Malaysia Traditional Games
INTRODUCTION Multi-racial society in Malaysia has a wide variety of cultural grasped from different roots. Culture was consolidated into a unique culture because almost every descent has custom forming their respective cultures. These include the likes cooperate economic activities, where the bond is strengthened and Forge Closer with brio events and entertainment.
Many games were contested because of such customs. Traditional games have been able to form a part of life experienced by the ancestors communities respectively.
Important foundation that guarantees the continuity of traditional games in the past is uniformity way our ancestors lived. Even since I was small they familiarize themselves with this state. Some of these games are now not played yet but is only known by the parents and grandparents. But still there are some children playing it today. Some of the games, including pride, kite, selambut, sepak raga, tops, kabaddi, mahjong, etc.. CONGKAK The word congkak is believed to originate from old Malay “congak”, meaning “mental calculation”.
The oldest mancala game boards were found in a ruined fort of Roman Egypt and date back to the 4th century AD by our Persatuan National Geographic . After that, the game was likely introduced to Southeast Asia by Indian or Arab traders in the 15th century throughmerchants via Malacca , an important trading post at that time Congkak has simple rules that allow the boards to have different numbers of holes. Congkak boards are often made of teak or mahogany wood . Normally Congkak has two rows of seven circular holes and two large holes at both ends named “ Home “ . How to play?
The game begins with seven game pieces (marbles or seeds) in each hole except “homes” which remain empty. Congkak requires two players . