Determination of stature is a major concern in forensic medical specialty. When advancely decomposed and mutilated dead organic structures with fragmental remains are brought for post-mortem scrutiny, it becomes hard to place the asleep. In such conditions, constitution of individuality is a important undertaking and appraisal of stature is an of import parametric quantity in set uping or corroborating personal designation along with others like age, sex, race, etc.1
In forensic anthropology, a common method of gauging stature of victims is to mensurate the long bone length and generalizing the information. The survey of long castanetss involves boring and clip devouring procedure of cleansing and fixing the castanetss for the scrutiny. Measurements of other organic structure parts such as lower leg length, arm p, and manus p can besides be used.2
Relationship between different organic structure parts particularly the limbs is being used to set up sex and stature which is a requirement to designation in forensic probe peculiarly in recent times due to mass catastrophes like plane clang, mass self-destruction, tsunamis, forest fires, Earth temblors and inundation disaster.3,4 Hand and pes have been specifically used by many research workers to find sex and estimation stature.5
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Foot length displays a biological correlativity with stature and It has been shown that the pes measuring yielded of import prognostic information about the person 's stature and the dependability of anticipation of stature from pes measurings was every bit high as that from long castanetss, furthermore, ossification and ripening in the pes occurs earlier than long castanetss and hence, during adolescence age, stature could be more accurately predicted from foot measuring as compared to that from long castanetss as the correlativity coefficient between tallness and pes length is +0.65 in male and 0.80 in female which is most important, i.e. , ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) .6,7 Furthermore, the measuring of pes length is really simple and accurate as compared to that of any of long bones.8,9
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Forensic medical specialty is an interdisciplinary scientific discipline which in mundane pattern applies all the medical cognition to the elucidation of inquiries in judicial proceedings.10
The term `` anthropology '' has its beginning from theA GreekA anthrA?posA , `` adult male '' , understood to intend world or humanity, andA -logia, '' discourse '' or `` survey. ''
Aristotle was the first authorization to utilize the word anthropology.11
ItA is the academic survey of humanity. It deals with all that is characteristic of the human experience, from physiology and the evolutionary beginnings to the societal and cultural organisation of human societies every bit good as single and corporate signifiers of human experience. It has origins in theA humanistic disciplines, theA natural scientific disciplines, and theA societal sciences.12
Types of Anthropology
The development of physical anthropology as a distinguishable entity started in the 2nd half of the 19th century.
The aim of physical anthropologists was to happen scientific standards that would assist to sort the human population into unambiguous classs based on distinguishable set of biological properties.13
The thoughts of human beginning and development occurred to some of the ancient Greek and Roman minds.
Plants of Hippocrates and Aristotle provide us with many utile and interesting anthropologic information on heredity, growing, distribution of organic structure hair, organic structure proportions in kids, human encephalon, skull, biped nature of adult male and so forth.14
The observations and descriptions of the construction of the human organic structure by Vesalius ( 1514-1564 ) contributed towards the development of physical anthropology.
Linnaeus was professor of Botany in the University at Upsala, Sweden. He called adult male by the name Homosapiens. Homo means the genus and sapiens the species.
Buffon was regarded as the male parent of Anthropology. He studied adult male in general, in groups and compared physical characters of adult male and other animate beings.
Blumenbach is considered to be the male parent of physical Anthropology. He made a systematic survey to sort world into groups on the footing of craniological stuffs.
Tyson ( 1650-1708 ) Garengot ( 1688-1708 ) and John Ray ( 1628-1705 ) are the scientists who made important parts towards the apprehension of the physical facets of man.15
The term AnthropometryA has its beginning from Greek, combination of anthroposA - `` adult male '' andA metron `` step '' hence significance by `` measuring of adult male '' refers to the measuring of the human individual.16
It is an early tool ofA physical anthropology, used for designation, for the intents of understanding human physical fluctuation, inA paleoanthropologyA and in assorted efforts to correlate physical characters with racial and psychological traits. 17
Anthropometry is an of import portion of biological/physical anthropology, therefore the anthropometrist are familiar with scope of biological variableness nowadays in the human populations and its causes, and are good trained in comparative osteology, human osteology, craniometry, osteometry, racial morphology, skeletal anatomy and function.18
Juan Comas defined anthropometry as the `` systematic techniques for measurement and taking observations on adult male, his skeleton, the skull, the limbs, bole etc. , every bit good as the variety meats, by the most dependable agencies and scientific methods.19
It is happening increased usage in medical scientific disciplines particularly in the subject of forensic medical specialty. The ultimate purpose of utilizing anthropometry is to assist in accomplishing personal individuality in instance of unknown human remains.
The usage of anthropometry in the field of forensic scientific discipline and medical specialty day of the months back to 1882, when Alphonse Bertillon, a Gallic constabulary expert, invented a system of condemnable designation based on anthropometric measurings.
His system was based on three cardinal thoughts: -
the fixed status of the bone system from the age of 20 boulder clay decease ;
the utmost diverseness of dimensions present in the skeleton of one person compared to those in another ;
the easiness and comparative preciseness with which certain dimensions of the bone construction of a populating individual can be measured utilizing merely constructed calipers.20
Anthropometric features have direct relationship with sex, form and signifier of an single and these factors are closely linked with each other. Anthropometry can be subdivided into somatometry, which includes cephalometry and osteometry including craniometry.
Osteometry: - It is concerned with the measurings on the skeletal castanetss other than the skull and face.
Craniometry can be used when the measurings are on the skull and face only.21
The history of scientific anthropometry day of the months back to the clip of Blumenbach ( 1753-1840 ) , who is regarded as the male parent of physical anthropology and who classified world into three different types on the footing of the signifier of the skull.
The three types are: -
the Mongolians demoing square form
the Negroes holding long and tight form
the Caucasians with a form intermediate between the former two.
The first scientific information on anthropological craniology comes from the 16th century when Vesalius reported that the skulls of Greeks, Turks and that of Bulgars differed in form. Spiegel ( 1578-1625 ) was the first to mensurate four diameters, skull, viz. facial, perpendicular, cross and oblique ; and attempted to sort skulls.
Daubenton ( 1716-1800 ) , observed the hiatuss magnum in the skulls of different animate beings and adult male.
Charles White was a innovator of osteometry and studied certain measurings on the long castanetss of the upper limbs of Negroes, Europeans every bit good as Chimpanzees.
