Introduction to Communication in Health, Social Care or Children’s

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Unit 4222-201 Introduction to communication in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings 1. 1 Identify different reasons why people communicate People communicate for different reasons, to portray their feelings, emotions, pain, opinions, etc. The communication could be professional (formal), or personal (informal). It is important within a social work environment that information is recorded, as it may be called upon for legal reasons. All communications are confidential, and on a “need to know”, basis.

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Communication between colleagues is essential, so that it ensures a continuity of care for the client, and all staff are aware of the current needs of the client. Communication has a purpose and this is : to gain a sense of belonging to have our love and emotional needs met to express our dreams, hopes and aspiration to try and reach our potential to communicate our basic needs such as hunger, warmth/cold, fear of insecurity, needing protection from physical harm to form relationships with other people 1. Explain how effective communication affects all aspects of own work Within the care setting I communicate using: Communication books, Handover with Colleagues, staff message book, Staff meetings, meetings with my Line Manager Etc. Effective communication is important as it ensures that information is: clear, concise, accurate, non-judgmental, and informative. This reduces the possibility of mistakes being made, and ensuring appropriate care service delivery. It is important to work as a team with your colleagues, so that you all work to achieve the same outcomes and targets. . 3 Explain why it is important to observe an individual’s reactions when communicating with them It is important to observe individuals reactions when communicating : as it informs me as to how they are feeling at the time. They may be upset and need reassurance, they may be confused and not understanding what is being said , they may be agitated and need time to cool down. As a social care, it is my responsability to know the client's i work with as i will be able to interpret their reactions to communications and be there to offer support if needed. 2. Find out an individual’s communication and language needs, wishes and preferences I can find out an individual’s preferred communication methods by: asking the client, reading their care plan, ask relatives, ask colleagues, medical notes, etc 2. 2 Demonstrate communication methods that meet an individual’s communication needs, wishes and preferences I can make my own observations as i support them and share my findings with my colleagues and record in their care plan. Their individual communication needs should be reflective of their : culture, religion, and above all their individual preferences and according to their needs. . 3 Show how and when to seek advice about communication I can speak with my line manager , other colleagues or seek advice from professional bodies. 3. 1 Identify barriers to communication • Sensory deprivation – when someone cannot receive or pass on information because they have a impairment to one or more of their senses, most commonly a visual or a hearing disability. • Foreign language – when someone speaks a different language or uses sign language, they may not be able to make any sense of information they are being given by someone trying to help them if that person does not speak their language. Jargon – when a service provider uses technical language the service user may not understand. For example, the doctor may say that a patient needs bloods and an MRI scan. That can sound very frightening to someone who has been rushed into hospital. It is better if the doctor explains that they need to take some blood to do some simple tests and then explains what a MRI scan is. Understanding the facts can make something seem less scary. • Slang – when a service user uses language that not everyone uses, such as saying they have a problem with their waterworks.

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This can mean their plumbing system but also means a problem going to the toilet. Sometimes it may be appropriate to use slang with your peers but in normal working with colleagues or service users you should avoid using any language that can be misunderstood or misinterpreted or that might cause offence. • Cultural differences – when the same thing means different things in two cultures, communication can be difficult. For example, it is seen as polite and respectful to make eye contact when speaking to someone in Western culture but in other cultures, for example in East Asia, it can be seen as rude and defiant. Distress – when someone is distressed, they might find it hard to communicate. They may not listen properly and so misinterpret or not understand what is being said. They might also be tearful or have difficulty speaking. • Emotional difficulties – we all have emotional difficulties at times and become upset. You might have split up with your boyfriend or girlfriend or had an argument with someone or you may have had some bad news. The effect can be to not hear or understand what people are saying to you. This can lead to misunderstandings. Health issues – when you are feeling ill, you may not be able to communicate as effectively as when you are feeling well. This can affect your colleagues and service users. Similarly, people who are being cared for in hospital because of an illness may not be able to communicate in their normal way. Some long-term (chronic) illnesses such as Parkinson’s disease or Multiple sclerosis also affect an individual’s ability to communicate and you need to be aware of this if you are working with these people. • Environmental problems – when communication is affected by the environment that people find themselves in.

For example, someone who does not see very well will struggle to read written information in a dimly lit room. A person who is in a wheelchair may find it impossible to communicate with the receptionist at the dentist’s if the desk is too high and above the wheelchair user’s head. 3. 2 Demonstrate how to reduce barriers to communication in different ways I can find out an individual's preffered communication by : asking the client, reading their care plan, ask relatives, ask colleagues, medical notes, etc.

I can also make my own observations as i support them and share my findings with my colleagues and record in their care plan. Their individual communication needs should be reflective of their culture, beliefs, religion and above all their individual preferences and according to their needs. I can do for example the following : -adjust the room temperature to a more confortable level -move the chairs closer together -turn the lights on, close curtains or move to a better position -reduce the noise or move to a quieter location maintain a proffesional approach -adapt communication skills to medical conditions 3. 3 Demonstrate ways to check that communication has been understood -ask the individual -observe any physical response such as nodding -read individuals notes to identify special communication requirements. 4. 1 Explain the term ‘confidentiality’ Confidentiality means not sharing information about people without their knowledge and agreement and ensuring that written and electronic information cannot be accesed or read by people who have no reason to see it.

