Politics and Architecture: A Literature Review

Chapter Two:Methodology

In this chapter the research methodological analysis used in the survey is described. Theoretical analysis, informations aggregation, interviews conducted as collaborative method and the information beginnings are clarified.

2.1 Literature Review

In the undermentioned paragraphs I will exemplify the methodological inspiration I take to analyze the confrontation between formal planning and informal slums in Zhengzhou. In conformity to the research inquiries stated in the direction, the theoretical lenses I adopt could be categorized into three spheres.

2.1.1Power and Governmentality

Space is a critical portion of the conflict for control and surveillance of persons ( Michel Foucault, 1988 ) , and urban planning is one of the important tools to put to death province control. The first analytical end of this thesis is to show a political analysis of urban programs based on a coexistent, feeder, and conflictual theory of power.

Sing the assorted nature of power and the coexisting humanistic disciplines of authorities, intriguing parts have been made to the spheres of psychological science ( Rose,1998 ) , broad governmentality ( Barry, Osborne, & A ; Rose, 1996 ) , insurance and hazard direction ( O’Malley, 2002 ) and ecological administration ( Darier, 1999 ; Binkley & A ; Capetillo, 2010 ) . Foucault’s construct provides a wider spectrum of political phenomena than what is traditionally defined as “political” ( e.g. citizens, province, political representation, freedom, etc. ) , by including classically non-political phenomena like machines, air, H2O, animate beings, workss and infinite. He suggested that there are three types of power: crowned head, disciplinary, and biopolitical, which I intend to pull on to clear up some of the complex relationships of power operating at urban planning, particularly on the control over internal migrators. Their grade of strength, common dealingss of convergence, and hostility will be analyzed in Chapter Four, but here I would wish to indicate out how the classification of crowned head, disciplinary, and biopolitical are relevant to the instance survey in China.

Sovereignty, Foucault says, creates a territorial treaty, and the major map of it is vouching boundary lines. Sovereign power is so exercised within the boundary lines of a district ( M. Foucault, 2009 ) . The family enrollment system in China is an convergence of societal and geographic division, which creates an unseeable but rigorous boundary line between the rural and urban countries. Binary exclusion, territorial regulations and even penalty for boisterous migrators [ 1 ] were implanted to procure the urban district.

The undertaking of subject is to enforce a breakdown grid within the inside of the district established by the crowned head and bring forth organic structures that are both docile and capable of holding their bodily motions directed ( Foucault, 1979 ) . In China, internal migrators are surveilled, supervised and reformed through disciplinary power so as to do them prevail, obedient and able to digest adversity. When a individual steps out of the rural country and enters the metropolis, he must be prepared to be expelled, to work without societal public assistance, to digest general favoritism and to be soundless in his endurance.

More than a disciplinary mechanism that acts on persons, biopower Acts of the Apostless as a control setup exerted over a population as a wholeto achieve an optimum result in a multivalent and convertible model ( M. Foucault, 2009 ) . Architecture, or urban planning, in this regard, is a signifier of biopolitics. Reconstruction of the reinforced environment, street, rivers and even flora, has become political mechanisms for way or redirection of migratory organic structures.

The configuration of political schemes can be explained through Foucault’s surveies, which contributes to the inquiry ofhowto command the migration of people. In seeking to understandwhyauthoritiess are seeking to “sedentarize” people, James Scott came to see these strategies as “a province ‘s effort to do a society legible, to set up the population in ways that simplified the authoritative province maps of revenue enhancement, muster, and the bar of rebellion” ( Scott, 1998 ) . Harmonizing to Scott fully fledged catastrophes of societal technology necessitate a combination of four elements: the discernability of a society, “high-modernist” political orientation that believes itself in command of nature and society, an autocratic province willing to utilize all its coercive power to implement these strategies, and an incapacitated civil society which is easiest to happen in times of war, depression, crises, or attempts at national release.

China still has a long manner to travel in developing a stronger civil society under the autocratic societal construction, hence when the province got excessively deep into a tunnel vision to accomplish Utopian alterations, catastrophes necessarily happened ( e.g. the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution ) . The family enrollment system, which dated back to the black fragments of Chinese history, is portion of the simplified narrow vision. Its negative impact on urban development and human rights protection needs to be to foster revealed before major alterations could take topographic point.

2.1.2 Segregation and Marginality

One of the byproducts of the family enrollment system is urban small towns, which presently shelter the bulk of the migratory population in the metropolis, individually from the urban system. I intend to cast visible radiation on its effects upon the society and measure planning policies designed to cover with it though residential segregation analysis.

