Translocation is the method to alleviate the over-breeding problem of animal besides killing them. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) broadly defines translocation as ‘‘the deliberate and mediated movement of wild individuals from one part of their range to another” (e. g. IUCN, 1987). Translocation includes Capture and handling, captivity or some form of prolonged restraint, transport, release into an unfamiliar location four processes. Despite its wide use and importance, translocation traditionally has a low rate of success due to the effect of chronic stress.
But Tufts University has done the measure on translocation and found out the solutions (Biological Conservation Molly J. Dickens 2010). Administering anesthesia or tranquilizing during capture, reduce the risk of the animal perceive handling and transport. Normally, Health assays, veterinary visits, or other forms of observation and intervention are conducted during captivity, decrease the total number of visits, thus decreasing added exposure to handling stress.
Specific aspects of transport such as vehicle design, stacking density, ventilation, and even the quality of the road and the standard of driving should be measured before translocation. Finally, the use of a ‘‘soft-release” strategy, in which animals adjust to the area in a special designed cage before being released, may decrease novelty of the release site since animals will have time to adjust to their new surroundings without additional stress of finding resources or facing predation. This research makes translocation be a feasible method nowadays.
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There are two types of strategy in translocation. Introduce to a place with similar biotic and abiotic factors but the population of over-breeding species should be small. For the advantage, animals easily adapt the new condition. But the animals still have a high breeding rate, the over-breeding problem will threaten the ecosystem again after a long period. Another strategy is to introduce to a place with new environment. It actually can reduce the breeding rate effectively. But there is a lot of works should be carried out both before and after.
Before animals can be introduced into an environment biologists must determine the reason for the over-breeding and over-population problems and also assess the risk of translocation. After translocation, biologists should study the animals to ensure they are surviving and breeding in their new environment. Translocation is the most suitable for some species of animals. For example, Grey kangaroos are one of the over breeding animals. They are capable of breeding throughout the year, but most breeding occurs in summer. The female kangaroo is usually permanently pregnant, except on the day she gives birth.
This leads a high birth rate. Apart from human, the effect of predator on kangaroo’s population is limit. And also, eastern Grey Kangaroos are the most social of the kangaroos and so it is rare to see one alone. One good reason to gather together in a group is that more individuals can be more attentive to possible threats from predators. As kangaroos dead from the effect of predator is low, but the high breeding rate continuously increase the population, finally cause over-population. But the grey kangaroos are a high adaptability species.
They can still alive in the change of environment and this minimizes the effect of translocation. During a dry period, males will not produce sperm. It is suitable to relocate them to a less wet place to reduce their ability of reproduction. Kangaroos are animals that don't burp methane. In Australia, kangaroo compete with cattle and sheep. The increase in number of kangaroos enables decrease number of sheep and cattle, and therefore reduces the release of greenhouse gases. This is the main reason why we save the kangaroos rather than eating them.
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