Confidentiality is important because : -clients may not trust a support worker who does not keep information confidential. -clients may not feel valued or able to keep their self-esteem if their private details are shared with others. -client's safety may be put at risk if details of their property and habits are shared publicity 4. 2 Demonstrate confidentiality in day to day communication, in line with agreed ways of working The basic rule is that all information an individual gives or that is given on their behavior to an organisation is confidential and cannot be disclosed to anyone without the consent of the individual. . 3 Describe situations where information normally considered to be confidential might need to be passed on Sometimes confidential information disclosed by a client may need to be passed on the others: -if there is a risk of danger or harm to the client or other people, if abuse is suspected or if there is suspected misconduct of a colleague in respect of care of a client I must inform the client why the information needs to be passed on the others and that it is my responsability to do so. 4. Explain how and when to seek advice about confidentiality This will be outlined in : -company policies and procedures -code of practice The acts and policies important to confidentiality : -data protection act 1998 -freedom of information act 2000 -general right of acces -code of practice for social care workers Unit 4222-202 Introduction to personal development in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings 1. 1 Describe the duties and responsibilities of own role My current job role is as a ‘care assistant’.

I am responsible for providing support to the service user’s, which includes: Personal care, assisting with meal preparation, assisting with medication, organising service user finances, assisting with meal planning, and maintaining records for service delivered. I received an induction training course when I first joined the company, which provided specialised training relating to the learning disability sector. I receive regular supervision with my line manager, where I can discuss any problems, and get support. I can also request training, and my manager can highlight areas where she thinks I would benefit from further training in.

I attend regular refresher courses in training, so that I am up to date with the current standards required for my role. I treat all service users with respect and dignity, and my work practices reflect and promote equal opportunities. I have read, and understand my Company’s policies and procedures, and am aware of what to do in most circumstances, and the correct reporting/recording procedures to follow. I always work in a professional manner, and ensure all service user information is kept up to date, and confidential. ” 1. Identify standards that influence the way the role is carried out Below is a list of example legislations, which are relevant to domiciliary care, and residential services. You should be aware of these laws, and how they relate to your role. These make up 'standards' to follow for good practice in your working practices. 1. Care standards Act 2000 2. Domiciliary Care Regulations 2002 3. Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 4. Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 5. Management of Health ; Safety at Work Regulations 1999 6. Codes of Practice 7. National Occupational Standards 1. Describe ways to ensure that personal attitudes or beliefs do not obstruct the quality of work I always ensure that i treat all my service users the same. Regardless of their financial means, physical abillities, race, sexual preference, religion, etc. This shows that i am following my company's equality policy and that no service user receives preferential treatment aver another. I never allow my own personal beliefs to infringe on my working practice and remain impartial at all times. I respect a service user's right to freedom of choice and recognise the diversity of my service users. 2. Explain why reflecting on work activities is an important way to develop knowledge, skills and practice To reflect on my own work practice is important as it gives me the opportunity to rectify any mistakes or errors made and help identify areas on wich i can improve for the future. When i reflect i think about the task i have done, the way i carried out those tasks, how i think things went and how i can improve things in the future. When i reflect this then enables me to learn from experience i have had and for me to develop as i can identify training, that would benefit my working practice for the future. . 2 Assess how well own knowledge, skills and understanding meet standards To assess how your own knowledge, skills and understanding meet the standards, your assessor will probably set an assignment for you to do, and do an observation of your work practice. But it would also be best to write a personal statement detailing: Your experience in the care sector. Training you have received (provide copies of your certificates for your assessor). The tasks you perform within your role. The way in which you perform your duties (professional, respect diversity, equality, confidentiality etc) 2. Demonstrate the ability to reflect on work activities To be able to reflect on work practice i need to think about a situation that has occured at work. Remember how i dealt with the situation, think about the actions i took and assess if i could have done anything differently. In other words can i improve the way how handled the situation in the event of a repeat situation in the future. Reflection is a learning tool as it helps me to improve my service delivery and assess how i perform my role.

There are 2 types of reflection : -reflection 'in action' – assessing the situation as it happens whilst i was there -reflection 'on action' – when i think about what has happened after the event. 3. 1 Identify sources of support for own learning and development - Asking colleagues and other professional’s questions. - Accessing internal and external training. - Spending time working alongside colleagues and other professional’s. - Team meetings and discussions. 3. 2 Describe the process for agreeing a personal development plan and who should be involved A personal development plan is drawn up between the manager and the member of staff.

The plan is something to work to, to reach goals set by my manager and myself. It is a training calendar wich highlights training required and agreed target dates to achieve. The development plan is drawn uo as an agreement between the manager and member of staff and shows commitment from both sides for it to succed. The plan will help me to develop skills and knowledge that will enable me to perform my work practice to the highest standards and to obtain a recognised qualification. 3. 3 Contribute to drawing up own personal development plan based on my company's development plan and with resources provided by my assessor 4. 1 Show how a learning activity has improved own knowledge, skills and understanding I attended a training course for “Abuse Indicators”, organised by my employer. The course covered symptoms of different types of abuse, financial, physical, sexual, institutional, etc. It also covered what staff should do if they suspect abuse of a service user, who to report it to, and the procedures to follow. I found this course very interesting, and learned new things that I was not aware of.

I hoped that I would not encounter any suspected case of abuse, but if I did, I was now informed of the actions to take. 4. 2 Show how reflecting on a situation has improved own knowledge, skills and understanding -i communicate well with service users. I am confident in writting reports and passing on information -i enjoy the satisfaction i get from providing a service for others -i am not confident using a computer -i do not like passing bad news to service users 4. 3 Show how feedback from others has developed own knowledge, skills and nderstanding My manager has received feedback from colleagues who have ‘shadowed’ me on service user visits. She has given me feedback on my performance, and highlighted future training events that I may find beneficial. I have received compliments from service user’s, on the standard of care I deliver, and my polite attitude. I have received verbal feedback from my manager on my willingness to undertake extra shifts, and how I am an effective member of the team. 4. 4 Show how to record progress in relation to personal development

Unit 4222-203 Introduction to equality and inclusion in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings 1. 1 Explain what is meant by: - diversity Diversity describes the range of visible and non-visible differences that exist between people whilst equality means having the same value – indicating a state of balance. When we talk about managing diversity therefore, we are referring to the harnessing of these differences to create a productive environment in which everybody feels valued, where talents are fully utilised and in which organisational goals are met.

