The importance of instruction for the resurgence of a society can non be denied. Harmonizing to Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, `` the preparation of a human head is uncomplete without instruction, as instruction contributes a batch in doing adult male a right mind. '' ( Khan, 2010 ) While doing determinations for the demand of instructors, the policy shapers and educational decision makers considers several factors. The entire figure of instructors required in a territory or metropolis or small town depends upon the registration of pupils in schools and colleges, the rate of instructors ' retirement and bend over and the coveted teacher-student ratios required in that country. Harmonizing to Yasin, `` factors such as high in-migration rates within a population or policies on cut downing category size besides contribute to the demand for new instructors. '' ( Yasin, 1998 )
The present research is about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary school and college degree in Punjab. The research analyzes that whether the instruction section of Punjab has been able to supply quality instruction and fulfilled the demand of instructors in schools and colleges particularly in rural countries. The present research besides analyzes the enterprise of the present authorities for change overing Urdu Medium schools into English Medium and its relation to the demand and supply of instructors.
Statement of the Problem
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Meeting the demand of providing competent instructors to secondary schools and college degree in Punjab is indispensable for bettering the quality of instruction in these schools and colleges. These schools and colleges particularly the authorities establishments depend upon the instruction section for bettering the quality of instruction and for the proviso of professional and qualified instructors. The rural countries need particular attending from the instruction section to better the quality of instruction. The rural countries frequently lack competent instructors due to the location, low wage and fewer installations. Teachers hesitate from learning in such countries. The present authorities 's enterprise of change overing Urdu Medium schools to English Medium has posed a new challenge for these schools. This research analyzes the demand and supply of instructors in schools and colleges of Punjab and provides feasible solution for making balance between demand and supply of instructors in Punjab.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
The intent of the survey is to research the balance between demand and supply of instructors in the secondary schools and college degree in Punjab. The research analyzes assorted grounds which lead to the demand of instructors in schools and colleges. The research provides a feasible solution for work outing the job of quality instruction and make fulling the vacancies of qualified instructors in schools and colleges of Pakistan. The paper besides assesses that whether the transition of Urdu Medium schools into English Medium has posed the demand for demand of the competent instructors.
Scope of the Research
The present research is an extended survey on the demand and supply of qualified instructors at secondary and college degree in Punjab. The research covers the demands and demands of the schools and colleges in rural and urban countries for make fulling the spread of quality instruction and jobs faced by schools and colleges in the employment of competent instructors. The research besides analyzes the demand and supply of instructors in the Urdu Medium schools which have been converted to English Medium schools.
1.4 Importance of the Research
This research would turn out to be an extended survey on solutions required for making balance between the demand and supply of instructors at secondary and college degree in Punjab. It has analyzed the demands of the schools and colleges particularly that of rural countries in supplying competent instructors to them. The research has besides emphasized the demand of competent instructors in the Urdu Medium schools which have been converted to English Medium.
1.5 Justification of the Research
The subject of the research is appropriate, as carry oning research on the demand and supply of instructors has revealed utile facts related to the proviso of quality instruction to pupils at secondary and college degree. This research would be utile in long tally as it has provided solutions for get the better ofing the supply of competent instructors in Punjab.
Rural and hapless communities in Pakistan face the greatest demand for instructors. They face extra challenges such as retaining of instructors, who may be attracted to the higher wages which are offered to them in metropoliss. The supply of instructors has greatly grown over the past 10 old ages. Keeping in position the demand for instructors, the supply of instructors must go on to increase. The demand for new instructors may differ by territory or small town and it depends upon the local population growing, instructors ' retirements and bend over, in-migration rates and wages offered to them. With the transition of all Urdu Medium schools to English Medium schools in Punjab, the demand for qualified and professional instructors in these schools have increased.
Harmonizing to Goel, `` A adult male becomes a rational animate being when he becomes educated. '' ( Goel, 2007 ) Education is indispensable for the moral and learning developments of worlds. It contributes to the national economic growing and poorness decrease. The population of Punjab histories for 60 % population of Pakistan. ( Sayed, 2007 ) There are about 64,000 educational institutes in Punjab, out of which 44,000 are primary schools. ( Sayed, 2005 ) There are over 500,000 employees in these institutes, out of which 350,000 are instructors. ( Sayed, 2005 ) There are about 11 million registrations in these institutes. ( Sayed, 2005 ) Harmonizing to John Wall, Country Director of World Bank ; `` Improvements in instruction results in Punjab have the possible for country-wide impact. '' ( McCutcheon, 2007 ) Decrease in poorness can be achieved by turn toing the root cause of poorness, that is ; deficiency of instruction and accomplishments.
