Last Updated 28 Jan 2021

Yellow Fever

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1.) Three diseases that could possibly be related to Todd's case are Malaria, Yellow Fever, and Typhoid Fever. All of these included the same symptoms, such as: fever, headache, chills, vomiting, bleeding of some type(gums or nose…. even though "nose bleeding" wasn't a symptom of Todd's… it still threw up a red flag to me), joint pain(could be related to back pain), liver symptoms(yellow skin/jaundice - Malaria doesn't have "liver symptoms", but it does have 'anemia' as a symptom, so this still placed it as a "contender" for me)…etc.

2.) The pathogen most likely affecting Todd is the genus Flavivirus, which is transmitted by the vector Masoni africana. I believe this to be the pathogen & vector not only because it is the primary carrier of yellow fever(which matches the signs & symptoms Todd was experiencing), but also because it is found in tropical areas(they were in the rain forests of Ghana).

3.) The clinical name for Todd's condition is Jungle/Sylvatic Yellow Fever(Coquillettidia fuscopennata). It is usually spread from infected monkeys to humans by the bite of a female mosquito. It is most commonly found in tropical rain forests(aka 'jungles')…. this is where the "jungle" part of the name of the condition derives from. - The "yellow" part of 'Yellow Fever' comes from the fact that as the virus enters the later(toxic phase), the liver is damaged, causing jaundice(YELLOWing of the skin).

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4.) There are two types of Yellow Fever… Urban Yellow Fever and Jungle/Sylvatic Yellow Fever. The Urban Yellow Fever is transmitted by the bite of the Aedes aegypti mosquito. It is spread when the mosquito bites an infected person and then carries that virus to another human. The Jungle/Sylvatic Yellow Fever usually originates in monkeys and is typically spread to humans when they enter a rainforest in Africa(or any other tropical atmosphere) via the Masoni africana. -This virus can't be spread from person to person… only by mosquito bite.

5.) If Kevin wasn't bitten by a mosquito with this specific virus, he won't have the virus(or any symptoms of this virus). He should, however, be tested for this virus because the first symptoms don't appear until 3-6 days after being bitten by the mosquito.

6.) The virus is endemic in the tropical areas of Africa, due to the fact that the Masoni africana is found in African rainforests AND most of the residents of this area have built up an immunity to this virus… but it could possibly become an epidemic if large numbers of non-Africa-residing people continue to visit this area and become infected OR if the mosquitos that carry this virus are brought out of Africa to other areas of the world and begin to infect numerous individuals.

7.) Yellow Fever is very UNcommon in the United States… the incidence rate is approximately 1:272,000,000.

8.) There is no specific treatment for Yellow Fever. The infected individual is usually hospitalized and signs and symptoms are treated as they arise…. Such administering fluids for dehydration, pain relief medications, dialysis for kidney failure, blood transfusions due to massive blood loss…etc.

9.) It IS possible that Todd will die from this virus. It is estimated that there are 30,000 deaths out of the 200,000(worldwide) total cases of Yellow Fever annually.

10.) The Yellow Fever vaccine is available and is the single-most important preventative measure against this virus. It has been shown to provide immunity for 30-35 years or more and begins to provide immunity within one week. This immunization is required prior to arriving in Ghana(Africa).

Yellow Fever essay

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