Last Updated 17 Aug 2022

The Structure of Education from Early Years to Post-Compulsory Education

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The structure of education from early years to post-compulsory education Entitlement & provision for early years education. As part of the every child matters agenda and the Childcare Act 2006 every child aged 3 & 4 is entitled to receive part time early years education of up to 12. 5 hours per week for 38 weeks of the year to ensure that they receive up to 2 years free education before reaching school age. The characteristics of schools & school governance.

All schools are seeking to enforce expectations in terms of meeting the national curriculum. Under the National Curriculum there are four Key Stages to education: Foundation4 year olds Key Stage 15 to 7 year olds Key Stage 27 to 11 year olds Key Stage 311 to 14 year olds Key Stage 414 to 16 year olds Mainstream State Schools All children in England aged 5 to 16 are entitled to free education at a state school, most go to state schools. Nursery school: 3 to 4 year olds Reception: 4 year olds Primary: 5 to 11 year olds (Key Stage 1 & 2)

Secondary: 11 to 16 (Key Stage 3 & 4) There are 4 main types of state school: Community schools, Foundation & Trust schools, Voluntary aided schools, Voluntary Controlled schools. Community schools These are run & owned by the local authority & cover all 4 Key Stages. Foundation & Trust schools Foundation schools are run by a governing body which employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria. Land and buildings are owned either by the governing body or by a charitable foundation.

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Trust schools are similar, but are run together with an outside body – usually a business or charity – which has formed an educational trust. Voluntary aided schools Voluntary-aided schools are religious or faith schools. Just like foundation schools, the governing body employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria. School buildings and land are usually owned by a charity, often a church. Voluntary Controlled schools Voluntary-controlled schools are a cross between community and voluntary-aided schools.

The local authority employs the staff and sets the entrance criteria, like a community school, but the school land and buildings are owned by a charity, often a church, which also appoints some members of the governing body. Specialist schools State secondaries often specialise, which means they have an extra emphasis in one or two subjects. Schools can specialise in: the arts, maths and computing, business and enterprise, music, engineering, science, humanities, sports, languages, and technology.

Special schools Special schools are for the education of students with special needs that addresses the students' individual differences and needs. This could involve the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of success in school and community than would be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education.

State schools with particular characteristics There are a number of schools within the state schools system with particular characteristics, some may have different admission criteria or funding arrangements but as with other state schools admissions are coordinated by the local authority. Academies Academies are independently managed schools set up by sponsors from business, faith or voluntary groups in partnership with the local authority and the government Department for Children, Schools and Families.

City Technology Colleges These are urban-based, independently managed secondary schools geared towards science, technology and the world of work. They offer a range of vocational qualifications as well as GCSEs and A levels. Community and foundation special schools Pupils at a special school have usually been assessed and given a statement of special educational needs (SEN). These may include learning disabilities or physical disabilities. Some special schools are funded by the local education authority.

These could be community, voluntary-aided or controlled, or foundation special schools. Some special schools are independent. Faith schools Faith schools are mostly run in the same way as other state schools. However, their faith status may be reflected in their religious education curriculum, admissions criteria ; staffing policies. Grammar schools Grammar schools select all or most of their pupils based on academic ability. Maintained boarding schools Maintained boarding schools offer free tuition, but charge fees for board ; lodging. Independent schools

An independent school (also referred to as a private school, or in England as a public school) is a school that is not financed through the taxation system by local or national government and is instead funded by private sources, predominantly in the form of tuition charges, gifts and long-term charitable endowments, and so is not subject to the conditions imposed by accepting state financing. Free schools Free Schools are normally brand-new schools set up by teachers, charities, community or faith groups, universities and groups of parents where there is parental demand.

They will be set up as Academies and will be funded in the same way, directly from central government. They also share with Academies a greater control over their finances, the curriculum, and teachers' pay and conditions. Post 16 options for young people & adults. There are more opportunities now than ever before when it comes to post 16 education, previously pupils aged 16 or over either left school and started employment or stayed on to continue their studies.

There has been an increase in government funding of education for 14-19 year olds and in particular a focus on reducing the number of young people not in education, employment or training (NEET) post 16. Just under an estimated one million 16 to 24-year-olds (979,000 in total) are considered NEET, according to official figures published in August, of these, around 186,000 are aged 16-18. If you are aged 16 or 17 and coming towards the end of a school or college course, the “September Guarantee” means that you’ll definitely be able to continue learning.

The September Guarantee Under the last Labour government the guarantee was as follows: * Full or part-time education in school, sixth form college, independent learning provider or further education (FE) college * An Apprenticeship or programme-led Apprenticeship, which must include both the training element and a job or work placement * Entry to Employment (E2E) * Employment with training to NVQ level 2 By 2013 all pupils will be required to continue in education or training to at least 17 years of age although under new governments this could change.

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