Harmonizing to a World Bank study, the quality of instruction provided by the populace sector in Pakistan is really low. This is due to `` low competence of instructors, deficiency of quality text editions and larning stuffs, deficiency of classroom-based support for instructors, deficiency of the appraisal of pupils, hapless supervising and hapless sector administration and direction. '' ( World Bank, `` Third Punjab Education '' 2006 ) . In rural countries, there is deficiency of qualified instructors, as they hesitate to work due to legion grounds such as deficiency of motive, low wages, deficiency of installations in schools and hapless on the job conditions.
In 2003, the Punjab Education Sector Reform Program ( PESRP ) was launched for the intent of bettering quality, entree and administration in the instruction sector of Punjab. This plan comprised of supply-side enterprises including upgrading of schools and make fulling vacancies of instructors. A figure of reforms affecting instructors ' enlisting, professional development of instructors, production of text editions and betterment in the scrutiny system were implemented. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) With the support of UNICEF and the National Rural Support Programme ( NRSP ) , PESRP has given high precedence to instructors in its new reform programme. ( McCutcheon, 2007 ) In order to run into the billowing demand of instructors, about 50,000 instructors have been hired since 2003. About 100,000 instructors have been trained through refresher classs in `` child-centered instruction patterns. '' ( McCutcheon, 2007 )
The authorities has taken effectual steps to better the quality of instruction in Punjab. The EFA ( Education for All ) National Plan of Action ( NPA ) 2015 figures out legion issues sing instructor supply, preparation and Supervision. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) The NPA emphasizes the demand for 118,000 instructors up to 2015 in order to run into the Universal Primary Education marks. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) There is deficiency of instructors in schools and colleges of Punjab due to decelerate replacing of retired instructors, less figure of instructors in primary schools and fewer instructors are recruited on lasting footing. The EFA NPA has suggested relaxation of makings for instructors in rural countries and for supplying specific inducements to them in order to make full the spread of instructors. ( UNESCO, 2007 ) By supplying in-service preparation to instructors, the quality of instruction will greatly better in these schools and colleges. The authorities is set uping Professional Development centres for the quality preparation of instructors.
The authorities of Pakistan has converted all Urdu Medium schools in Punjab to English Medium schools. With this enterprise, the differentiation between two categories of instruction has been removed. This enterprise has chiefly being taken for viing with the globalized universe in the field of cognition. ( The News, 2010 ) The instructors of these schools have been provided developing through English Language classs. The preparation plans aims at bettering learning and English linguistic communication accomplishments of the instructors. The instructors have besides been offered heavy salary bundles. ( The News, 2010 ) The transition of schools has raised more demand for the supply of professional and competent instructors.
The academic reappraisal has shown that the supply of instructors has grown over the past 10 old ages, but due to the uninterrupted addition in demand of instructors particularly in rural countries, the supply of instructors must go on to increase for the following decennary.
The research comprises of both Qualitative and Quantitative analysis. The research has gathered information with respect, but non restricted to the followers ;
Analysis of the demand and supply of instructors in schools and colleges in Punjab.
Problems faced by the instruction section in providing competent instructors to schools and colleges in Punjab.
Problems faced by schools and colleges particularly in rural countries to make full the spread of quality instruction and to enroll competent instructors.
Possible solutions for get bying with the demand of instructors in schools and colleges in Punjab.
The Qualitative methodological analysis in the present research involves both primary every bit good as secondary beginnings. Primary beginning involves study of Pakistan Education Assessment System ( PEAS ) . Unstructured interview was conducted from 9 top directors of PEAS. Unstructured Interviews are utile for in-depth study, as `` inquiries can be changed or adapted in order to run into the respondent 's intelligence, understanding or belief. '' ( The Psychology Wiki, 2010 ) Burns and Grove defines qualitative research as ; `` The logical thinking procedure used in qualitative research involves perceptually seting pieces together to do wholes. From this procedure, significance is produced. However, because perceptual experience varies with the person, many different significances are possible. '' ( Burns, Grove, 1993 ) . Data is normally gathered through less structured research instruments in qualitative research. Secondary beginning in the present research comprises of reappraisal of books, diaries, articles, periodicals, current event intelligence, web stuff, etc.