Blumenbach laid the foundation of anthropometry, which was later developed by bookmans like Broca, Flower and Turner. Broca 's ( 1824-1880 ) publications include definition of landmarks technique of measurings and names of instruments to be used.
H. Von Ihering was the first to do a going from Broca 's methods. His proposals were accepted at the 13th General Congress of the German Anthropological Society held in Frankfurt in 1882 under the name of Frankfurt Agreement. In 1884, a close associate of Broca besides suggested some alterations in the techniques. In this manner, two different schools in Anthropometry emerged, the German School and the Gallic School. All these resulted in a batch of confusion.
The XI International Congress of Prehistoric Anthropology and Archaeology was held in Moscow in 1892 to standardise the craniometric and somatometric techniques, but no singular alterations were made.
In 1906 in Monaco `` International Agreement on Craniometry '' was approved by the particular commission. On the footing of this in 1912, in the XIV Congress, held in Geneva, the Anthropologists came to an understanding known as `` International Agreement for Unification of Measurements on the life topics.
In 1932 several suggestions were made on different facets of anthropometry by the International commission under the chairmanship of Vallois. Since so from clip to clip seminars have been organized by different academic organic structures for inventions in physical anthropology.
In 1935 the American association of physical anthropologists formed an consultative commission on anthropometric involvements. Further efforts were made to reexamine the new techniques from clip to clip.
In 1950 Viking Fund organized a seminar of a group of physical anthropologists under the way of Washburn to larn about the proficient invention in physical anthropology. It was suggested that statistics should be adopted for the specific jobs.
In 1960 at the VI international Congress of anthropological and ethnological scientific disciplines held in Paris, it was decided to organize a coordinating commission for standardisation in anthropometry.
Anderson automated the anthropometric instruments like Herpenden anthropometer and Holtain callipers. They besides designed specific instruments like anthropometer and stadiometer.
Under the president ship of Biswas, a commission is formed in 1965 to stipulate the instruments.22
Forensic anthropologists study the human skeleton in a legal model. A forensic anthropologist can help in the designation of a dead person through assorted skeletal analyses that produce a biological profile. Forensic anthropologists utilize theA FordiscA plan to assist in the reading of craniofacial measurings in respects to ancestry/race finding.
The term 'forensic anthropometry ' involves the usage of methods/techniques of anthropometry in forensic/legal context. In other words, `` forensic anthropometry is a scientific specialisation emerged from the subject of forensic anthropology covering with designation of human remains with the aid of metric techniques '' .
The usage of anthropometry in the field of forensic scientific discipline and medical specialty started in 1882 by Alphonse Bertillon, a Gallic constabulary expert invented a system of condemnable designation based on anthropometric measurements.23,24
The human pes is the footing of two-footed motion. It is a extremely complex multibone construction holding 26 castanetss, 33 articulations and more than a 100 musculuss, sinews, and ligaments. It is made up of tarsus, metatarsus and phalanges. It is required to be stable for back uping organic structure weight in standing, resilient for walking and suiting to fluctuations of surface on which it is placed.
The normal human pes shows great single fluctuation in length, comprehensiveness and general in males and females.
An anthropometric survey of 1197 North American grownup Caucasic males ( average age 35.5 old ages ) found that a adult male 's foot length was 26.3A centimeter with a standard divergence of 1.2A centimeter.
The pes has three parts, the hindfoot, the midfoot, and the forefoot: - TheA hindfootA is composed of theA talusA ( or ankle bone ) and theA calcaneusA ( or list bone ) . The two long castanetss of the lower leg, theA tibia andA calf bone, are connected to the top of the scree to organize theA mortise joint. The heelbone, the largest bone of the pes, connected to the scree at theA subtalar articulation, is cushioned inferiorly by a bed of fat.
TheA arches of the footA which serves as a daze absorber formed by the five irregular castanetss of theA midfoot, theA cuboid, A scaphoid bone, and threeA cuneiformA castanetss. The midfoot is connected to the hind- and fore-foot by musculuss and theA plantar facia.
TheA forefootA is composed of five toes and the corresponding five proximal long castanetss organizing theA metatarsus. Similar to the fingers of the manus, the castanetss of the toes are calledA phalangesA and theA large toeA has two phalanges while the other four toes have three phalanges. The articulations between the phalanges are calledA interphalangealA and those between the metatarsus and phalanges are called metatarsophalangealA ( MTP ) .
Both the midfoot and forefoot constitute theA dorsumA ( the country facing upwards while standing ) and theA planumA ( the country facing downwards while standing ) .
TheA instepA is the arched portion of the top of the pes between the toes and the ankle.25,26
It is the organic structure height or organic structure length of a individual in unsloped place. It varies at different times of the twenty-four hours by 1.5 to 2.5 centimeter. It is less in the afternoon and flushing due to decreased snap of the intervertebral phonograph record and the longitudinal vertebral musculuss. After the age of 30 old ages, the natural procedure of doddering devolution causes gradual lessening in stature by about 0.6mm per twelvemonth on an norm. The stature is greater by one to three centimeters on lying. The organic structure lengthens after decease by about 2 to 3cm, due to complete loss of musculus tone and relaxation of articulations.
If the organic structure has been dismembered, the approximative stature can be determined by sing following usher lines: -
1- The tallness is closely equal to the length from the tip of in-between finger to the tip of the opposite in-between finger, when weaponries are to the full extended.
2- The tallness is about equal to twice the length of one arm, with 30 centimeter added for two collarbones, and four centimeter for breastbone.
3- The length from the vertex to the pubic symphysis is approximately half of stature.
4- The length from the sternal notch to pubic symphysis multiplied by 3.3 gives the stature.
5- The length of forearm measured from tip of olecranon procedure to tip of in-between finger is equal to 5 |19 of stature.
6- The tallness of caput measured by the perpendicular distance from the top of the caput to the tip of the mentum is about 1|8 of the entire tallness.
7- The length of vertebral column is 34|100 of the tallness.
8- The tallness can be calculated by adding 2.5cms to 4cms for the thickness of the soft parts to the length of the full skeleton.27,28,29,30
Identity and Height
Establishing personal individuality is one of the chief concerns in forensic probes. One of the primary feature for the designation of a individual is the stature of the individual. Stature is one of the indispensable parametric quantities in the constitution of individuality of an individual.31
Methods of Height Estimation
There are two major methods of stature appraisal in forensic probes ; the anatomical method and the mathematical method.
