The Manual Transmission System Engineering Essay

Category: Engineering
Last Updated: 10 Jun 2021
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In this study, I am traveling to compare and contrast the difference between Toyota 5 velocity manual gear box transmittal and Toyota 5 velocity automatic transmittal system.

History of the Transmittal

In 1894 Louis-Rene Panhard and Emile Levassor invented the modern transmittal.

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Today we still use the same construct since it was introduced. The construct is still the same that the crankshaft connects from the engine to the transmittal shaft through clasp. The latter is mounted to cogwheels which control and run the transmittal of the gesture that is coming from the engine to the wheels. Few experiments have been done about type and Numberss of cogwheels but still until today the same construct is applied. To do it easier for the driver to command velocity and with aid of cogwheels, synchromesh cogwheels and a unrecorded rear axle were invented. Alternatively of holding cogwheels engage and disengage once more from each other, a auto transmittal that had cogwheels and uninterrupted with each other was introduced, all the cogwheels were traveling and the Canis familiaris clasp was designed in order to link the cogwheels that are caused to revolve by engine and travel the wheels frontward.

Different cogwheels with different sizes are designed to increase or diminish the impulse of the vehicle. The most popular transmittals were 4 velocity transmittals which its top cogwheel ( 4th ) had a ratio of 1:1 while other cogwheels had lower ratios. Then, applied scientists came with a fifth cogwheel in which will increase the ratio by 1 between the engine revolutions per minute and the wheel revolutions per minute that is known as overdrive.

American discoverers Harold Sinclair and Richard Spikes designed automatic transmittal while German discoverers invented the automatic transmittal fundamental design. While General Motors provided automatic transmittal in all of their autos that were manufactured from 1938 and by the terminal of 1940s most of the auto manufactures offered at least one transmittal in their theoretical accounts. Electric autos besides fitted with electric auto transmittal. Now the market for automatic transmittal is immense and most autos are manufactured with it ( Car transmittal, 2006 )

Automatic Transmittal System

This is the type of transmittal that is capable of altering the gear ratios automatically while the vehicle is traveling without the demand of the driver to manually alter the cogwheel utilizing the gear stick. The chief intent of the transmittal is to supply the undermentioned result:

  • Impersonal - to maintain the engine running without the cogwheel, or traveling the vehicle.
  • Lower cogwheels - for taking off intent and for operating in heavier state of affairs.
  • Higher cogwheels - for cruising, higher velocity and lighter weight
  • Reverse gear - to travel the vehicle backwards.
  • Transfering the drive torsion to the needed wheels ( Crolla, D, 2009, P, 109 )

The automatic transmittal comes into two different types. The front wheel thrusts vehicles that are designed more compact than rear wheel thrust vehicle 's transmittals that are usually connected in the engine compartment in which they are known as transaxle. Both of these types of transmittal do the same occupation and same design of the planetal cogwheel train.

The indispensable portion for the front wheel drive transmittal is differential, while the rear wheel thrust transmittal has externally mounted derived function which is uses the thrust shaft to associate up with the transmittal.

The automatic transmittal system contains few major constituents. These are:

  • Planetal cogwheel unit
  • Torque convertor
  • Hydraulic control unit
  • Sealing waxs and gasket
  • Computer
  • Governor/ modulator

The above six constituents perform assorted responsibilities in transmittal as explained below ( Toyota proficient preparation ).

Planetal Gear Unit

The intent of planetal gear unit is to supply and altering different gear ratios. By and large, the planetal cogwheel unit contains three major parts. These are pealing cogwheel, interior cogwheel ( sun cogwheel ) and planetal bearer that carries three or four cogwheels which are between the interior cogwheel and outer ring cogwheel.

