THE STUDY. Using the principles of McDonalization, success has been recorded by workers, students and managers. These principles have offered students, workers, manager e. t. c. Efficiency, calculability, predictability and control. These principles will be explained and how it has applied to our study. Ritzer (1996) defines efficiency as ‘The optimum method for getting from one point to another’. To the customer or students of fast food outlets, this means ‘the best way of getting from being hungry to being full.

In this contemporary society where all consumers varying from students, workers, lecturers, etc. are in a rush to meet up with tight schedules, e. g. lecture time table, submission of assignments and other demands of the society might turn to fast food outlets for their survival, due to the stress and time constraint faced in cooking. This can be affirmed by (Ritzer, 1996) who stressed that cooking is inefficient because it can take hours to get fed whereas traditional and continual food prepared in this fast food takes minutes and it is also efficient.

In major fast food outlets, ‘quantity (especially a large quantity) tends to become a surrogate for quality. (Ritzer1996). There is an emphasis on producing a high quantity, get a lot of food quickly, and the owners gets a lot of work out of their workers. However, the consumers may not get a quality dining experience, because they are rushed and they have a limited choice. 11 CALCULABILITY: Great importance is given to calculability to an emphasis on quality, often to the detriment of quality. This principle explains the adverse effects of fast food outlets on customers or students.

The owners and employees of fast food outlets are majorly concerns with the quick rate of turner, with this, it affect the quality of food they produce, because they are after quantity and not quality. Similarly, customers are expected to spend as little time as possible in the fast food outlets. The drive through the window reduces the time to zero, but if customers desire to eat in the restaurant, the chairs may be designed to impel them to leave after about 20 minutes. (Some students go for relaxation). The emphasis from speed clearly has a negative effect on the quality of food at a fast food outlet.

Also, the emphasis on how fast the work is to be done means that the customers cannot be served high quality food. PREDICTABILITY: What this theory explains is that, there is an expected ways the customers are attended to by the workers of fast food outlets and there is a designed way of selling and buying in the outlet e. g. before going to buying food in forks and fingers or Iya- Ila, you have the fore- knowledge of what you expect from the fast food outlets. In these outlets, there are processes which both the customers and the outlets workers must follow in the course of their transaction.

Taking Iya-Ila as example, the process in which customers order their food, the customers queue for their food, and also queue for the soup. The predictability has been able to posit that, students have the fore knowledge of what to expect from the fast food. 12 CHAPTER FOUR METHODOLOGY 4. 0 INTRODUCTION Methodology according to Oxford Dictionary of Sociology is used to refers to the methods and general approach to empirical research of a particular discipline or even a particular large study, although, the term ‘research techniques’ is perhaps more apt in this context.

This chapter describes the place of study, the sampling technique, collection of data and processing, and problems encountered in the field. 4. 1 STUDY AREA The research work was studied in Obafemi Awolowo University campus Ile-Ife, Osun State. The focus areas are: 1. Academic area 2. Student Union Building Area 3. Hostel area 4. New market / New Buka Area. . 4. 2 RESEARCH DESIGN Exploratory research design was used in this study. It serves the purpose of satisfying ones curiosity and desire for better understanding. It was also used to test the feasibility of understanding a more careful study. 4. 3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

The sampling technique used in this study is the probability or Random sampling, specifically, systematic sampling procedure to arrive at the target respondents for the study. 13 4. 4 DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT In this study, quantitative instrument of data collection was used which entails administering of questionnaire. The questionnaires were divided into sections. The first section is concerned with socio-economic and demographic characteristics of respondents such as their age, marital status, religious belief, while the other section is about income level like school allowance, monthly allowance and additional income.

The questionnaire contains both the open and close-ended questions, close–ended questions constantly to find out attitudes of respondents if they patronize the fast food outlets and the positive and negative effects that prompt it. It has a closed ended questions in order to minimize irrelevant responses and also to make it easier for the respondent to answer as he or she only has to choose a category. Open ended questionnaire was also included in the questionnaire to allow more opportunity for creativity and self-expression by the respondent.

It also helps to deal with complex issues that cannot be condensed into few small categories. 4. 5 DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE OAU Campus is divided into areas, the areas chosen was the ACADEMIC AREA, STUDENT UNION BUILDING AREA, HOSTELS AREA and NEW MARKET or NEW BUKA AREA. The rationale of selection was systematic through the process of balloting, two faculties were chosen out of the 11 FACULTIES, (Faculty Law and health sciences,) five questionnaires were administered to each faculty to make it 10.