The anatomical method, or `` Fully method '' , determines stature by adding the measurings of the skeletal elements that contribute to height and adding a rectification factor for the soft tissues. Jasuja, Jain and Nath utilised generation factor for stature appraisal.
The mathematical method on the other manus is concerned to derivation of expression that can be applied straight to gauge stature from a given bone/part of the organic structure. The mathematical method makes usage of the high additive correlativity between the organic structure parts and stature.
Further two more methods of stature appraisal ; FORDISC and revised. Fully methods were besides developed.
There are some surveies that stated that arrested development analysis method is more dependable than generation factor analysis.32
Ross and Konigsberg in 2002 devised new expression for gauging stature in the Balkans. They compared the informations obtained from 545 white males from World War II with East European sample of 177 males including the Bosnian and Croatian victims of war.
Raxter et Al in 2006 revised Fully 's technique for appraisal of stature and tested the truth and pertinence of his method and clarified measuring processs.
Ousley in 1995 commented that should we gauge biological or forensic stature? He recommended that forensic stature appraisal is by and large less precise than Trotter and Gleser stature appraisal but is more accurate for modern forensic instances because a forensic stature is the lone stature available for a losing individual.
Use of Bones for Height Estimation
Scientists have concluded in the yesteryear that stature can be estimated from each and every bone of the human skeleton from the long castanetss to the smallest bone with great truth. Some research workers have used fragments of long castanetss but long castanetss give better truth for stature appraisal.
Abdi Ozaslan et al estimated stature from measuring of different organic structure parts like trochantric tallness, thigh length, leg length and pes length. They suggested that appraisal of life tallness could be made possible utilizing assorted dimensions of the lower extremity.30
Dayal, Martina Steyn derived arrested development expression for the appraisal of entire skeletal tallness, and thenceforth to foretell stature in south African Whites utilizing long bone lengths. The sample comprised of 98 white male and 71 white female skeletons from the Dart 's aggregation of human skeletons and the Pretoria bone aggregations. It was concluded that the correlativity tends to be greater where combination of castanetss instead than a individual long bone length was used.28
Appraisal of stature based on measurings of stature taken during life and of long castanetss after decease was undertaken in Korea in the twelvemonth 2005 after the war by Mildred Trotter and Glesser. More precise appraisal of stature was derived from this study.33
Multiple castanetss of the organic structure are used by different anthropologists for stature appraisal.
In 1889, Rollet used long castanetss for stature appraisal.
Boldsen in 1984 statistically evaluated the anticipation of stature from length of the long castanetss in different European populations.
Trotter and Gleser studied appraisal of stature from long castanetss of American Whites and inkinesss. Since so, scientists have carried out extended work on the appraisal of stature from a assortment of castanetss throughout the world.33
Kate and Majumdar successfully estimated stature from lengths of thighbone and humerus by arrested development method and autometry in an Indian sample. It was seen that Pearson expression did non give exact consequences. The arrested development expression differed statistically in both sexes in thighbone and humerus.34
Mysorekar et Al besides estimated stature on the footing of lower terminal of thighbone and upper terminal of radius. Badkur and Nath reconstructed stature by mensurating 12 anthropometric parametric quantities on ulna and multi-linear arrested development equations were computed.35
Simmons et al provided arrested development equations for the appraisal of maximal femur length and stature from three good defined and easy to mensurate sections of the thighbone in a sample from Terry aggregation.
Jantz et al presented consequences in the appraisal of stature from shinbone and critically commented upon the method of measuring of shinbone by Trotter and Gleser.33
Mall et Al in 2001 correlative humerus, ulna and radius lengths with stature and concluded that the additive arrested development analysis for quantifying the correlativity between the bone lengths and the stature led to unsatisfactory consequences with big 95 % assurance intervals for the coefficients of high standard mistake of estimation.
Sarajlic et Al in 2006 developed expression from the lengths of thighbone, shinbone and calf bone for appraisal of stature in Bosnian population.36
Hauser et Al in 2005 established the relationship between stature and greatest length of thighbone and computed correlativity coefficients and arrested development equations to foretell stature.
Sarajlic et Al in 2006 developed expression from the lengths of thighbone, shinbone and calf bone for appraisal of stature in Bosnian population.36 Radoinova & A ; Tenekedjiev eveloped a new arrested development process for foretelling the stature from the length of the limb long castanetss taking into history sex and age related alterations. The stature and lengths of humerus, shinbone and calf bone were measured in 286 male and 130 female Bulgarians. The measurings were made on corpses before necropsy. Arrested development parametric quantities, their standard mistake and standard divergence were calculated and found to hold better dependability in appraisal of stature.37
A survey was conducted in the section of Forensic Medicine, University College of Medical Sciences, Delhi by Mukta Rani and Tyagi for appraisal of stature from Transdermal measurings of leg. It was observed in males, 12.5 % of instances, right side shinbone was more in length, whereas in 21 % instances both sides were equal, and in 66.5 % of persons, left side shinbone was more in length. It was besides found that there exists a direct relationship between stature and leg length.38
The survey conducted by Athawale aimed at obtaining a correlativity between the lengths of dry castanetss ( radius and elbow bone ) and the stature in the living.39
Feldesman examines the relationship between thighbone length and stature in kids between the ages of 8 and 18 old ages. The survey strongly paperss the adolescent growing jet in femur/stature ratios of both males and females at the precise time.40
An effort was made by Mondal and Jana et Al to explicate a additive arrested development equation for appraisal of stature from the length of ulna. Correlation coefficient ( R ) was found 0.78633 for right elbow bone with stature and 0.68710 for left elbow bone with stature. Regression coefficient was 4.1896 for right elbow bone and stature, 3.2590 for left elbow bone and stature. The value of `` T '' was found to be statistically significant.41
Bhavna and Surindernath estimated stature on the footing of measurings of the lower limbs. The measurings included stature, femur length, tibial length, fibular length, pes length and pes comprehensiveness. Among the five lower appendage measurings, pes comprehensiveness exhibits lowest value of standard divergence ( 0.63 ) while the highest value is observed for femur length ( 1.96 ) . The highest value of generation factor was exhibited by pes comprehensiveness ( 16.62 ) and least by femur length ( 4.02 ) .35 In this survey it was observed that the tibial length had the highest correlativity ( r=0.765 ) with stature while pes comprehensiveness exhibits the least correlativity ( r=0.383 ) with stature.33,35,37,38,42-45
Saxena found correlativity among manus length, manus comprehensiveness and exclusive length, derived a arrested development expression to gauge stature from them. The consequences showed important correlativity. The survey was conducted on Nigerian Medical pupils between the ages 20 and 30 years.46
Musgrave and Harneja examined metacarpals for height finding. Byers et al inspected metatarsals.21
Jasuja and Singh have done a survey based on assorted measurings of stature, manus length and single phalange length was conducted on Jat Sikhs. It has been observed that stature can be estimated from the above measurings with a standard mistake estimation runing from 4.033 to 5.127cms. Sexual dimorphism exists in average manus length and manus length was observed to be higher in males.47
Hayfields and Jantz developed arrested development equations from two samples of metacarpal specimens ; one of 212 persons from the Terry aggregation and the other of 55 modern males and concluded that in malice of the differences noted, the Terry equation perform tolerably on modern persons.