Diversity means variety, when we talk about diversity in relation to society we mean that there is a wide variety of people that make up our society. A society that values diversity appreciates people's differences and believes that everyone can make a positive contribution. People may be different because of race, religion/belief, gender, sexual orientation, age, physical disability, intellectual disability, sensory impairment, health, values. - equality Equality basically means we are all equals, no one is better than the next person, we all have the same rights.

To be treat equally and have equal access to services and opportunities regardless of a person's age, religion, beliefs, race, gender, disability or sexual orientation. - inclusion Social inclusion means the provision of certain rights to all individuals and groups in society, such as employment, adequate housing, health care, education and training, etc. It means ensuring that everyone has the opportunity to take part fully in their community and wider society by ensuring that there are no barriers/obstacles preventing people from being included. - discrimination

Discrimination means to treat people unfairly because of their differences. Discrimination can take many direct formes : physical violence directed at someone because of their race verbal abuse directed at someone because of their religion a landlord refusing to rent a room to a man because he is gay an employer choosing not to interview an older person, regardless of their ability or experience a manager refusing entry to a restaurant to someone in a wheelchair excluding people because they belong to a particular group Discrimination may also have indirect formes : n employer insisted that all employers take a written english test when english is not requirement of the job the amount of people from a racial group or of one sex that can meet the job criteria is considerably smaller than the rest of the population in UK only people aged 50-70 receive reminders to attend breast cancer screening. This sends the wrong message that people over 70 are no longer at risk 1. 2 Describe ways in which discrimination may deliberately or inadvertently occur in the work setting A local authority produces an information leaflet about its services for local people.

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It does not produce an easy to read version of the leaflet in order to save money. This would make it more difficult for someone with a learning disability to access the services and could amount to indirect discrimination. 1. 3 Explain how practices that support equality and inclusion reduce the likelihood of discrimination 2. 1 Identify which legislation and codes of practice relating to equality, diversity and discrimination apply to own role -the disability discrimination act 2005 -the special educational needs and disability act 2001 the race relations act 2000 -convention on the rights of the child 1989 -the human rights act 1998 -the sex discrimination act 1975 -employment equality regulations 2003 2. 2 Show interaction with individuals that respects their beliefs, culture, values and preferences -communicate with my service users -deliver the service as per individual's care plan -respect the service user's cultural beliefs -provide meals that they choose -offer the service user's choice -work in a professional and polite manner -treat service users as individuals . 3 Describe how to challenge discrimination in a way that encourages change If i notice or witness discrimination, i should address it straight away. It is my responsability to speak up for my service users who can't or are unable to do so because of fear or disability. The best way to challenge discrimination in a constructive way is to report it and address the issue that are responsible for the discrimination. I can act as an advocate between the person who is discriminating and the person the discrimination is aimed at.

If the person who is guilty of discrimination is made aware of the facts, this may then change their opinion and stop the discrimination. 3. 1 Identify a range of sources of information, advice and support about diversity, equality and inclusion -acces government sites that list all of the current legislation in place to protect the rights of individuals -obtain leaflets to give to my service users to inform them of their rights -contact certain groups who can supply materials to hand out to my service users 3. Describe how and when to access information, advice and support about diversity, equality and inclusion For this i can submit leaflets, posters or any other type of information that promotes diversity, equality and inclusion. Unit 4222-204 Introduction to duty of care in health, social care or children’s and young people’s settings 1. 1 Define the term ‘duty of care’ Health and social care organisations have what is called a duty of care towards the people they look after. That means that they must do everything hey can to keep the people in their care safe from harm. It is not only the care establishment that needs to prioritise the safety, welfare and interests of the people using its services, but also the care workers of the establishment. My employer also has a duty of care for staff members, to ensure that working conditions are safe, and suitable to deliver the service. Duty of care is a requirement that a person act towards others and the public with watchfulness, attention, caution and prudence.

If a person's actions do not meet this standard of care, then acts are considered negligent and any damages resulting may be claimed in law suit for damages . Duty of care is the obligation to exercise a level of care towards an individual, as is reasonable in all the circumstances, to avoid injury to that individual or his property. 1. 2 Describe how the duty of care affects own work role -follow the code of practice -ensure i mentain and update my trainings -protect my service users from harm -follow my organisation policies and procedures 2. Describe dilemmas that may arise between the duty of care and an individual’s rights As a carer worker i will have many demands made on me, i will form working friendships with people i am supporting and also with colleagues. People will tell me personal things about themselves issues of confidentiality wich i will have to decide whether to keep to myself or report to a senior manager. I have to take responsability for my practice and the people i am supporting . I may have to breach this confidentiality so i should consult with the policies of my organisation regarding sharing of information before i am in that position.

Sometimes dilemmas will arise within my work practice and i will have to balance the need to keep confidentiality against the need to protect my service users and respect their rights. I have a legal responsability as a social care worker to disclose confidential information relates to possible harm of the service users or others. 2. 2 Explain where to get additional support and advice about how to resolve such dilemmas - Colleagues - The person’s family and friends - GP - Care professionals - Advocates - Union official - Regulators 3. 1 Describe how to respond to complaints

The organisation takes all complaints seriously and will investigate them fully before taking any action. Our complaints procedure takes into account the needs of service users and care staff. The complaint should be directed to the manager. All reported complaints either verbal or written will be acknowledged within three working days. Every effort will be made to resolve the complaint and to prove a full response to the complaint within fifteen working days. A record must be kept of all complaints, investigations and subsequent actions.

