The Makro environment is the context in which a business operates. This takes in various factors including those outside its control, for example, laws or standards. Each factor can have an effect on the business positive or negative and so companies make plans and strategies to try to anticipate these effects. If a company does not plan for Makro environment changes or ignores them, then it may miss opportunities to grow or losing business to a competitor. Successful managers need an all-round view of their environment for decision-making.
The Irish Rail uses PESTEL analysis to draw attention to each of the key external environmental factors. Political * Investing more in the railways by the Government would give environmental benefit but at the cost of the taxpayers money; * An introducing lower road tax for the newer cars make number of new cars owners increase; * Open access to rail infrastructure is available to other operator; * New Government may implement new international policies that may not necessary be advantageous for the Irish Rail;
Economica * More jobs means more commuting; * Business expansion means more business travel; * Investing in major project to reduce delays; * The absence of large, heavy industry, such as coal, iron, est. . for which it is ideally suited; Socio-Cultural * People are aware that there are more accidents on the Road * The Rail covers most parts of the country, it means that Irish Rail has an important relationship with the public. Rail has a major role to play in educating the public especially children about the dangers of the rail environment. * Persuading the public that rail travel is a real alternative to car use is vital Technological * Some railways need to be transform and adopted to rail freight * Rail is environmentally friendly and safely * Irish Rail has use advanced technology to reduces costs, running to time. Legal The Irish Rail as a large national employer needing skilled and committed staff * The Rail has to comply with a very wide range of legislation * Compliance with employment laws is particularly important. * Safety and health legislation affects almost all of Irish Rail's activities. Environmental * Using the Railways is much more energy-efficient than travel by Road or Air. * Irish Rail takes its environmental responsibilities seriously e. g. buying the wood for the rail track which are properly managed and renewable.
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