Fork and fingers and fivers were chosen in the student union building area based on the food outlets are patronized by 10 questionnaires were administered each to the students to make it 20 questionnaires. The respondents chosen in the BUKA AREA and NEW BUKA MARKET were also done randomly. 10 questionnaires were administered. Two hostels were chosen by balloting, Moremi and Angola were picked, and Five questionnaires were administered to each hostels make it 10. In all, 50 questionnaires were administered to these areas. 14 4. 6 DATA ANALYSIS PROCEDURE

After the collection of data, analysis and presentation was done in order to give meanings to the raw data collected by using the statistical package for social science (SPSS). 4. 7 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED DURING THE STUDY Many of the respondents at the initial stage complained that they did not have the time to fill the questionnaire and were too busy preparing for their examinations as the research was carried out during this period; some opted out of the research session because they were not in the mood to fill the questionnaires. With persuasion, some filled the questionnaire.

The female were eager to answer the question, while the males felt reluctant and demanded for a tangible reward. Another problem encountered was the non response especially on the open-ended questions that requires the respondent volition to answer questions thus; they filled some of the questions arbitrarily. However despite all challenges, the study achieved a great success. 15 CHAPTER FIVE DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION 5. 0 INTRODUCTION This chapter focuses on the discussion, analysis and presentation of tables on the various results obtained from the survey.

The discussion herein covers: the socio demographic characteristics of respondent used in the survey, and a discussion on the three objectives: to examine the extent to which family background affects students patronage; to evaluate if gender can influence students patronage of fast food outlets; and to determine if the income level of students affects their patronage of fast food outlet. 4. 2: Socio demographic characteristics Table 1 Age group 15-19 years 20-24 years 25-29 years 30-34 years 40-44 years Total Frequency 6 30 9 1 1 47 Percentage (%) 12. 8 63. 8 19. 1 2. 1 2. 1 100. 0 Sex Male Female Total Frequency 23 27 50

Percentage (%) 46. 0 54. 0 100. 0 16 Marital status Single Married Total Frequency 48 2 50 Percentage (%) 96. 0 4. 0 100. 0 Religion Christianity Muslim Traditional Total Frequency 41 8 1 50 Percentage (%) 82. 0 16. 0 2. 0 100. 0 Table 1 shows the socio demographic characteristics of respondents used in the survey. The result obtained from students shows they fall between the age range 15-44 years old, with 12. 8 percent in 15-19 age group, 63. 8 percent of those in 20-24 age group being the highest percentage, 19. 1 percent those in ages between 25-29 years of age, 2. 1 percent of those in 30-34 years old and 40-44 years old respectively.

The sex distribution includes 46. 0 percent male and 54. 0 percent female. Their marital status includes majority being single 96. 0 percent, and the married surveyed are 4. 0 percent of total surveyed population. Religious affiliations of respondents are Christianity 82. 0 percent, Muslim 16. 0 percent, and traditional 2. 0 percent. 17 4. 3: Examining the extent to which family background affects students patronage: Table 2 Variables How are your meals By your mum been prepared at home? By cook By relatives Others-self, sisters Total Frequency 35 5 1 7 48 Percentage (%) 72. 10. 4 2. 1 14. 6 100. 0 If none of the options Yes above, do they give you No money to buy food at Total home? 1 1 2 50. 0 50. 0 100. 0 If yes, does it influence Yes your patronage of fast food outlets on campus 1 100. 0 How often do you cook in your hostel? Trice a day Once a day Twice a week Frequency 10 26 8 Percentage (%) 20. 4 53. 1 16. 3 10. 2 Others- Twice a day, 5 often, never Total 49 100. 0 18 Table 2 examines the extent to which family background affects students’ patronage of fast food. The result shows that meals are prepared at home by majorly by mum 72. percent, followed by cook 10. 4 percent, self and sister 14. 6 percent, and by relative 2. 1 percent. Of all the respondent only two respondents answer the question do they give you money at home, if meals are not prepare? This has a single positive and negative result of yes and no. And the one person who reported receiving money at home says it influences his or her patronage of fast food. The frequency of cooking in the hostel is reported as once a day 53. 1 percent, trice a day 20. 4 percent, twice a week 16. 3 percent, others includes twice a day, often, and never 10. 2 percent. 4. : Evaluate if gender can influence students patronage of fast food outlets Table 3 Variables Who do you think Male Frequency 32 15 47 Percentage (%) 68. 1 31. 9 100. 0 patronize fast food joint Female most Total State your reasons for your answer above Frequency They have no cooking 8 skill No enough time to 10 Percentage (%) 18. 2 22. 7 devote to cooking Laziness Gender role issue Taking friends out to eat Total 17 3 6 44 38. 6 6. 8 13. 6 100. 0 19 Figure 4. 3 evaluates if gender can influence students patronage of fast food. It is reported that male patronize fast food 68. 1 percent more than female 31. 9 percent.