This should be impartial and accurate. 3. 2 Identify the main points of agreed procedures for handling complaints If i receive a complain from a service user or their family i follow my company policies and procedures that will instruct me on what action to take. I ensure complaints are discussed in a confidential setting and assure the individual that their complaint will be handled upon straight away. This ensured that the individual knows that their complaint is being listened to and taken seriously. Unit 4222-205 Principles of safeguarding and protection in ealth and social care 1. 1 Define the following types of abuse: Abuse is a violation of an individual's human and civil rights by any orher person or persons. Abuse can occur in any relationship and may result in significant harm to, or exploitation of, the person subjected to it. • Physical abuse – hitting, slapping, scratching, kicking, misuse of medication, restraint or inappropriate sanctions • Sexual abuse – rape, sexual assault or sexual acts to which the adult has not consented, or could not consent or was pressured into consenting • Emotional/psychological abuse emotional abuse, threats of harm or abandonment, humiliation, controlling, intimidation, verbal abuse, isolation • Financial abuse – theft, fraud, exploitation, pressure in connection with wills, property or inheritance or financial transactions, misappropriation of property, possessions or benefits • Institutional abuse – occurs when services develop ways of working that meet the needs of the staff group and the organisation rather than the individual service user.

These practices can become abusive if they deny or limit the choices, dignity or privacy of those receiving the service • Self neglect – living in very unclean, sometimes verminous, circumstances, hoarding large number of pets, neglecting household maintenance, portraying eccentric behavior's, poor self-care leading to a decline in personal hygiene • Neglect by others – ignoring medical or physical care needs, failure to provide access to appropriate services, withholding of the necessities of life, such as medication, adequatenutrition and heating 1. Identify the signs and/or symptoms associated with each type of abuse Physical Abuse Injuries that are the shape of objects injuries in a variety of stages or injuries that have not received medical attention A person being taken to many different places to receive medical attention Skin infections Dehydration or unexplained weight changes or medication being lost Behaviour that indicates that the person is afraid or avoiding the perpetrator Change of behaviour Sexual Abuse Sexually transmitted diseases or pregnancy Tears or bruises in genital/anal areas

Soreness when sitting Signs that someone is trying to take control of their body image, for example, anorexia, bulimia or self-harm Sexualised behaviour Inappropriately dressed Emotional Abuse Difficulty gaining access to the adult on their own The adult not getting access to medical care or appointments with other agencies Low self-esteem or lack of confidence and anxiety Increased levels of confusion Increased urinary or faecal incontinence Sleep disturbance The person feeling/acting as if they are being watched all of the time Decreased ability to communicate anguage being used that is not usual for the service user Deference/submission to the perpetrator Financial Sudden loss of assets Unusual or inappropriate financial transactions Visitors whose visits always coincide with the day a person’s benefits are cashed Insufficient food in the house Bills not being paid A sense that the person is being tolerated in the house due to the income they bring in; sometimes with that person not included in the activities the rest of the family enjoys Institutional reating adults like children arbitrary decision making by staff group, service or organisation strict, regimented or inflexible routines or schedules for daily activities such as meal times, bed / awakening times, bathing / washing, going to the toilet lack of choice or options, such as food and drink, dress, possessions, daily activities and social activities lack of privacy, dignity, choice or respect for people as individuals unsafe or unhygienic environment ack of provision for dress, diet or religious observance in accordance with an individual’s belief or cultural background withdrawing people from individually valued community or family contact Neglect by self or others Malnutrition Rapid or continuous weight loss Not having access to necessary physical aides Inadequate or inappropriate clothing Untreated medical problems Dirty clothing/bedding Lack of personal care 1. 3 Describe factors that may contribute to an individual being more vulnerable to abuse Any person who is receiving support whether it is a paid carer or family member, are at potential risk of abuse.

This can be any one not just elderly people, it can include : people with learning disabilities people with mental health people with physical or sensory disabilities people who are elderly and frail people with Aids/Hiv/severe physical illness people who are homeless people who are substance misusers There could be a number of reasons why these people are more at risk, these may be : limited communication few friends need of support with personal care little or no contact with family lack of self esteem past history of beeing abused a past history of living in an institution the need of support with finance iving within a large group lack of consistency of staff staff working alone 2. 1 Explain the actions to take if there are suspicions that an individual is being abused Like carer, i should take the following actions : remain calm and try not to show any shock or disbelief take what i have been told seriously, even if the person is confused demonstrate an empathic approach by trying to think what i might feel like to be in their position talk to the service user some more without interrogating him say that they have done the right thing by sharing the information say that i am treating the information seriously bserve the person and take note of their body language remind the person about the bounds of confidentiality but explain that i am required to share the information only with people who can help just listen and do not ask leading questions report the information asap to my line manager make a written record of what the person has told me in their words Like carer, i should not take the following actions : stop anyone from talking freely recalling significant events, enables them to share whatever is important to them ask questions or pressure the person for more details romise to keep secrets, i have a duty of care to report any allegations of abuse contact the alleged abuser or alleged victim break the confidentially agree between the person disclosing the information be judgemental talk to others members of staff / service users about the binformation laugh or joke about what happened ignore what i have been told or dismiss what i have heard change the subject 2. 2 Explain the actions to take if an individual alleges that they are being abused The key things i would do when an individual discloses about is : -assume the person is telling the truth. Speak to them in a clam and sensitive way.