In Ankara, Karaman and Teke estimated stature from wrist radiograms from 100 healthy persons in Ankara University. The left wrist X raies were taken imaged with a digital camera harmonizing to graduated table and was recorded to be exported to a suited computing machine programme. The characteristic of this programme is to let the anthropometric measurings of normal manus and metacarpal castanetss of the persons with millimetre preciseness on the radiograms. The age group for the survey was between 20 and 69 old ages. Significant positive correlativities were found between tallness and length of manus ( r=0.782 ) , with length of 3rd metacarpal ( r=0.7430 ) , and length of 2nd metacarpal ( r=0.785 ) .Significant positive correlativity was found between the length of manus and the length of 3rd metacarpal ( r=0.880 ) and length of 2nd metacarpal ( r=0.8 94 ) .48
Rastogi and Nagesh et al estimated stature from manus dimensions of north and south Indians. This survey was undertaken in the Kasturba medical college, Manipal. No important difference was present in manus dimensions between the two groups. When compared between both custodies right manus dimensions were larger than the left manus with statistically important difference.49
Anthropometric measurings of the manus lxxength and their correlativity with stature of Bengali grownup Muslim females were described by Syeda Zamila Hasan Laila, Roxana Ferdousi in the twelvemonth 2009.50 It was done on 150 females aged between 25-30 old ages. The survey showed positive correlativity between the stature and manus lengths. The average stature and average manus length of the right and left were 156.02 ( A± 6.13 ) centimeter, 16.39 ( A±0.79 ) centimeter and 16.34 ( A±0.80 ) centimeter severally.
Isurani Ilayperuma et Al predicted personal stature based on manus length of 258 medical pupils, University of Ruhuna, Galle, Sri Lanka. Statistical analysis indicated that bilateral fluctuation was undistinguished for the measuring of manus length in both sexes. Correlation coefficient between stature and manus length was found to be statistically important and positive.51
Jasuja and Manjula provided a technique to gauge stature from the stride length of an single in normal walk. Stride length was measured as a consecutive distance between the most backward points on the heels of two back-to-back pes prints. Four to five stairss were obtained from each walking form of an person to minimise the opportunities of unnatural walk. A positive and statistically important ( p & lt ; = 0.01 ) additive correlativity between stature and stride length exists. It has been found that the mistake of appraisal of stature from stride length every bit good as from foot/shoe length is about the same.39,41,46-57
Introna et al correlative stature with several parametric quantities of the skull and obtained multiple additive arrested developments for appraisal of stature. The survey sample consisted of 119 grownup black and white males from the Terry aggregation.
Misako Chiba, Koichi Terazawa estimated stature from somatometry of skull in 124 Nipponese corpses. The correlativity coefficient of stature for assorted parametric quantities of the skull ranged from between 0.32 to 0.53.58
Ryan and Bidmos in 2007 studied cranial tallness.
Krishan and Kumar in 2007 deliberate arrested development equations for appraisal of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in Koli striplings of North India.59
A survey was conducted to look into the correlativity between stature and different facial measurings among the Kabui Naga of Imphal vale, Manipur by Jibon Kumar and Lilin Chandr.60 It was concluded that appraisal of stature from bigonial comprehensiveness utilizing additive arrested development equation is found to be more dependable than other facial parametric quantities.
Determination of stature from cephalo-facial dimensions in north Indian population by Kewal Krishan, Raj Kumar concluded that correlativity with cephalic measurings is higher than the facial measurings. The highest correlativity is exhibited by horizontal perimeter of caput ( r=0.773 ) .59
Kewal Krishan estimated stature from cephalo-facial anthropometry and pes sections in North Indian population. The measurings of the cephalic part gave better dependability than facial measurements.61
In the twelvemonth 2004, Jadhav and Shah estimated personal tallness from the length of caput in Gujarat part. The survey was conducted in 727 medical pupils from Gujarat. The age was in the scope of 17 to 22 old ages. The correlativity coefficient between age and tallness ( +0.08 ) , age and caput length ( +0.09 ) and between tallness and caput length ( +0.53 ) were significant.60
In the twelvemonth 2004, Jadhav and Shah estimated personal tallness from the length of caput in Gujarat part. The survey was conducted in 727 medical pupils from Gujarat. The age was in the scope of 17 to 22 old ages. The correlativity coefficient between age and tallness ( +0.08 ) , age and caput length ( +0.09 ) and between tallness and caput length ( +0.53 ) were significant.58-62
Jason estimated stature from the length of cervical, pectoral and lumbar sections of the spinal column in American Whites and inkinesss from over 3000 necropsies performed over 14 old ages. Arrested development expression were calculated for each section. The method is utile for gauging the stature of severely burnt or mutilated bodies.63
Compobasso et Al used scapular measurings for appraisal of stature. They took seven anthropometric parametric quantities of shoulder blade and developed multiple and additive arrested development equations.64
Bidmos and Asala in 2005 derived arrested development equations for appraisal of stature from nine calcaneal measurings. The sample consisted of 116 complete skeletons ( 60 males and 56 females of South African inkinesss ) from Raymond Dart aggregation.
Pelin et Al in 2005 evaluate the possibility of anticipation of life stature from the coccygeal vertebral dimensions in grownup male population of Turkey. They recommended the usage of combined variables of the different coccygeal vertebral sections for accurate anticipation of stature.
Nagesh and Kumar in 2006 studied vertebrae for appraisal of stature.65
Shulin and Fangwu examined shoulder blade, collarbone and os hip.