Reasons for the high patronage of fast food given are laziness especially on the part of males 38. 6 percent, believing there is no enough time to devote to cooking 22. 7 percent, lack of cooking skill 18. 2 percent, taking friends, especially girlfriends, out to eat 13. 6 percent and men believing it is duty of a particular gender 6. 8 percent. 4. 5: Determining if the income level of students can affect patronage of fast food outlet: Table 4. 1 Variable How do you receive Weekly your school allowance Monthly Between monthly No response Total 1 50 2. 0 100. 0 weekly Frequency 11 26 and 12 Percentage (%) 22. 52. 0 24. 0 How much is your 2,000-5,000 12 17 20 49 24. 5 34. 7 40. 8 100. 0 monthly allowance income 6,000-10,000 Above 10,000 Total Figure 4. 5 determines if the income level of students can affect students’ patronage of fast food outlet. Table 4. 1 describes the income level of surveyed respondents. This shows that majority of respondents receives their income monthly 52. 0 percent, this is followed by between weekly and monthly 24. 0 percent, weekly 22. 0 percent, the no response rate was 2. 0 percent. The reported monthly income receive by respondents are within #2,000 to 20 #5,000 24. percent, #6,000 to #10,000 34. 7 percent, and above #10,000 40. 8 percent, having a max of #50,000 from those surveyed report. Table 4. 2: Other sources of income and choice of fast food Variable Do you have other Yes Frequency 31 19 50 Percentage (%) 62. 0 38. 0 100. 0 source of income apart No from your monthly Total allowance? If yes, what are the Scholarship sources? Business Relatives Others- 1 18 9 3. 2 58. 1 29. 0 9. 7 craftsmanship, 3 friends, working Total 31 100. 0 Can your additional Yes 27 14 41 65. 9 34. 1 100. 0 income motivate you to No patronize outlet? fast food Total

What is your choice of Forks and fingers fast food outlet on Banwill Iya-Ila 26 8 5 55. 3 17. 0 10. 6 campus? 21 Others- Captain cook, 8 New buka, Depullars Total 47 17. 0 100. 0 Table 4. 2 shows other sources of reported income. 62. 0 percent reported has having other sources of income apart from monthly allowance from home. This sources includes business ventures 58. 1 percent, relatives 29. 0 percent, scholarship 3. 2 percent, others are craftsmanship, friends and working 9. 7 percent. Additional income is also reported to be a motivating factor to patronizing fast food outlet 65. percent. The choice of fast food outlet are forks and fingers 55. 3 percent, banwill 17. 0 percent, Iya-Ila 10. 6 percent, others are captain cook, new buka, and depillars 17. 0 percent among surveyed respondents. Table 4. 3: Cross tabulation showing how much of monthly income or allowance goes to fast food What percentages of your allowance go to fast food Income 2,000-5,000 6,000-10,000 Above 10,000 Total 5-10% 7 (63. 6%) 9 (60. 0%) 5 (26. 3%) 21 (47. 7%) 15-20% 1 (9. 1%) 4 (26. 7%) 3 (15. 8%) 8 (18. 2%) 25-30% 3 (27. 3%) 2 (13. 3%) 11 (57. 9%) 16 (35. 6%) 11 (100. %) 15 (100. 0%) 19 (100. 0%) 45 (100. 0%) Total Table 4. 3 shows a cross tabulation of how much income or allowance goes to fast food outlet. 10% of income goes to fast food outlet by those who receive between #2,000 to #5,000 naira as monthly income, 1 person reports 15 to 20 percent of income goes to fast food, and 3 person reports 25-30 percent goes to fast food. Those that receive between #6,000 to #10,000 9 persons reports 5 to 10 percent going to fast food, 4 persons report 15 to 20 percent goes to fast food, and 2 persons reports 25 to 30 percent goes to fast food. 22

Those that receive above #10,000 naira 5 persons reports that 5 to 10 percent goes to fast food, 3 persons reports that 15 to 20 percent goes to fast food, and 11 persons reports that 25 to 30 percent of allowances goes to fast food. For those whose income falls between #2,000 to #10,000 naira, that is 63. 6 percent and 60. 0 percent, the highest percentage of income that is spent in fast food outlet is between 5 to 10 percent, while for those whose income is above #10,000 naira, 57. 9 percent of them spend a higher percentage of their income at the fast food outlet 25 to 30 percent.

DISCUSSION Findings in this study suggest that the economic status can be a determining factor for student’s patronage of fast food outlets. This can be affirmed by the fact that respondents who receive the lowest income (#2,000 – 5000) spend less of their income on fast food outlets i. e. 63. 6% of them spend just 10% of their income on fast food. This empirical study background can influence student’s patronage as can be seen in table 4. 3 where by 72. 9% of the respondents have their meals cooked by their mum, cook by other relatives while just 7%, cook their food themselves at home.