Park presented the really first definition of residential segregation in 1926, as a nexus that exists between both the societal distance and the physical distance ( Park, 1926 ) . Since so assorted definitions have been contributed to a better apprehension of the residential segregation construct ( e.g. Timms, 1975 ; White, 1983 ; Jargowsky, 1996 ) , with the most influential one drawn by Massey and Denton, sing residential segregation as a multidimensional phenomenon based on five dimensions: evenness, exposure, constellating, centralization and concentration ( Massey & A ; Denton, 1988 ) . Over the decennaries, legion quantitative attacks have besides been proposed taking to measure the different indices and steps ( both spacial and non-spatial ) of residential segregation. As quantitative analysis will non be carried out in my thesis, delight refer to the researches below for more description: James and Taeuber ( 1985 ) , Massey and Denton ( 1988 ) , Wong ( 1993 ) , Anselin ( 1995 ) , Reardon and O’Sullivan ( 2004 ) , Echenique and Fryer ( 2007 ) .

The thrusts of residential segregation can be classified into two groups: endogenous ( e.g. income and single penchant ) and exogenic ( e.g. public policy and existent estate market moral force ) . In this regard, Nightingale believes that there is basically no such thing as genuinely voluntary segregation, or “good segregation” ( Peach, 1996 ) ; and he argues that segregation Acts of the Apostless as a political agent to reenforce unequal power dealingss in metropoliss, assisted by popular support and sustained by the land and economic markets which benefit from it ( Nightingale, 2012 ) . In the instance of urban small towns, the causes come from both classs: societal and physical division was created by public policies in the first topographic point, so enhanced by the income disparity and societal inequality between the urbanites and the rural migrators, every bit good as their willingness to populate with equals.

Sing effects, there has been no consensus reached by bookmans. Positive effects may look in the short term sing the migrants’ formation of societal capital and networking. At the same clip negative effects are good acknowledged, including joblessness, wellness, academic public presentation, criminalism, prolongation of poorness and bad income distribution. However, new findings ( chiefly informations from the Traveling to Opportunity programme ) have shown that residential segregation has about negligible effects on families well-being ( it is still an unfastened inquiry and a topic of argument ) . I believe the being of urban small towns, as a signifier of segregation, has mix effects in Chinese society, and its negative impacts will be examined chiefly through marginality theories.

Marginality is by and large used to depict and analyse socio-cultural, political and economic domains, where disadvantaged people struggle to derive entree ( social and spacial ) to resources, and full engagement in societal life ( Andersen & A ; Larsen, 1998 ; Brodwin, 2001 ; Heikki & A ; etc, 1999 ) .

Social marginality is by and big reflected on the implicit in societal conditions of people, represented by hapless support options ( deficiency of resources, accomplishments and chances ) , reduced or restricted engagement in public decision-making, less usage of public infinite, lower sense of community and low self-pride ( Brodwin, 2001 ; Larsen, 2001 ) . Marginalised people are normally discriminated against, stigmatized, ignored and frequently suppressed on the footing of race, gender, age, civilization, faith, ethnicity, business, instruction and economic system by the mainstream ( Larsen, 2002 ) . The dimension of spacial marginality is normally linked to the geographical farness of an country from major economic Centres ( location ) , and refers to countries that are hard to make in the absence of appropriate substructure and hence isolated from mainstream development ( Brodwin, 2001 ; Hurni, Wiesmann, Schertenleib, & A ; North-South, 2004 ) .

InUrban OutcastsLoic Wacquantdraws on a comparative analysis of the black ghetto of Chicago and the deindustrializingbanlieueof Paris to show that urban marginality is non everyplace the same ( Wacquant, 2008 ) . In the same mode, this thesis intends to lend to the survey of urban marginality, by exemplifying the similar yet different state of affairs in Chinese urban small towns. How the root causes of inequality, exposure and exclusion in urban small towns are linked with spacial and social marginality and the convergence between the two will be farther elaborated in Chapter Four.

2.1.3 Resistance and the Right to the City

In one of the most well-known quotation marks of Michel Foucault, he claims that “Where there is power, there is resistance” ( Michel Foucault, 2012 ) , which besides applies to the confrontation between formal planning ( public policies ) and informal slums ( urban small towns ) . As I indicated before, for a better apprehension of power it is necessary to beef up opposition surveies.

The theoretical construct of “everyday resistance” was introduced James Scott, as a sort of opposition that is non as dramatic and seeable as rebellions, public violences, presentations, revolutions, civil war or other such organized, corporate or confrontational articulations of opposition. He besides argues that these activities are tactics that exploited people use in order to both survive and undermine inhibitory domination, particularly in contexts when rebellion is excessively hazardous ( Scott, 1985, 1992 ) . Based on this model, research has grown within legion Fieldss, including surveies related to specific societal infinites, such as the workplace ( Huzell 2005 ) and the household ( Holmberg & A ; Ehnander 2007 ) , and among specific groups of population, such as adult females, low-skilled workers, migrators, homosexual ( Myslik 1996 ; Campbell 2004 ) , minorities, and “new agents” ( e.g. white-power militants ( Simi & A ; Futurell 2009 ) ) .