In 2009, Menezes et al studied the appraisal of the stature from the length of the breastbone in south Indian males.57
Krishan et al studied the limb dissymmetry and its consequence on appraisal of the stature.24
Because of the uncomplete and fragmental nature of many remains, Steele and McKern 1969, Simmons et Al. 1990, Wright and Vasquez 2003 have examined the possibility of gauging stature from merely subdivisions of long castanetss.
The relationship between statures of different individuals and their interacromial length has been studied by Momonchand & A ; Devi. Regression equation expression obtained from the survey can be used to gauge stature when mutilated upper parts of the short pantss are available.66
Rother et al conducted a survey on the appraisal of stature from fragments of the thighbone and devised some arrested development expression. .
Holland calculated strong additive arrested development equations for appraisal of stature from measurings of condyles of shinbone in a sample from Harmann-Todd aggregation, he studied tarsals.63,64,67
Diurnal Variation of Stature in Three Adults and One Child was studied by Kewal Krishan and Krishan Vij. Significant diurnal fluctuation in stature was observed in all the topics and stature begins to diminish instantly after lifting in the forenoon. A maximal average daytime loss of stature upto 2.81 centimeter is observed. A really rapid lessening in stature occurs within first two hours of the twenty-four hours and farther loss continues throughout the twenty-four hours in little amounts.68
Height and Foot Length
In 1902, MacDonnell studied the relationship between tallness and pes length in a sample of 3000 English captives. This was the first survey of the century at a clip when correlativity and additive arrested development were rather new techniques.
The first survey in this century of the relationship between tallness and pes length on a sample of 3000 male captives was conducted by Macdonell in 1902 utilizing correlativity and arrested development techniques. He derived arrested development expression for appraisal of stature from pes length, 166.457 + 4.031 ( foot-25.688 ) +/- 2.9 centimeter. However, sex and side was non been given due consideration in this survey.
Before that anthropologists by and large used the pes length/height per centum for appraisal of stature. Different workers gave different pes length/height per centums in different population groups. Though a pes length/stature ratio was non recorded in the survey of Hitchcock, Seelye, and Phillips, 1900 in USA, a calculation of the norm yielded a value of 15.07 % but a similar survey in UK yielded different result.69 The work of Topinard in 1876 provided a figure of foot length/height per centums for assorted populations runing from 14.9 to 18.1. Largely stated that individual 's overall pes length is about 15 % of his stature ( Topinard, 1895 ; Henry Villois 1931, Martin and Sailer, 1957, Pales 1976, Robbins 1985 ) . Georges Olivier in 1965 recommended a value of 15.5 % . This difference was significant as value of 15.5 % gave more accurate appraisal of stature.
Robbins in 1986 mentioned norm or overall pes length/height per centum of 15 % and first applied his informations in the field of forensic medical specialty.
Surveies on the appraisal of stature from the skeletal remains or from mutilated limbs, largely of the long castanetss have been conducted by Trotter and Glesser in 1952.
In 1961, Charnalia measured foot length, pes comprehensiveness and stature of 541 grownup males and females of different caste and folk of the Pondicherry province and correlativity with stature was established. It was observed that the big toe is the longest figure in bulk. Stature had a higher correlativity with pes length ( 0.46 ) than with foot comprehensiveness ( 0.33 ) .
Ruttihauser in 1968 reported a extremely important grade of correlativity between tallness and pes length in African kids. She besides developed arrested development equations for appraisal of stature in kids up to 5 old ages of age, and showed that appraisal of stature from pes lengths has assurance bounds of the same order as found in stature appraisal from long castanetss.
Qamra et Al in 1980 computed additive arrested development equations for gauging stature from either foot length or pes comprehensiveness of 1015 topics between the ages of 17-32 old ages. After proving cogency of equations, pes length was found to be more suited.
Qamra et Al in 1986 suggested that a true relationship existed merely between pes length and stature, and the relationship in other combination of variables was affected to a great extent by pes length entirely.
Philip in 1988 used pes size for foretelling stature of males. His consequences were found to hold assurance bounds of anticipation comparable to the Orthodox methods of foretelling stature from long castanetss. In this survey all measurings of the pes prints and pes lineations was recorded in centimetres to the closest millimetre. The stature to pick size index was calculated as ratio by the expression ; ratio index = upper limit toe Length * 100 /stature.
In 1990, Philip studied the footmarks and foot lineations of 618 human topics of ages between 20 and 32 old ages. The survey revealed a important correlativity between the measurings. The correlativity coefficient of the first three toes to stature ( 0.83 to 0.85 ) is marginally better than the correlativity coefficient of the last two toes ( 0.82 to 0.84 ) .
Jasuja et Al in 1991 derived generation factors for Punjabi Jat males for appraisal of stature ; 6.88 and 6.44 for right and left pes length severally.
Giles et Al in 1991 stated that pes length displays a biological correlativity with tallness. Their survey was intended to find per centum and additive arrested developments for finding tallness from pes length for immature grownup males and females based upon really big US ground forces anthropometric informations base.
Gordon et Al in 1992 estimated stature from foot dimensions and theoretical accounts incorporating both foot length and pes comprehensiveness were found to be significantly better than those incorporating merely foot length. In this survey, strong relationship was established between foot/boot lengths.
Singh and Phookan in 1993 examined Thai male population of Assam and suggested pes length to be a better index of stature than pes comprehensiveness.
Jain et Al in 1996 devised generation factors for appraisal of stature among Brahmin males of Kumaon from pes length which was 6.56.
Jasuja et Al in 1997 reported stature appraisal from stride length by mensurating it while walking fast on smooth substrate and it was compared with the stride length in the normal form of walking. They found that for faster gait, formulae are different but the scope of mistake for appraisal of stature remained same.
Nath et Al in 1999 formulated generation factors for Reconstruction of stature from foot length of Rajputs and Brahmins of Srinagar, Garhwal ( U.P. ) with sensible truth. These were 6.87 for Rajput males, 6.64 for Brahmin males and 6.73 and 6.68 for Rajput and Brahmin females severally.
Jain et Al in 1999 formulated generation factor as 6.59 for retracing stature among Jats females of Delhi between 17-20 old ages.
Ozaslan et Al in 1999 analyzed relationships between lower limb dimensions and stature on a sample of 203 male and 108 female grownup Turks residing in Istanbul. They measured stature, trochanteric tallness, thigh length, lower leg length, leg length, and pes tallness, comprehensiveness, and length. They concluded that stature can be deduced utilizing dimensions of the lower limb.