Listen carefully and make sure i record what was said. -if the person needs medical attention i would call the emergency services or call a doctor as appropriate and inform my line manager immediately or another senior person. -if this a criminal matter i would call the police if a senior was not on duty to do so. 2. 3 Identify ways to ensure that evidence of abuse is preserved It is important to record everything that has been said or disclosed in the event of alleged abuse, include date/time and sign it. This is because the information needs to be accurate in case it is to be used in a legal investigation or proceedings.

The written record should be stored in a secure place for safety and to prevent others from seeing its content. If the alleged abuse is of a sexual nature it is advisable to ask the victim of abuse not to wash themselves or dispose of any clothing as they may be contaminating/disposing vital evidence of the alleged abuse. This evidence could be used to convict the abuser and uphold the allegation. 3. 1 Identify national policies and local systems that relate to safeguarding and protection from abuse -safeguarding vulnerable adults policy -protection of vulnerable adults -no secrets -in safe hands -organisational safeguarding policy local authority policy -GSCC codes of practice 3. 2 Explain the roles of different agencies in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse The following are suggestions of different agencies involved in safeguarding and their roles : -safeguarding adults board – an inter-agency forum wich promotes the protection of vulnerable adults from abusive behaviour and practice -independent safeguarding authority – created to help prevent unsuitable from working with children and vulnerable adults -criminal records bureau – an agency wich checks to see if people wishing to work with children or vulnerable adults have a criminal record 3. Identify reports into serious failures to protect individuals from abuse There are a number of failures in care that have been highlights what can happen when a service or organisation falls to protect the persons under their care. 3. 4 Identify sources of information and advice about own role in safeguarding and protecting individuals from abuse My employer will have their own policies relating to abuse. These policies are i am 'working documents' as they inform my practice on how to meet own responsabilities whilst performing my role.

However these are local and national policies relating to abuse which also have to be considered. 4. 1 Explain how the likelihood of abuse may be reduced by: • working with person centred values Person centred planning is a process of constant review, learning and listening. Person centred planning focuses on the immediate and the future, taking into account the needs, thoughts, concerns and opinions of the individual and consulting their family and friends and other within their 'personal network'.

This person centred approach helps individuals identify their aspirations, and mobilises those concerned, including their personal network, service agents, non specialist and non service sources to help people pursue their own personal ambitions • encouraging active participation -investigate – find out why people are not contributing what would make it easier for them to contribute -facilitate – make contributing easier.

Use tasks, give preparation or thinking time, encourage the use of visual aids -clarify – clarify expectations and objectives -demonstrate – show how experience based learning works -change – change the dynamics, create smaller groups, silence louder group members, use temporary rules and gimmicks -consult – consult the group, give responsability, ask the group to come up with solutions, be open, use transparent training. • promoting choice and rights -give the service user the choice to speak out and talk about abuse. 4. Explain the importance of an accessible complaints procedure for reducing the likelihood of abuse By having an accesible complaints procedure i am encouraging the individuals in my care to 'speak up' about any issues they may have. They will not feel threatened, inadequate or guilty about making complaint with no fear of repercussions if they do complain. If the complaints procedure is easy accessible the individual will be aware of what to do in the event of a complaint, who to complain to and what will happen next. 5. Describe unsafe practices that may affect the well-being of individuals -poor working practice – this could include not having proper policies to protect the service users, not have correct equipment to perform their role, not working to the current standards, therefore putting service users at risk -resources difficulties – this could be that staffs are not trained correctly to perform the tasks their role involves. It could be that the home is understaffed as the budget is not there to employ more staff. The staff group may use agency staff due to sickness, vacancies and the agency staff are not aware of the needs of individuals.

Necessary facilities/equipment is not purchased due to lack of funds(wheelchairs, disposable gloves, etc) -operational difficulties – because of staff shortages so recommended ratio of staff to service users are not mentained. The staff group may not work as a team therefore a continuous service is not maintained and the service delivery suffers. Inexperienced staff 'acting up' in a senior role that may not have the knowledge to perform the role. 5. 2 Explain the actions to take if unsafe practices have been identified It is my responsability to report any unsafe practices, straight away to my line manager.

To 'blow the whistle' on somebody or something means to report somebody for doing something wrong or illegal especialy within an organisation. My organisation may have a 'whistle blowing' policy which will protect me and my employment if i report my concerns. Ask my manager or my supervisor if unsure but follow my organisations policies regarding 'reporting' different concerns. I can seek advice from the Adult Protection Coordinator or lead person for Safeguarding Adults based at my local Authority/Council. All concerns should be reported accurately. If my concerns are not taken seriously i must try another route.

I must ask for help if i feel 'out of my depth' with a particular individual or issue. 5. 3 Describe the action to take if suspected abuse or unsafe practices have been reported but nothing has been done in response If i feel nothing is being done about my report of unsafe practice i can contact : -local authority/council safeguarding team -the police -CQC (care quality commision) Unit 4222-206 The role of the health and social care worker 1. 1 Explain how a working relationship is different from a personal relationship A working relationship is different to a personal one, in a variety of ways.