Quantitative research has been used by the research worker for deriving firsthand cognition about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary schools and college degree in Punjab. Harmonizing to Andrew Sanchez, `` Quantitative research generates statistics through the usage of large-scale study research, utilizing methods such as questionnaires or interviews '' . ( Sanchez, 2005 ) Purposive Sampling method had been used for choosing the sample. It uses a specific pre-defined group and does non affect random trying. Purposive Sampling method is a non-probability sampling method which is chosen `` with a intent in head. '' ( William, 2006 ) . The sample of the choice of 9 top directors from PEAS is rather appropriate for obtaining information about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary school degree and colleges in Punjab.
Keeping in position the above mentioned definitions and accounts, it can be concluded that the usage of qualitative every bit good as quantitative methods for this research has been justified. These methods have provided elaborate survey of the research subject and have assisted in clear uping all issues related to the demand and supply of instructors at school and college degree in Punjab.
1.8.2 Data Gathering Method
The research involved aggregation of informations through primary and secondary beginnings, that is ; direct and indirect observation. Direct observation involved study of PEAS Department for obtaining positions of 9 top directors of the section. Indirect observation involved reappraisal of secondary beginnings such as books, diaries, articles, web stuffs, etc.
1.8.3 Originality and Limitations of the Data
Validity and singularity of the informations are guaranteed while capturing informations and executing analysis. The research emphasizes on the demand and supply of instructors at school and college degree in Punjab and make fulling the spread of quality instruction in these schools and colleges. As the cogency of the information is dependent upon the efficiency of the research worker, the research worker has been careful in maintaining the cogency of the informations during informations aggregation, analysis and while pulling decisions. Ethical issues are considered during the research procedure. In order to avoid disagreements, careful survey and analysis have been done. Data is limited to the subjects mentioned above.
1.8.4 Research Questions
The major research inquiries of the present survey are as follows ;
Is the instruction section of Punjab run intoing the demands of the demand of instructors at secondary school and college degree?
How choice instruction can be provided to secondary school and college pupils in Punjab?
Has the instruction section of Punjab taken stairss to carry through the spread of quality instruction in schools and colleges?
Are schools and colleges in rural countries confronting jobs of supply of instructors?
With the transition of Urdu Medium schools to English Medium, are these schools confronting the job of demand of competent instructors?
Presently the schools and colleges of Punjab state are confronting a deficit in the supply of qualified and competent instructors particularly in rural countries. Teachers lack motive for traveling to rural countries due to low wage, backward location and deficiency of installations in these schools. As a consequence of this, the demand of instructors in rural countries has extremely increased. The deficiency of competent instructors is besides due to decelerate replacing of retired instructors and enlisting of instructors on impermanent footing. The determination of authorities for change overing Urdu Medium schools into English Medium has besides posed a demand for the enlisting of qualified and professional instructors. The authorities is taking stairss to carry through the spread of quality instruction and qualified instructors. This has been done by enrolling qualified instructors, increasing the wage of bing instructors and by increasing the accomplishments of the instructors through refresher classs in order to heighten their instruction accomplishments and English Language accomplishments.
Section - 2: Situation Analysis
In this subdivision, the research worker analyzes the informations obtained from the study of Pakistan Education Assessment System ( PEAS ) . The study involved aggregation of informations through direct observation, i.e ; interview. A sample size of 9 top directors of PEAS was selected for interview. Unstructured interviews were carried out from the top directors. The sentiment and positions of the directors have been obtained related to the demand and supply of instructors at secondary school and college degree in Punjab. Facts extracted from the interviews have been analyzed to obtain the findings.
2.1 Opinions and positions of top directors about the demand and supply of instructors at secondary and college degree in Punjab
2.1.1 Quality of instruction at authorities and private schools
97 % of the top directors of PEAS informed that the quality of instruction provided to pupils of authorities schools is non satisfactory. These schools lack competent instructors, educational stuff and installations. The conditions of schools in rural countries are worst. Many schools have been closed in rural countries as these schools lack competent instructors and basic installations. However, the quality of instruction at private schools is satisfactory. These schools have qualified and competent instructors.