Sanli et Al in 2003 established the relationship between manus length, pes length and stature utilizing multiple additive arrested development analyses. Their survey sample included 155 grownup ( 80 male, 75 female ) Turks shacking in Adana. They found multiple additive arrested development theoretical account for both genders together to be the best theoretical account with the highest values for the coefficients of finding R2 = 0.861 and R2 adjusted = 0.859, and multiple correlativity coefficient R = 0.928.
Agnihotri et Al in 2005 developed a relationship between pes length and stature utilizing additive and curvilineal arrested development analyses on a survey group consisting of 250 medical pupils ( 125 males and 125 females ) aged 18-30 old ages. It was concluded that general multiple additive arrested development theoretical account was extremely important ( P & lt ; 0.001 ) and validated with highest values for the coefficients of finding R ( 2 ) =0.769 and multiple correlativity coefficient r=0.877.
A survey on stature and sex estimation utilizing pes and shoe dimensions was conducted by Hilmi Ozden et Al. The highest correlativity coefficient was found in length measurings. A important difference was found between males and females in relation to pes and shoe length and breadth along with shoe size.
Sanli, Kizilkanat et Al in 2005 conducted a survey on the relationship between manus length or pes length and stature in Turkish grownups. The survey topics were pupils aged 17 to 23 old ages at the medical module of Cukurova University. There were three stairss to look into the additive arrested development theoretical account attack to gauge the stature based on the manus length and the pes length. In males the correlativity between stature and manus length ( r = 0.722 ) was better than that between stature and pes length ( r = 0.716 ) . In females the correlativity between stature and manus length ( r = 0.709 ) was better than that between stature and pes length ( r = 0.699 ) .
Pol and Charoenvej in the twelvemonth 2005 conducted surveies mensurating the tallness and size of pess in Thai people aged 18 to 25 old ages. The aim was to find the relationship between the size of the pess and tallness of the organic structure. Harmonizing to this survey the ideal height = 82.234 + 3.430 * pess length.
Kewal Krishan and Abhilasha Sharma examined the relationship between stature and dimensions of manus and pess among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh-a North Indian endogamic group. The survey was conducted on 123 males and 123 females, runing in age from 17 to 20 old ages. Statistical analysis indicated that the bilateral fluctuation was undistinguished for all the measurings except manus comprehensiveness in both sexes ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) . Sexual activity differences were found to be extremely important for all the measurings ( P & lt ; 0.01 ) . All the measurings exhibits were statistically important correlativity with stature ( p & lt ; 0.01 ) . Correlation coefficients of length measurings are higher than that of comprehensiveness measurings in both sexes. In males the highest correlativity is exhibited by left pes length ( r=0.741 ) and in females the highest correlativity was between right pes length ( r=0.739 ) and stature. Arrested development equations were computed individually for each sex, each side and for each measuring of the manus and pes. It was concluded that the dimensions of custodies and pess can supply good dependability in appraisal of stature. Foot lengths gave better anticipation of stature than pes comprehensiveness, manus length and manus comprehensiveness in both sexes.
In 2007, Krishan and Sharma studied the appraisal of the stature from dimensions of manus and pess in north Indian population.7
Krishan and Sharma in 2007 examined the relationship between stature and dimensions of custodies and pess among Rajputs of Himachal Pradesh on a group of 246 topics ( 123 males and 123 females ) 17 to 20 old ages old. In their survey besides the highest correlativity coefficient existed between stature and pes length. The lowest standard mistake of estimation indicated that the pes length provides highest dependability and truth in gauging stature.
Reconstruction of stature in a sample of 2080 bilateral pes prints and pes lineations collected from 1040 grownup male Gujjars of North India ranging in age from 18-30 old ages was done by Kewal Krishan. The correlativity of stature with assorted length measurings from toes in both left and right pes prints and pes lineations are highly high ( 0.82-0.87 ) proposing a close relationship with them.
Shah and Patel estimated tallness from measurings of pes length in Gujarat part. Asymptomatic, healthy medical pupils belonging to assorted parts of Gujarat were selected. The left pes was selected for measuring as per recommendation of the international understanding for mated measurings at Geneva. The correlativity coefficient between tallness and pes length is +0.65 in males and +0.80 in females which is most important.
Grivas et Al in 2008 evaluated the relationship between pes length and stature in a big sample of 5093 juveniles in Greece, mean age being 11.47+/-2.71 old ages. It was suggested that pes length can gauge the stature and weight of a juvenile, particularly after seting for age and sex.
Kanchan et Al in 2008 examined the relationship between stature and foot dimensions among 200 ( 100 males and 100 females ) Gujjars ( North Indian community ) . They devised additive and multiple arrested development equations for gauging stature utilizing foot dimensions.
Krishnan in 2008 examined the relationship of stature to pick size of 1040 grownup male Gujjars of North India ( age18 to 30 old ages ) . The highest correlativity coefficients were shown by the toe length measurings ( 0.79-0.86 ) .
Zeybek et Al in 2008 developed expression for appraisal of the stature and gender through pes measurings. They derived multiple arrested development expression for stature appraisal and logistic arrested development analysis for gender appraisal utilizing pes measurings.
Sen and Ghosh in 2008 established the relationship between stature and pess dimensions among Rajbanshi male and females of North Bengal on a sample of 350 grownup Rajbanshi and 100 grownup Meche persons of 18-50 old ages shacking in different small towns located in the Darjeeling District of West Bengal. Stature, pes length and pes comprehensiveness are positively and significantly correlated with each other. They concluded that the present survey has provided equations to gauge stature from the pess dimensions among the Rajbanshis. It would be unwise to utilize the same equations for stature appraisal for different Indian populations
Isurani Ilayperuma et Al proposed a theoretical account for Reconstruction of personal stature based on the measuring of pes length. The survey was conducted on medical pupils with an age p of 20-23 old ages. The difference of the pes length between the genders was found to be extremely important. A positive correlativity between tallness and pes length was observed in both sexes and it was statistically important.
A survey was carried out on a cross sectional sample of 400 pupils ( 250 males and 150 females ) by Borno et Al. The relationship between manus and pes length and tallness is strongly important. The forensic application of this survey is that manus and pes indices & gt ; 47 and & gt ; 38 indicate a male Nigerian.
Menezes, estimated stature from foot dimensions in the Gujjars of North India. The correlativity was found to be statistically important and positive. Linear and Multiple Regression Equations were calculated and multiple factors were computed.
Kanchan et al established the relationship between custodies and pess and its value in personal designation in mass disasters4.