Planetal Cogwheel Unit

When one portion of the planetal cogwheel connects to the input shaft which leads to the engine, the 2nd portion is held still and the 3rd portion normally attached to the end product shaft. It all depends on which portion stays still, which one is the input or end product because it will ensue in different gear ratios. Thingss such as brake sets, hydraulic clasp battalions and one manner clasps are used in the planetal cogwheel to command the power flow. Every cogwheel links up to a combination of clasp battalions and bake sets being engaged or disengaged ( )

Torque Convertor

Is a unstable type yoke, that lets the engine to revolve freely without the aid from the transmittal, if the engine is running easy, tick overing or on the halt traffic, there is a little sum of torsion that is passed via torsion convertor, less force per unit area is besides required on the brake pedal to maintain the auto stationary. Besides, when you put more force per unit area on the gas pedal, it speeds up and adds more fluid into the torsion convertor which causes the wheels to have more torsion.

The torsion convertor lodging contains five major constituents. Pump is fixed to lodging, turbine that is connected through end product shaft to transmittal, stator has end product that is connected to fixed shaft in transmittal, fluid and convertor clasp. This lodging is attached to the engine 's flywheel and rotates and at any velocity that the engine is whirling. The torsion convertor besides has pumps that is made up of fives and are attached to the lodging that uses the same velocity as engine to turn.

Centrifugal type pump is used inside the torsion convertor, as it rotates it causes the fluid to be thrown outside and this action creates the vacuity that draws a batch of fluid in at the Centre. Once the fluid arrives in the blades of the turbine, the transmittal begins to revolve and this causes the auto to travel, the turbine 's blades are curved and this makes the fluid that is coming from the exterior to travel into different manner before it goes to the Centre of the turbine, this changing of way is the 1 that causes the turbine to whirl. In other manner we can set that both turbine and the fluid spin in different way and this creates the force as an result. This fluid that exists from the turbine is normally traveling into different way as the pump and engine bend, because if the fluid hits the pump straight, it may do the engine to blow power or decelerate it down and that is why there is a stator in the torsion convertor ( Builders transmittal and used auto Inc. ).

Hydraulic Control Unit

A transmittal fluid is sent utilizing the engine oil pump that controls the public presentation of the auto clasps that helps the planetal cogwheel sets to work swimmingly.

Sealing Waxs and Gasket

Their work is to back up and keep the right topographic point of the engine oil and halt it from leaking outside.

Governor / Modulator

This controls and proctors throttle place and the velocity of the auto to find when to alter the cogwheels.


This is the major unit that uses detectors to command all the activities such as engine velocity, engine burden, throttle place, brake pedal place etc. ( Carazoo, 2010 )


The stuffs that are used to construct clasp or transmittal have to defy heat, clash, lasting, strong, difficult and tough. These stuffs are organic, Kevlar, segmented Kevlar, intercrossed C, ceramic and sintered Fe ( UUC Motorwerks, 2003 )

Advantages of Automatic Transmittal System

The torsion convertor gives more engine torsions and reduces the strain and the daze of the full thrust line. A lock up clasp is included in the latest automatic transmittal, this helps in maximising the fuel economic system because of its direct mechanical linkage from the engine to the transmittal. A vehicle with automatic transmittal is really comfy and easy to drive as the driver does non necessitate to manually alter the gear ratios.

Automatic transmittal can besides be powerful and strong because of the agreement of the Sun cogwheel and ring cogwheel, this addition the cogwheel 's contacts that reduces the cogwheel 's breakage and supplies more torsion on large country ( Rowe, R. 2010 )

Disadvantages of Automatic Transmittal

Since the automatic transmittal is made up of several constituents, the chief reverse can happen when individual portion interruptions down working and this can do a transmittal to halt working, as a consequence maintaining or repairing it can be really expensive. Besides the entire velocity of the vehicle is controlled by the computing machine that manages the transmittal, and the driver can lose the acceleration beyond a certain velocity.

Automatic transmittal can overheat easy.

Manual Transmittal System

This is the type of transmittal in which the driver has to manually alter the cogwheel ratio scene by utilizing the cogwheel stick inside the auto.