However, a job with the construct of “everyday resistance” is that it risks labelling many other looks of difference, divergence, or individualism as “resistance” . Therefore although the oppositional act from urban small towns is quiet, dispersed, disguised or apparently unseeable, whether it is or to what extent it is a signifier of “everyday resistance” demands to be discussed. Furthermore, this construct has besides been criticised of making a duality between the “disguised resistance” ( mundane opposition ) and “publicly declared resistance” . Asef Bayat, for illustration, prefers an instead construct of “quite encroachment” : “the silent, protracted but permeant promotion of the ordinary people on the property-owning and powerful in order to last and better their lives…marked by quiet, mostly atomized and prolonged mobilisation with episodic corporate action” ( Bayat, 2000 ) .

The signifier of opposition can non be isolated from the power it counters. Resistance, be it hidden of “spectacular” ( Bhabha ) , is situated in certain clip, infinite and dealingss, and engages with different discourses. Therefore mundane opposition can go on between or at the side of unfastened opposition, and frailty versa. In the instance of Chinese urban small towns, there are occasions when the hidden mundane opposition becomes public, corporate and officially organized. It is of import to analyse the opposition of the urban small towns ( some of which they do non see as “resistance” themselves ) , but non necessary to find precisely when and where “everyday resistance” happens ; what is more important is to understand what they are seeking through their opposition.

Originally proposed by Henri Lefebvre as both a “cry and a demand” , David Harvey describes the right to the metropolis as “a collective right which goes beyond simply accessing single urban resources, a freedom to do and refashion ourselves and our cities…the most cherished yet most neglected of our human rights” ( Harvey, 2012 ) . During rapid urbanisation, old parts of the metropolis is invariably being wiped off and the metropolis is going an foreign entity, or, as Harvey puts it, the infinite where excesss of capital are being generated. In this manic gait of alteration, the marginalized population, are being invisibilized and pushed out of the metropolis to its borders. As stated before, really frequently they try to entree physical infinite in the metropolis and other services in really quiet, ordinary and elusive ways, but Harvey suggests that the marginalized people should come together as a community and take control of the “surpluses” which are generated at the disbursal of the metropoliss.

However, Harvey has been criticised of romanticising the metropolis as a governable entity, and neglecting to acknowledge the multiple mediums by which people try to negociate their entree to the metropolis. Beyond an abstract rights claim, what extremist public-service corporation does this construct of “the right to the city” have for the present state of affairs in China, and how might it go, as Harvey suggests it could, “both working slogan and political ideal” for the urban villagers ( Harvey, 2003 ) ? Could theaccess to the metropolis be conceptualized in footings of rights, or is it the infinites through which people develop belongingness and ownership that should be examined? These inquiries will be farther examined through instance survey in Chapter Three and Chapter Four.

2.2Case Study

2.2.1 Data Collection

In order to analyze the confrontation between formal planning and informal slums, informations demands to be collected from both kingdoms.

Official programs ( authorised by cardinal authoritiess ) and original paperss of public policies related to urban planning, building ordinance, migration direction and societal public assistances are collected to measure the relationships of power operating. Statistical information sing the redevelopment undertaking of urban small towns in Jinshui District, including continuance, size, developing manner, redevelopment program, and major obstructions ( if any ) besides belong to this kingdom.

Geographic informations of urban small towns in Jinshui District and their surrounding environment, including transit system, substructure system, lodging monetary value in the existent estate market and distribution of public installations are collected to analyze the opposition of urban small towns, or in other words, their impact on the urban development.


Interviews referred to in Chapter Four were carried out by my confederate in China. Due to the bound of clip and location, I did non take the method of field work or questionnaire study. The interviews were conducted in an informal mode, with the purpose of supplying personal experience and positions, non official historical “truth” , to the empirical research.

At the petition of the interviewees, personal information will non be provided.

2.3Data Beginning

Geographical informations dated prior to 1984 were sourced form historical maps and paperss that belong to the private aggregation of a native Zhengzhou citizen, Mr. Niu.

Geographical informations ( including official maps ) from 1984 onward were provided by the Mapping Institute of Henan ( a subordinate of the Surveying and Mapping Bureau of Henan ) .

Data sing the four cardinal programs conducted in Zhengzhou were provided by the Urban and Rural Planning Bureau of Zhengzhou.

Data sing the urban small towns and redevelopment undertakings in the Jinshui District were provided by the Urban Village Renovation Office of Zhengzhou.

Other societal and economic informations referred to in this thesis was chiefly collected from the authorities web site, or provided by the Archive of Zhengzhou and the Urban Development Archive of Zhengzhou.

All the written stuffs from the above mentioned beginnings were originally in Mandarin Chinese, and the interlingual rendition ( if any ) was conducted by myself ; some of the numerical informations were conjunct signifier Chinese units.

Detailed information will be provided for each figure and tabular array.

2.4 Drumhead

It could be concluded from the predating description that the research presented in this thesis is strictly qualitative. By pulling on the surveies of Foucault, Scott, Nightingale, Wacquant, Harvey and Castells, the theoretical model of this thesis consists of three parts: power and gavernmentality, segregation and marginality, opposition and the right to the metropolis. The urban development, particularly the issue of urban small towns in Zhengzhou will be examined under this model, taking to reply the research inquiries proposed in the direction.