Significance OF STUDY
In position of above brief description, this undermentioned CROSS SECTIONAL DESCRIPTIVE survey is designed to look into the sexual dimorphism ( difference in male and female ) in the pes lengths/breadth, pes indices and to find the relationship between pes lengths to stature in a sample of Pakistani/Punjabi population as such survey has non been conducted antecedently in our set up and to better the ability of look intoing bureaus in set uping individuality.
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
To find the relationship between pes length and stature by ciphering correlativity coefficient.
To set up a arrested development theoretical account for appraisal of stature from pes length in both male and female.
FOOT LENGTH: Direct distance from the most outstanding point of the dorsum of the heel to the tip of the big toe or to the tip of 2nd toe, when the 2nd toe was larger than the big toe.
Stature: Stature of the person will be measured as the perpendicular distance between the vertex and the pes when the caput is held in Frankfurt Horizontal ( F.H. ) plane.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This survey was carried out on the MBBS pupils of above 20 old ages of age of King Edward Medical University, Lahore in the Department of Forensic medical specialty & A ; Toxicology. Entire pupils in the list of 3rd twelvemonth, 4th twelvemonth and concluding twelvemonth were 873 and every 3rd pupil in the list was included in the present survey.
The survey was carried out in the Department of Forensic Medicine & A ; Toxicology, KEMU, Lahore.
It was transverse sectional study survey.
It consisted of 291 MBBS pupils calculated with 5 % type-I mistake, 10 % type-II mistake and taking correlativity co-efficient between pes length and stature in males, i.e. R = 0.65 ( least among the two ) .
Systematic sampling technique was applied.
DURATION OF STUDY
The survey was carried out in six months continuance.
The capable choice was based on following standards:
The MBBS pupils of King Edward Medical University, Lahore irrespective of sex with age above 20 old ages were included in this survey.
All those topics who had recognized lower limb/foot malformations on clinical appraisal that hampered the exact stature/foot measurings were exempted or excluded from this survey.
DATA COLLECTING PROCEDURE
291 MBBS pupils of KEMU carry throughing inclusion standards were enrolled. Then demographic information including name/gender was noted. Informed consent was taken.
For this survey direct measuring techniques was employed.
The pes dimensions were measured independently on left and right side of each person utilizing skiding caliper, with pes placed on a horizontally level surface, while the topic was standing. The left pes was selected for measurings as per recommendation of the international understanding for mated measurings at Geneva. The maximal pes length was measured from acropodian ( It is the most forwardly projecting point on the caput of the 1st or 2nd toe whichever is larger when the topic stands vertical ) to pternion ( It is the most backwardly projecting point on the heel when the topic is standing unsloped with equal force per unit area on both the pess ) .
The stature of the person was measured standing erect in anatomical place utilizing a standing measurement instrument. It was measured as the perpendicular distance between the vertex and the floor when the caput was held in Frankfurt Horizontal ( F.H ) plane.
Other variables like the pes comprehensiveness was measured as the distance between the median border of the caput of the first metatarsal and the sidelong border of the caput of the 5th metatarsal and the pes index was calculated by using the expression given below described by Agnihorti et al 2007.10
Anthropometric measurings of tallness, pes length and breadth were obtained following the description of Krishan and Sharma 2007.11
To guarantee accurate consequence the measurings were taken at a fixed clip between 2.00 to 4.00 P.M. to extinguish diurnal fluctuation and was done by one individual while sitting on low chair to avoid mistakes that could be caused by uncomfortableness or single differences.
All topics were shoeless during measurings. The measurings were repeated to avoid mistakes two readings were taken and mean of these two readings were taken as concluding reading. All the findings were recorded in a proforma attached at the terminal as Annexure A.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS/DATA ANALYSIS
Datas were analyzed utilizing SPSS 16.0. The uninterrupted variable ( age ) was expressed as Mean A± SD and categorical variables ( gender ) was expressed in the signifier of per centums. Pearson 's correlativity coefficient was used to find the strength of relationship between pes length and stature. Regression theoretical account was used to gauge the stature both for male and female. Student 's 't ' statistic was used to measure the difference in stature with regard to sex. A P & lt ; 0.05 was considered as statistically important value. An effort was done for Regression theoretical account to set up the stature for dramatis personae every bit good.
The entire topics were 291, where 145 ( 49.8 % ) and 146 ( 50.2 % ) were females. Most of the topics were belonged to urban country, 18.2 % topics were belonged to Arain dramatis personae and 14.8 % were Rajput whereas staying were from different dramatis personae ( Tables 1,2 & A ; Fig.1 ) .
Description of different features of topics.
Frequency ( N )
Percentages ( % )
Cast wise distribution of gender
Caste of Student
Fig. 1: Graph demoing frequence of dramatis personae of pupils
The average weight of topics was 61.71A±13.10 Kg, the average stature 166.06 A± 9.10 Cm, left foot length 25.34A±1.72 centimeter, where as pes index is 266.86A±20.84 ( Table 3 ) .
Descriptive statistics of variables of survey topics
Stature of pupil ( centimeter )
Weight ( kilogram )
Left pes length ( LFL ) ( centimeter )
Left pes comprehensiveness ( LFB ) ( centimeter )
Foot index ( FI )
The average stature, left foot length and left pes comprehensiveness showed a important difference ( p=0.000 ) in male and female, whereas pes index is undistinguished difference ( p.0.05 ) below table 4.
Gender wise descriptive statics of variables of survey topics
Mean A± SD
Stature of pupil
Left pes length
Left pes comprehensiveness
A important difference was observed in average stature of male ( 173.16A±6.33 ) and female ( 159.02A±5.007 ) as the p=0.001. A strong important relationship was found between stature of topics and pes length ( r=0.807, p=0.001 ) . The arrested development theoretical account of organic structure stature on pes length of all topics was fitted as ( Table 5 ) .
Regression Model of Body Stature on Left Foot
Regression Coefficient ( I? )
( Constant )
Left pes length
A important high correlativity was observed between existent organic structure stature of topics and estimated organic structure stature utilizing above said arrested development equation ( r=0.807, p=0.001 ) .
The arrested development theoretical account of organic structure stature on pes length of male topics was fitted as ( Table 6 ) .
Regression Model of Body Stature on Left Foot in Males
Regression Coefficient ( I? )
( Constant )
Left pes length
A important high correlativity was observed between existent organic structure stature of male topics and expected organic structure stature utilizing above said arrested development equation ( r=0.581, p=0.001 ) .