There are two types of manual transmittals. The changeless mesh design and the sliding cogwheel type. The sliding-gear type, no portion is turning inside the transmittal instance except the chief thrust cogwheel and bunch cogwheel when the transmittal is in impersonal. In order to engage the cogwheels and use engine power to travel the vehicle, the driver pushes the clasp pedal and moves the displacement boss, which shifts a linkage and forks to skid a cogwheel along the chief shaft that is connected directly above the bunch. Once the cogwheels are meshed, the clasp pedal is released and the power from the engine is sent to the thrust wheels. There can be different cogwheels on the chief shaft of different diameters and tooth counts, and the transmittal displacement linkage is designed so the driver has to unmesh one cogwheel before being able to engage another. With these older transmittals, gear clang is a job because the cogwheels are all revolving at different velocity ( Cook, M. 2009 )

The 5 velocity manual transmittal cogwheel box has a three plane agreement order with contrary cogwheel alongside 5th cogwheel and uses a particular fluid to run. Traveling forks are attached to three broad base tracks that work in ordered bushing for less clash, these traveling levers are connected together to the shifting overseas telegrams. Every one of them uses different manner with selected lever and this creates less switching attempts for a driver, it besides avoids to by chance prosecuting the contrary cogwheel from 5th because of the manner it is designed to run, it shifts the crossing over lever into three to four cogwheel without thronging or binding.

The displacement boss is normally used to command the gear ratios. The forward cogwheel ratios are synchronized utilizing great capacity double cone brass ( 1st and 2nd ) and other cogwheels are synchronized with paper clash stuffs which is more strong and clang resistant than brass. The input shaft uses paper stuffs synchroscopes, by cutting revolving inactiveness it helps to cut down the shifting attempt. A rearward battle clang can be minimised by utilizing a brake mechanism.

The needle roller bearings are fixed to cut down clash and extend gear life. The instance itself is cast in merely two pieces to cut down leak waies ; structural ribs strengthen and indurate the instance to cut down noise and quiver with little or no excess weight. The instance has good bending stiffness, offering a natural frequence above the exciting frequence of the engine at peak revolutions per minute ( Massey, K. 2010 )

Clasp System

A manual transmittal system will non work without a clasp. This is the mechanism that is used for conveying rotary motion that can be engaged and disengaged. This is controlled by the driver who uses a particular release mechanism to command the motion of the torsion between them.

The Clasp Assembly

A individual phonograph record clasp assembly contains four major parts:

  • the rear face of the flywheel- a drive member
  • the clasp disc- the goaded member
  • the force per unit area home base assembly-a drive member
  • the release mechanism-disengages and engages the clasp

( May, E. 2004. p,250 )

Types of Clasps

Multidisc clasp that contain two or more phonograph records are normally used in automatic transmittal, motor rhythms and heavy mechanical equipment. While the manual transmittal is operated utilizing a dry clasp and there is no lubrication between surfaces. The automatic transmittal clasp operates wet, it is enclosed in the transmittal instance that is full of lubrication fluid.

By and large, in automatic transmittal there is no clasp pedal and a gear displacement ( Roymech, 2010)

( Genta & A ; Morello, 2009 P, 425 )

There are so many different types of clasps such as cone clasps, wet clasps and dry clasps but the common one uses one or more clash phonograph record that are pushed really tight together or against the fly wheel utilizing a spring. A Clasp contains two revolving shafts, one is operated utilizing block and the other one uses a different method, these two shafts are connected together by the clasp so that they can be locked together and revolving at the same clip while it engages, or be decoupled and rotate at different velocity while it disengages. The input shaft is used at the Centre of the force per unit area to prosecute the splines of the clash phonograph record hub. The clasp and flywheel assembly whirling as one unit when the engine is revolving. The flywheel is having the torsion from the engine, uses the clash that is happening from the clasp phonograph record to the spline hub into the transmittal. When the clasp pedal is moved, it manages and controls the motion of the torsion between two units. The force per unit area home base can be retracted against the springs force and frees the phonograph record from its clamping action by dejecting the pedal. These two units and clamping force can be connected once more by let go ofing the pedal one time once more.