This goes further to imply that greater percentage of the students do not cook by themselves. Hence, they tend patronize fast food outlets. Students who have their meals cooked by their mum tend to be lazy in preparing their own food, this can also be tested by the fact that 38% of respondents belief laziness contribute to the reasons why students patronize fast food outlets. This study also establish the fact that individuals gender affect the patronage of fast food outlets as more male patronized than female (68. 1% male patronize fast food outlets while 31. % female patronize it). 23 SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION 6. 0 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The definition of fast food is inconsistence but equally, fast food is the term given to food that can be prepared and served with low preparation time. The term “Fast Food” was recognized by Merriam-Webster in 1951. The historical background of fast food can be traced to urban development which was deeply rooted in sociological inevitably. Large urban cities like United Kingdom, United state, Paris, and London witness the emergence of fast food.

In the traditional society, fast food is equally evident, the example of traditional meals such as Suya, Eba, and Egusi soup, Semo are sold within OAU Campus. Academic and scientific research revealed that, most undergraduate students patronize fast food outlets, which has indirectly affected their cooking culture and the level of satisfaction derived from the consumption of this fast foods. However, other relevant literatures relating to social, economic status of the students however were also discussed. Rational choice theory was used as a theoretical framework to explain how students make choices in order to have good grade.

Despite the differences in the income level among students they still patronize fast food outlets not mining their social class and socio-economic status. This study depict that, student maintain the cost to prepare food than opting to fast food outlets. The principle on the study of McDonalization has been recorded by workers, students and managers, looking at their efficiency, predictability, calculability, and control Methodology describes the place of study, sampling technique, collection of data and processing and problems encountered in the research work.

The exploratory research was carried out among the OAU students using the probability sampling, systematic procedure and the problem encountered on the research work is that most of the respondents complained that have the time to fill the questionnaires. 24 Data analysis and discussion focuses on the various results obtain from the survey. This study has been able to cover the social-demographic characteristics of respondent used in the survey looking at the extent to which family background affect student’s patronage, how gender influenced students patronage of fast food outlets. 25 6. 1 RECOMMENDATION

From the analysis we can see that most parent do the cooking, parent should be encouraged more to train up their wards on how to prepare meal on their own. ( They can teach them how to prepare fast food on their own instead of buying outside). Food and nutrition should also be included in all school curriculums. Gender role of cooking should not be confined to the female child alone; there should be a balance in the societal roles. This will encourage the male to also participate in cooking activities at home so that such child will be able to cook for himself/herself when they get to school.

Moderate allowance should be given to student that receives more allowance because more than half of their money goes to fast food restaurant which disallow them from cooking in school. 26 6. 2 CONCLUSION Conclusively, fast food should not be totally criticized because it has been a major source of survival for those that do not have the time and the skill on how to prepare meal on their own. At the same time the students should be discourage from patronizing fast food outlets. The importance of fast food on campus cannot be over emphasizes.

The rise or emergence of fast food has been a source of help to social class or group. Consequently in examining the extent through which family background affect patronage of fast food, we see that most meals are often prepared by their mothers and also student who receive more income from home tend to patronize fast food than those who do not receive much. Also, those who have their meal prepare by a cook tend to patronize fast food outlet more than others who know how to prepare their meals themselves.

We are able to conclude that male student patronize fast food outlet more than their female counterpart because of the various reason associated with this which are laziness, lack of cooking skill or time. Evidently student income level also goes a long way in affecting student patronage of fast food outlets; those who receive more money from home patronize fast food more. So therefore the survey carried out shows that all these variable such as economic, family background, income level etc goes a long way in affecting student patronage of fast food outlets. 27 REFERENCES

Christine Ton Nu, Patrick Macleod, Jacques Barthelemy. (1996). Effects of Age and Gender on Adolescents Food Habits and Preferences. Christine E. Blake, Carol M. Devine, Elaine Wethington, Margaret Jastran, Tracy J. Farrell, and Carole A. Bisogni. (2009). Employed Parents ‘Satisfaction with Food-Choice Coping Strategies. Influence of Gender and Structure. Emily Kroshus, MPH. (2008). Gender, Marital Status, and Commercially Prepared Food Expenditure. Ayse Ozfer Ozcelik, Lale Sariye Akan & Metin Saip Surucuoglu. (2007). An Evaluation of Fast-Food Preferences According to Gender (2007).

Humanity & Social Sciences Journal 2(1), 43-50 Aikman, S. N & Graham, D. (2006). Food attitudes, eating behaviour, and the information underlying food attitudes. Olakunle A. Ogunbameru,Bankole O. Ogunbameru (2010), Contemporary Methods in Social Research Kuntel Publisher Ooni layout,Ajebamidele Ile Ife. George Ritzer (2012) Sociological theory Eight edition publisher Mcgraw-Hill companies Inc. 121 Avenue of the Americas, New York. John Scott and Gordon Marshall (2009), Oxford Dictionary of Sociology revised edition Oxford University press. 28

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