The arrested development theoretical account of organic structure stature on pes length of female topics was fitted as ( Table 7 ) .
Regression theoretical account of organic structure stature on left pes in females
Regression Coefficient ( I? )
( Constant )
Left pes length
A important high correlativity was observed between existent organic structure stature of female topics and expected organic structure stature utilizing above said arrested development equation ( r=0.622, p=0.001 ) .
The Multiple arrested development theoretical account of organic structure stature on pes length and dramatis personae of topics of all topics was fitted as ( Table 8 ) .
Regression theoretical account of organic structure stature on left pes and dramatis personae in topics
Regression Coefficient ( I? )
( Constant )
Left pes length
Cast of topics
From table 8, it is apparent that pes length is a important forecaster ( p=0.001 ) of organic structure stature but dramatis personae is non a strong forecaster ( p=0.870 ) of organic structure stature.
CORRELATION BETWEEN FOOT LENGTH AND BODY STATURE OF MALES
A strong important relationship ( r= 0.59, p=0.001 ) between male pes length and organic structure stenosis
Fig.2: Scatter secret plan of left pes length and organic structure stature of male pupils
CORRELATION BETWEEN FOOT LENGTH AND BODY STATURE OF FEMALES
Fig.3: A strong important relationship ( r= 0.63, p=0.001 ) between female pes length and organic structure stenosis
Fig.4: Scatter secret plan between organic structure stature and pes length of all pupils
Appraisal of stature is an of import parametric quantity in medico-legal scrutinies and anthropologi-cal surveies. In the present survey, for interest of uniformity left pes was selected. Di-urnal fluctuation besides plays a important function in the anthropometric measuring hence the measurings were taken at a fixed clip.
The consequences of the present survey show that the dimensions of the pess can successfully be used for appraisal of stature by jurisprudence enforcement bureaus and forensic scientists. The lone safeguard to be taken into consideration is that these expressions are applicable to the population from which the information has been collected, due to built-in population fluctuation in these dimensions, which may be attributed to familial and environmental factor like clime, nutrition etc.70 Sen & A ; Ghosh in 2008, recommended that it would be unwise to utilize same equations for stature appraisal in different population groups.9
STUDY SAMPLE, NUMBER AND SEX DISTRIBUTION.
The present survey is carried out on 291 medical pupils of KEMU, 145 ( 49.8 % ) are males and 146 ( 50.2 % ) are females as evident from table 1. There are several surveies conducted on medical pupils to gauge stature from foot length or pes print measuring reported in the literature like Khanapurkar71 2012, Fawzy72 2010, Jakhar73 2008, lleyaperuma2 2008, Patel3 2007, Agnihotri74 2007 & A ; Sanli75 2005. The sex distribution in the present survey is about similar to the survey of Jakhar73 2008 that was carried out on medical pupils in the Department of Forensic Medicine and toxicology at Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS, Rohtak, Haryana State, India. In that survey, entire figure of topics included were 103, 52 ( 50.48 % ) were males, 51 ( 49.51 % ) were females medical pupils of province of Haryana.73 The lone difference with the present survey is that males are somewhat more in figure than females. The survey sample of Sonali75 included 1000 back-to-back medical pupils, with predomination of male pupils i.e. , ( 53.6 % ) 536 while ( 46.6 % ) 464 were females on the contrary survey sample of that of Fawzy72 consisted of 50 males Egyptian medical pupils whereas Agnihotri took 125 males and 125 females medical pupils in his research work.
AGE RANGE OF STUDY SUBJECTS
The age of all the topics in the present survey falls within the scope of 20 - 25 old ages. This age scope is non different from scope of age of all the earlier mentioned research works that falls within 20 - 32 old ages as a individual additions maximal tallness at about the age of 20 old ages and dotage alterations that may impact height start after 32 old ages of age.73 Though the age does non hold consequence on stature appraisal but as foot length and tallness of an single continued to increase up till complete ossification of long castanetss therefore the individuals below 18 old ages are normally non included in such surveies nevertheless, the consequences of survey of Grivas8 et Al in 2008 suggest that foot length can gauge the stature and weight of a juvenile particularly after seting for age and sex.
CAST WISE DISTRIBUTION OF STUDY SUBJECTS
The dramatis personae wise distribution of survey topics in the present survey is depicted in table 2 while gender distribution of dramatis personae of survey topics is showed in table 3. The Fig.1 depicted frequence of dramatis personae of pupils. The bulk of instances ( 18.2 % ) belonged to Arain dramatis personae followed by Rajput ( 14.8 % ) and Jatt ( 11.7 % ) severally. Among the Rajput and Jatt females are more in figure as compared to Arain where males are in bulk. There are few surveies that were carried out merely on individual dramatis personae like Kewal Krishan studied individually Rajputs and Gujjars while Tanuj Kanchan studied Gujjars for appraisal of stature by pes length.
MEAN VALUES OF STAURE AND LEFT FOOT LENGTH
In the present survey, the, the average value for stature, left foot length and pes index of all topics was 166.06 A± 9.10 centimeter, 25.34A±1.72 centimeter, and 266.86A±20.84 severally as shown in table 4. These findings are about similar to the earlier mentioned survey of Jakhar73 2008 where average tallness was 166.33A± 9.19 centimeter, average left foot length was 24.208A±1.95 centimeter.
In the present survey, males exhibited higher mean values in all the parametric quantities studied than that of females. The table 5 of the present survey showed a important difference in average stature of male ( 173.16A±6.33 ) and female ( 159.02A±5.007 ) and in average left pes length of male 26.52A±1.419 and female 24.16A±1.063 as the p=0.001. These consequences are comparable to the findings of about all other surveies like Sanli75 2012, Jakhar73 2008, Sharma54 2007, Kanchan76 et al 2008, Krishan59 2007 and Jasuja47 2004. These statistically important differences may be due to the early adulthood of misss than male childs accordingly the male childs have two more old ages of physical growing and this difference necessitate different equations for males and females.
COOEFICCIENT CORRELATION BETWEEN STATURE AND LEFT FOOT LENGTH
A strong important relationship was found in the present survey non merely between stature and pes length of all topics ( r=0.807, p=0.001 ) but besides between stature and pes length of male ( r= 0.59, p=0.001 ) and female ( r= 0.63, p=0.001 ) . A comparing of different surveies on appraisal of stature from pes length is depicted in the undermentioned table 6 from the tabular array, it is apparent that
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