This is a really of import mechanism when:

  • Prosecuting the transmittal into cogwheel, the input shaft from the transmittal must be disengaged from the engine.
  • The pedal is released easy, it provides a gradual battle of the thrust, as the facings faux pass of the clash faux pas, and this lets the torsion to be applied continuously until these two units are connected really tightly.
  • Choosing different ratio, altering cogwheels when the vehicle is traveling, for this to go on, the engine torsion from the transmittal must be interrupted.
  • The disengaged of the transmittal that causes the vehicle to halt and allow the engine tally at tick overing velocity.

The co-efficient of clash between the clash facings and their coupling surfaces, the entire spring force and the sum of facings in contact can make up one's mind the torsion that is transferred by the clasp. If you want to increase the torque capacity, the diameter of the clasp needs to be increased and this will do the spring force to increase. Multi home base clasp can be made by holding two or more clasp home bases every bit good as increasing the figure of facings and torque capacity. They are utile where by cut downing the diameter is good or where by increasing the spring strength is unwanted. ( CDX online eTextbook ) .

Advantages of Manual Transmittal System

The manual transmittal vehicles are normally cheaper and good in care comparison to the automatic 1s, this is because altering of the fluid can be really less, besides when it breaks down it is more than probably that the clasp needs to be replaced and this can salvage you a batch from purchasing a new or 2nd manus transmittal.

It gives better control because of the faster displacement response, this is chiefly due to the bad conditions. They can every bit good be good in braking because the driver is non contending the attempt of the automatic transmittal to travel frontward. It can be good is footings of fuel economic system because you can switch the cogwheel into impersonal and avoiding drive in lower cogwheels.

A skilled driver at switching cogwheels will hold a better grip in snowy, muddy or slippery conditions and might every bit good be easier to acquire of the unsafe state of affairs than automatic 1. Manual transmittal is besides lighter in weight.

And there is a fun point of position in driving manual because it keeps you active and keeps you cognizant of what is traveling on around you ( Moore, S. 2010 )

Disadvantages of Manual Transmittal System

Driving manual auto in traffic can be really pain full particularly when there is a stop start drive, automatic autos are more comfy in this instance.

It is really improbable to happen a manual transmittal auto with a sail control. Most auto now are built in automatic transmittal so there is less handiness of autos with manual transmittal every bit good as the troubles in larning how to drive manual transmittal autos.

Report Summary

This has been a successful study and I have researched a batch of information about this subject. Indeed I have acquired a batch transmittal system. Here are some few pointed aligned below:

  • History of the transmittal
  • What is automatic transmittal system
  • Major constituents of the automatic transmittal and how they work
  • Advantages and disadvantages of automatic transmittal system
  • What is manual transmittal system
  • Clasp assembly and clasp constituents and how they work
  • Advantages and disadvantages of manual transmittal system


Harmonizing to my apprehension in the study, it shows the chief difference between automatic transmittal and manual transmittal is that automatic transmittal uses torque convertor to make power while manual transmittal uses clasp to prosecute and withdraw the cogwheels. Besides automatic autos are in really high demanding since most of the constituents are controlled by computing machines now in the auto. It besides shows that one time the automatic transmittal breaks it can be really difficult and complicated to repair it and this may stop up in replacing the whole transmittal. In footings of manual cogwheel box, the study shows they are really hard to interrupt or decease every bit good as less care excessively, this is one of the best things in manual transmittal because it can last for long clip without anything happen.

From my point of position I would ever urge to travel for manual auto if you enjoy the cogwheel altering ration as I do.

Cite this Page

The Manual Transmission System Engineering Essay. (2018, Sep 01). Retrieved from

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