Any person, who has a physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities, has a record of such impairment or is regarded as having such impairment or is regarded as having such impairment. It involves heaving, mobility, visual impairment, chronic alcoholism, and chronic mental illness.
From the article it is necessary to provide assistance to individuals with disabilities to lead a productive life. People with disabilities are of ten unable to obtain health care insurance that provides coverage of the services and supports to enable them to live independently and enter or rejoin the workforce.
Personal assistance services such as attendant services, assistance with transportation to and from work, reader services, job coaches and related service may remove barriers between significant disability and work. A company should have a proper policy in dealing with employees with disabilities. They should be treated as equals at the workplace who also are able to deliver services like those ones without disabilities specialized training should be conducted by the company management to thoroughly equip those with disabilities in order to handle any type of job at the workplace. For individuals with disabilities the fear of losing health care and related services is one of the greatest barriers keeping individuals from maximizing their employment, earning potential and independence.
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On December 1999 President Clinton signed a law that encouraged states to adopt the option of allowing people with disabilities acquire medical coverage that is vital to enable such individuals to maintain employment. In short people with disabilities may have functional limitations that may create barriers in employment e.g. acquiring requisite education, experience and expertise to perform essential functions of a job but maybe unable to perform non-essential job like turning pages without assistance. Employers should assist qualified individuals with disabilities overcome particular barriers to their employment resulting from their functional limitations.
Personal assistance services are form of assistance used by persons with disabilities to perform tasks that the person would perform for himself or herself if he/she did not have disability. Personal assistance services include assistance with services that include reading, communication and performing manual tasks e.g. assisting in bathing, eating personal hygiene and dressing. Job related assistance in the performance of such tasks as reading communication and performance of non-essential manual tasks; business related travel maybe considered reasonable accommodations.
Many computer users with disabilities especially those with impairments have been left out in recent transition from traditional character based computing to the new graphical user interface (GUI). “The broad movement toward graphical applications using buttons that cannot be read aloud or translated into Braille has sparked widespread concern among the blind” writes David Wilson in the chronicle of higher education.
Sears merchandise troop is establishing an example of act that provides a model for other organizations seeking to provide universal access to InfoTech for employees with disabilities. In 1992 it provided its staff with personal computers running applications in a local area network. Sears identified twelve associates with disabilities who needed accommodations to use the same standard computing resources.
Sears goal was to provide universal access to the same technology and applications for all associates. Sears objectives were to allow associates with disabilities use the same G.UI environment and applications as their workgroups, enable adept manager plan and budget for addition of a qualified blind employee of dept of staff; all the company evaluate blind candidates for employment and advancement on equal footing with sighted candidates.
The managerial function of staffing, according to G.A. Cole, management theory and practice, (1996) is defined as filling and keeping filled all the positions in the organization structure. This is done by identifying the workforce requirements, inventorying the people available and recruiting, selecting, placing, training and developing, promoting and compensating the job holders that they can accomplish their tasks efficiently and effectively staffing is therefore the process which starts with the human resources needs, recruiting new employees into the organization and continued through separation of employees in the organization and continued through separation of employees n the organization.
Recruitment is a major staffing or procurement process. It deals with providing human inputs to the organization it makes it possible for organization to acquire the number and the type of the people necessary to ensure the continued operation of the organization. Recruitment is therefore the process of attracting potential job candidates to apply for vacant positions in the organization that is, it is a searching process. Sources of recruitments include; internal sources which involves recruiting from within the organization through promotion or deployment of qualified personnel. Interviews may also be conducted to select the candidates fro various types of jobs in the organization in the organization.
Some of the advantages of sourcing from within the organization are that, it improves employees morale; the employer is in a better position to evaluate the presently employed than outside candidates promotes loyalty among employees for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunity for it gives them a sense of job security and opportunity for advancement, It is less, costly than going outside to recruit, also recruiting from within has little training needed by the employees who are currently serving in the organization, it also promotes a positive organizational culture for example organizational cohesiveness.
Some of the disadvantages of recruiting from within are that it leads to in breeding that is organizational stagnation; there is possibility that internal sources may dry-up and may be difficult to find the required personnel from within.
External sources of staffing refer to the supply of personnel manpower from sources outside the organization. The sources may include; new entrants to the labor markets for example fresh college graduates; retired experienced persons, presently employed persons from other organization or unemployed already in the labor market with a wide range of skills and ability. Some of the advantages of external sources of recruitment includes the fact that the external sources may provide personnel having skills, training or education required by the organization from external market sources an organization may acquire potential employees who are experienced, trained and does not require extra training for their job hence this may reduce the cost of training to the organization.
Employee’s selection according to John Toye, Employment policy, (1975) is the process by which job candidates are assessed or screened to determine their suitability for a given job. The purpose of selection is to help employers secure for evaluating their suitability from the advertised positions. It involves a series of successive hurdles designed to eliminate unqualified applicant at any point in the process that is when facts come to light which may lead to the rejection of candidate.
Not all selection process or steps, however, include many barriers. The complexity of any process usually increases with the level and responsibility of the position to be filled. Some of the steps involved in selection includes; preliminary interviews; selection interviews; employment tests; assessment centers; medical examinations; reference checks and the final selection and the consequent approval by the top managers.
According to G.A. Cole, managerial theory and practice (1996) job training can be defined as a short-term process by which skills and capabilities of non-managerial employees are improved, though a system and organized procedure so as to enable them to be more productive an their jobs. Thus, training is job centered or task oriented which is centered with importing specific skills to subordinate staffs. Job development is used with reference to training given to managers and executives in an organization; thus management or executive development is along-term educational growth process by which managerial person and gains and learns conceptual knowledge for general managerial or administrative purposes.
The objectives of training and development are that; training improve technical capacity of an individual on job performance, improves health or safety of employees hence industrial, reduces sported work hence less scrap or material wastage. This reduces the cost of production, prepares personal for future jobs challenges an promotions, enables the employers adapt to a change to work method or procedures, enables two employers learn method of operating real machines and equipment ins talked by a organization example a computer.
There are various methods of job training such as on-job training which entails looking what your colleague is doing. This is an internal training method commonest mode of training and the most appropriate method of training employees for the skills required for a specific job. This method is very cheap as the learner is in the wok place where he/she s expected to working in, the learner uses the equipment he is expected to use and also he/she is able to learn the rules, procedure under careful company eyes and is able and easier to size them up.
Off the job training is done externally. It ensures that special training equipments are available and the training is of higher equipment are available and the training is of higher quality because it is offered by experts, specialists from outside, the trainee is able to learn in a planned stages using special exercise especially in difficult areas of the job. Off the job training is done lectures can be used where a large group is being trained for a short period of time.
In order to improve the effectiveness of training, there must be specific objectives for training. An attempt should be made to determine the suitability of a trainee for potentiality and ability. The trainee must be assisted to see the need for the training. Attempts must be made to create organizational conditions that are good or conductive to learning. A good compensation to employees should be administered through wage and salary administration so as to improve the service delivery of employees.
Salary and wage administration involves the direction of programs designed to implement payment of monetary/non monetary rewards to employees. The primary financial reward is pay in form of wages and salaries, sometimes referred to as compensation or remuneration. The objectives of employees compensations programs are designed to attract capable employees to the organization, to motivate them towards superior performance, retain their services over an extended period of time. Employee’s performance appraisal should be done to evaluate the performance and give the feedback on which performance adjustment can be made.
1. G. A. Cole Management Theory and Practice (1996)
2. John Toye Employment Policy, (1995)
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