Figure 1: Opinion of top director of PEAS about the quality of instruction in schools of rural countries
2.1.2 Causes of famine of instructors in rural countries
95 % of the top directors believed that instructors hesitate to work in rural countries due to hapless on the job conditions and low wages. The top direction suggested that instructors can be motivated to work in rural countries by increasing the wages of bing instructors, supplying good salary bundles to the new instructors and by supplying text editions and basic installations to these schools. Teachers should be recruited on lasting footing instead than on impermanent footing. If the instructors are provided inducements and good wage bundles they will be able to execute their occupations in these countries.
2.1.3 Performance of authorities and private colleges
98 % of the top directors of PEAS believed that every bit compared to the authorities schools, the public presentation of authorities colleges in urban countries is satisfactory. The authorities colleges have competent and qualified instructors in urban countries. However, the colleges in rural countries lack competent instructors.
Figure 2: Opinion of Top Directors of PEAS Regarding Quality of Education and Competent Teachers in Government Colleges in Urban Areas
2.1.4 Major ground behind deficiency of instructors
90 % of the top directors of PEAS informed that deficiency of instructors is besides due to the fact that most people do non fall in the profession of learning as they consider it a low paid and an inferior occupation. Some people merely fall in this profession as a last resort. As a consequence of this, they lack motive to carry through their duties. When they find any good chance, they leave the instruction profession.
2.1.5 Carry throughing the spread of quality instruction in freshly converted English Medium schools
When the positions of the top directors were taken sing the transition of Urdu Medium schools into English Medium, all of them agreed that it is a good enterprise from the authorities for taking the differentiation between two categories of instruction. Students analyzing in Urdu Medium schools are frequently considered as inferior to English Medium. Furthermore, when these pupils reach higher categories, they face trouble in understanding scientific discipline topics. The top directors believed that the spread of quality instruction in these schools can be fulfilled by supplying instruction and English linguistic communication accomplishments to the instructors through on-the-job preparation. This spread can besides be filled by enrolling competent instructors on lasting footing.
The findings of the study are in consistent with that of literature reappraisal, as it has shown that rural schools and colleges of Pakistan face the greatest demand for instructors. The status of authorities colleges in urban countries is rather satisfactory as these schools have competent instructors. The demand for the supply of instructors has greatly grown over the past 10 old ages. Keeping in position the demand for a big figure of instructors, the supply of competent instructors must go on to increase. The demand for new instructors may differ by territory or small town and it may depends upon the local population growing, instructors ' retirements, instructors ' turnover rate, instructors ' in-migration rates and wages offered to them. With the transition of all Urdu Medium schools to English Medium schools in Punjab, the demand for qualified and professional instructors in these schools have greatly increased.
Section - 3: Decision and Recommendations
The demand and supply of instructors can be balanced if the Numberss of vacancies of instructors are filled in by the figure of instructors needed to make full these places. The rural schools and colleges of Pakistan are confronting the deficit of the supply of qualified and competent instructors. These educational institutes besides lack basic installations and educational stuff. Teachers hesitate to work in rural countries due to low wage and hapless on the job conditions. There is besides deficit of instructors due to the fact that the profession of instruction is considered as a low paid and inferior occupation. Peoples merely fall in this profession as a last resort. On the occupation preparation is besides required for the instructors to heighten their instruction accomplishments. With the transition of Urdu Medium schools into English Medium schools, the demand for qualified and competent instructors has risen. There is demand for enlisting of professional and qualified instructors in order to raise the quality of instruction in schools and colleges particularly authorities schools and colleges in rural countries. With the uninterrupted addition in the population and accent of the authorities on instruction, the demand for supply of more instructors will farther increase.
Based upon qualitative and quantitative analysis following recommendations have been suggested:
In order to actuate instructors, they should be provided good wage bundles and other inducements.
Teachers should be recruited on a lasting footing instead than on impermanent footing in authorities schools and colleges.
The position of instructors demands to be raised in the society, as instruction should non be considered as an inferior occupation.
Teachers working in rural countries should be provided particular salary bundles and inducements.
Teachers need on-the-job preparation in order to heighten their instruction accomplishments.
The instructors of the Urdu Medium schools which have been converted into English Medium schools needs to be trained in English linguistic communication accomplishments. There is besides demand for enlisting of competent instructors in these schools.
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