In a working relionship i have set rules to adhere to and policies and procedures laid out by my employer. I am held responsible of my actions. 1. 2 Describe different working relationships in health and social care settings -person in need of support -person's family -person's friends -colleagues -manager -advocates -other care professionals I do not let my personal opinions or feelings affect the relationship. My character and background are checked via police (crb). My 'adresss' people differently, using their surname or title, not in a personal way, they should be recognised. 2. Describe why it is important to adhere to the agreed scope of the job role It is important to work to the agreed scope of my role as it is part of my employment contract. Also i should only do tasks that are agreed in that contract and that i am trained and qualified to perform. For instance if i am not medically trained then i should not undertake any duties with a service user that require specialist medical training. For instance if i am asked to change a catheter bag and had not been trained to do this i may cause harm to the service user and i would be accountable for this not just my employer.

Never undertake any task that i have no experience or training in if that task could cause injury or harm to myself or others. If i work beyound my capabilities i am putting people at risk. 2. 2 Access full and up-to-date details of agreed ways of working Working in social care i will be supporting many diverse groups of individuals, each placing considerable demands on me. My organisation may operate a code of conduct policy which will inform me of my professional boundaries to service users.

It is not good practice to form special relationships with any individual i am supporting; this can be seen as favouritism. If i have any concerns over my relationship with individuals/collegues/carers then i should seek advice from my manager. I am in a position of trust and power over individuals and therefore should not abuse this position. I must act appropriately. Never accept gifts or money from the individuals i am supporting. 2. 3 Implement agreed ways of working My organisation should give me clear and precise information about my role and responsabilities.

If i have concerns then i should consult with my supervisor, manager or senior colleagues. By understanding and adhering to the policies and procedures of my organisation and by working with my colleagues and other professionals i will be part of a team providing a constant level of care to the service users i am responsible for. 3. 1 Explain why it is important to work in partnership with others I will meet new colleagues and be expected to work in partnership with other professionals, GP, social workers, other agencies, family and friends of the individuals who use the services.

Sometimes i will work with : -unpaid carers who provide unpaid support to a relative, friend, partner -significant others – anyone who is 'significant' to the individual i am supporting -advocate – an advocate is a person who supports an individual and helps them to explain and say what they want. They help to ensure that the individual's views are heard so that their problems can be sorted out. In some cases advocates are volunteers while in other instances they may have received specific training and may be paid by service user or by organisations. 3. Demonstrate ways of working that can help improve partnership working To improve partnership working, it is important that all staff work as a team to provide a continuous service to their clients. Being able to accept constructive criticism shows that i value the other colleagues opinions and also that i willing to accept that the other person may have a valid point. Working in partnership with more experienced colleagues can benefit my personally as well as the service i am delivering. As i can learn new skills and knowledge that in turn improves my service delivery.

When working in partnership with collegues or other professionals it is important that i update and maintain service user files so that all staff and outside professionals are aware of the current needs and wishes of the service user. If i thing of myself as a cog in a wheel and othecolleagues and professionals as the remainder cogs, we all need to work together in order for the wheel to turn. Cooperation is the main agenda when working in partnership with anyone as without it the service and outcomes cannot be achieved to the required standards.

It is important to the care of the service user that changes are reported to the right people. Working in partnership means that i may contact a physiotherapist to arrange a visit as i have noticed that since their 'stroke' they are weaker on the one side for instance. I may pass on information to the service users social worker that the service users finances are not covering essential needs, since the service users daughter became responsible for handling the service users finances. This may indicate a case of financial abuse which would need to be investigated further.

Partnership working within a social care practice should mean the same to all, that the service useris at the centre of all i do and that any decision made are for the benefit of the individuals. 3. 3 Identify skills and approaches needed for resolving conflicts To resolve conflicts : -i need to be impartial, reassuring, calm, am able to empathise, knowledgeable and approachable -i should identify what the conflict is, make myself aware of the facts and invite those concerned to discuss their issues, provide a quiet and confidential setting and act as mediator between the individuals who are in conflict i should identify possible compromises to resolve the conflict and agree terms and time frames in which to achieve the compromises. -i observe the situation and arrange a follow up meeting to assess if the agreed measures are rectifying the conflict 3. 4 Demonstrate how and when to access support and advice about: • partnership working • resolving conflicts If i have issues concerning partnership working i could speak to my line manager of an outside organisation (if that is who my issue is relating to). I should follow my organisational policies as they will detail what steps to take in particular circumstances.

I should arrange a meeting with my manager if after reasonable steps have been taken to address the issues with the person concerned have failed. Make the meeting official not just casually mentioning it in the staff room. This way my issue should be taken seriously and addressed in the proper manner. If i do arrange a meeting with my manager it should be in a confidential setting and she should inform me of what steps she will take next and update me on any progress. If my manager does not resolve my issue i can contact my employer's human resources department for them to deal with the issue.

Unit 4222-207 Implement person centred approaches in health and social care 1. 1 Define person-centred values Person centred values are: rights and responsabilities dignity respect individuality identity privacy choice achievement and fulfilment independence inclusion citizenship partnerships Person centred values are the basis of working in a person centred way. I need to have a good understanding of person centred values to put them in practice in my day to day work. My focus should be entirely on the person i am supporting and the positive change this is making to their life.

Using a person centred approach is a practical way of making sure people have choice and control over their lives. 1. 2 Explain why it is important to work in a way that embeds person centred values Working in a person centred way means making sure that the person i am workingwith is at the centre of everything. Their needs, wishes and preferences guide everything that is done. Put simply, person centred way is a way of discovering what service users want, the support they need and how they get it and is my work practice that assist people in leading an independent and inclusive life. . 3 Explain why risk-taking can be part of a person centred approach Risk taking can be part of a person centred approach as it may be necessary to support a service user in an activity or situation that may not be advisable due to safety issues. This could be deemed as a conflict of care. An example of this would be :a service user wishes to walk to a friend's house unaccompanied by a staff member. Whilst it is not recommended for safety reasons i have to respect the service user's wishes.

By allowing the service user to walk unaccompanied it is a risk but i am working in a person centred way this is because i am respected their rights to be : individual, independent and their right to choose. 1. 4 Explain how using an individual’s care plan contributes to working in a person centred way A person's care plan is an active document. It should be a central part of daily routine when supporting service users, as it guides me as to what needs the person has and what support is required. A care plan should be updated as soon as changing needs has been identified.

Changing needs might be identified through a change in behavior, physical appearance, health or fitness, interest or activities, by asking or observing when supporting the service user. These changes needs to be documented so the care plan is kept up to date. 2. 1 Find out the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual To find out an individual's preferences, needs, etc i could : -ask the individual, their family, their friends, social contacts, etc. This way i build a whole picture on what would be the best care package for the individual.

By talking to a variety of people it gives me an insight into the whole person i discover about their past, their family, their hobbles and interests, their favourite foods, social activities, etc. By recognising the service user as an individual i am promoting their right to be independent and my responsabilities in my duty of care. 2. 2 Apply person centred values in day to day work taking into account the history, preferences, wishes and needs of the individual I should be observed by my assessor : -how i provide my service for my client working in a person centred way to find out an individual's preferences, needs for find the best package for individuals, to discover their past, their family, their hobbies and interests. -by recognising the service user as an individual, i am promoting their rights to be independent and my responsabilities in my duty of care 3. 1 Explain the importance of establishing consent when providing care or support Consent means informed agreement to an action or decision, the process of establishing consent will vary according to an individual's assessed capacity to consent.

The issue of consent is very complicated and needs to be considered very careffuly. It is easy to assume that people cannot make decisions. However the ability to make decisions can depend on how much information or support people have. The mental capacity act helps people to make their own decision. It is important that everyone who supports people understands this act. The mental act easy read summary presents the act in a straightforward, simplified way. 3. 2 Establish consent for an activity or action I should seek consent from an individual in all my activities when support an individual. . 3 Explain what steps to take if consent cannot be readily established I should explain my own settings procedures for seeking consent. 4. 1 Describe how active participation benefits an individual Active participation means to involve the service user in all aspects of their care. It enables them to make informed choices as to their preferences and needs. It means to ask individuals their opinions, their suggestions and is an inclusive work practice technique. It allows the service user to have a voice and give their input into their individual care package and to service as a whole. 4. Identify possible barriers to active participation Possible barriers to active participation could be because : -person speaks different language, has mobility problems, has an impairment with their hearing or eyesight, lack of social skills, lack of confidence, reduced understanding, medical condition affecting speech, etc. 4. 3 Demonstrate ways to reduce the barriers and encourage active participation -speaks another language – provide a translator, use a family member as a voice , use other methods of communication to indicate choice -hearing problems – give a person a written account of discussion points.

To sit person at front of a group so they can hear better. -mobility – provide support for the person to take part, provide wheelchairs, walking frames, etc. -learning difficulty – explain things in simple terms, speak slower, ask if the person has understood what is trying to be conveyed, provide picture resources to explain hard to understand words. 5. 1 Support an individual to make informed choices To support an individual make an informed choice i must ensure that they are aware of their rights, consequences of their decisions, possible outcomes of their actions,etc.

I can compile resources to enable them to have options. These resources could be information about benefit entitlements, leaflets on services available, organisations to contact, etc. 5. 2 Use agreed risk assessment processes to support the right to make choices Risk is ever present and for some people it is the spice of life. In the care field there is a minimum standard stating thet individuals should be supported to take risk as part of an independent life style. Many of the individuals who require social care have had to forfeit some of their independence.

Care providers are required to seek and to find a balance between what is appropriate and what is not-to support responsible risk taking. With the current emphasis on client centred care as opposed to service centred care, this means considering each individual in their own right and often agreeing on compromises. The people who care about the individuals, including their family, often find themselves wanting to be more carefull than the individual likes or need. A risk assessment would consist of list of any risks identified and where they occur.

Alongside each one is an assessment of the extent of each risk and what precautions are already in place. The list must be reviewed on an agreed regular basis and between times, whenever there has a problem associated with such a risk. Managers and staff must think creatively so as to find ways to minimise each risk without spoiling the environment or the individual's right to independence. 5. 3 Explain why a worker’s personal views should not influence an individual’s choices As a social care worker and an employee, your own thoughts, needs, or opinions should not infringe on your working practices.

If you support service users to make a choices, they should be based on what that individual wants and indicates. The service should not be delivered in a way that saves time, resources, for the worker or organisation. It should be delivered to the needs and preferences of the individual. 5. 4 Describe how to support an individual to question or challenge decisions concerning them that are made by others I can support a service user to challenge decision made about them by ensuring i assist them to understand what has been decided, by whom and what actions will take place.

I can explain what the decision involves and what affect this will have on their lives. If the service user does not agree with the decision then i can advise them of the steps they can take to raise their objections. I can ask my manager for advice on what steps i can take and refer to my policies and procedures for detailed explanations on what my responsabilities are. I can act as an advocate for the service user if they are unable to raise an objection themselves. 6. 1 Explain how individual identity and self esteem are linked with well-being Well-being is about being happy and healthy.

Self esteem is about how we feel about ourselves. In order for people to feel contented we need to adopt a holistic approach and acknowledge a wide range of needs which may include the following : -spiritual – spirituality is about what provides people with a meaning in life; it could be faith or something else that provides a feeling or state of contentment -emotional – emotional needs are about feeling loved, liked, needed and cherished and having warm, close relationships with people such as parents, care givers and partners, who contribute to meeting our emotional needs cultural – respecting cultural needs is about acknowledging a person's beliefs and is often influenced by the way a person is brought up or people they live with. Cultural needs may include ways of dressing, cooking, religion and celebrations, including particular festivals. 6. 2 Describe attitudes and approaches that are likely to promote an individual’s well-being If i encourage, praise, have a can do attitude with my service users this will improve their self esteem and give them a sense of purpose. All too often people are excluded from things because society thinks it is not appropriate.

The individual should be encouraged to try new things as this will increase their self confidence and enrich their everyday lives. Just because someone is elderly does not mean that they don't enjoy today's music or that they can't perform certain physical tasks. Just because someone is a wheel chair user and does not walk does not mean that they don't like fashionable shoes. Just because a person forgets things that does not mean that they would not like crosswords. Unit 4222-208 Contribute to health and safety in health and social care 1. Identify legislation relating to general health and safety in a health or social care work setting The following legislation applies through the health care settings at Windermere Grange and i was given this legislation at induction : Health and safety at work act 1974 Management of health and safety at work regulations 1999 Manual handling operations regulations 1992 Health and safety regulations 1981 Reporting of injuries, deseases and dangerous occurrences regulations 1995 Control of substances hazardous to health regulations 2002 1. Describe the main points of the health and safety policies and procedures agreed with the employer I should look at my organisation health and safety policies. 1. 3 Outline the main health and safety responsibilities of: • self - to take care of own health and safety - to understand the legislation and agreed ways of work - to attend all training courses and refresher courses when required - to understand the importance of correct use of anything provided for personal safety - to understand that certain tasks should not be carried out without special training • the employer or manager to make sure that i attend all training courses - to make sure that training records are kept up to date - to make sure i have a safe place to work - to make sure that all policies and procedures are in place - to make sure that all equipment are safe and tested - to make sure that any changes in health and safety are passed on to the elevant people • others in the work setting - to ensure the safety of themselves and others around them by following all company policies and procedures set out by management 1. Identify tasks relating to health and safety that should not be carried out without special training At Windermere Grange Care Home i am not allowed to carry out without special training, the following : - first aid - use of special equipment - administrating of medication - food handling and preparation - any moving and handling procedures 1. 5 Explain how to access additional support and information relating to health and safety I can acces information regarding health and safety from my manager, my policies, current legislation, my designed health and safety officer within my workplace. . 1 Explain why it is important to assess health and safety hazards posed by the work setting or by particular activities It is important to assess health and safety hazards to reduce the eventuality of an accident occuring. I should assess prior to commencing any task, the area, any equipment used and the likelihood of injury occurring whilst performing the actions. The result of the assessments can then help me to produce an informative guide , of steps to take to reduce the likelihood of an accident occurring.

It is important to assess any health and safety hazards for beeing sure that everybody's health and safety is not threatened. Examples : - make sure that there is nothing obstructing walk ways - make sure that no sharp objects are lying around - make sure that any substances spilt on the floor are cleaned up immediately as it could cause slips and trips for anyone - make sure that the residents are not given food that they could be alergic to 2. 2 Explain how and when to report potential health and safety risks that have been identified I would report any potential health and safety risk to the senior on my shift.

If there is any potential of a hazard, i try to remove myself the obstruction if it is possible and report anyway to my senior to avoid the same risk in future. In any situations, for any action or any report, i would follow company policies and procedures. 2. 3 Explain how risk assessment can help address dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns Dilemmas between rights and health and safety concerns means conflicts between personal's rights and health and safety concerns. Sometimes, residents want to get/to do something which is against his health and safety even if they believe it is their right.

In these cases, based on my risk assessment i should try to explain to the resident and/or their family why they can't do/get something and i have the opportunity to assist them in a safety way getting/doing of what they wish, if it is possible. I will identify plans to put in place to reduce the risk whilst still allowing to do the activity. 3. 1 Describe different types of accidents and sudden illness that may occur in own work setting - slips, trips, falls – if something has been spilt - burns and scalds - electrocution from unsafe wirings cuts, bruises – if sharp objects are left lying around - poisoning – from drugs left unattended and not locked in a safe place - heart attack, diabetic coma, epileptic convulsion 3. 2 Outline the procedures to be followed if an accident or sudden illness should occur If an accident or sudden illness should occur, i should report to the senior on my shift, then i should document it in the accident book and in case of sudden illness if the senior get in touch with a doctor and a resident need to go to hospital i will accompany if it is required, 4. Demonstrate the recommended method for hand washing -use hand wash to build up lather. Wash hands and wrists. -wash hands with palms facing and remember to wash between fingers -wash back of hands and remember to wash between fingers -link the fingers of one hand with the other and continue to wash -wash the thumbs of each hand throughly using one hand to wash the opposite thumb -finally, wash the palms of each hand as this is area is often neglected. Then rinse hands throughly and dry on disposable towels 4. Demonstrate ways to ensure that own health and hygiene do not pose a risk to others at work -clean hands, hair and uniform -take precaution if i have coughs, colds and other air borne infections by coughing in to a disposable tissue -i should not go to work if i have diarrhoea, vomiting and infections illness -i should always wash my hands after using toilet, after coughing or sneezing, before touching food or drink, stroking a pet, after smoking, after handling rubbish or whenever they are dirty 5. 1 Identify legislation that relates to moving and handling Health and Safety at Work Act 1974

The manual handling operations regulations 1992(as amended in 2002) regulations from the HSC/E covering manual handling risk factors and how injuries can occur 5. 2 Explain principles for moving and han

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Introduction to Communication in Health, Social Care or Children’s. (2017, Jan 01). Retrieved from

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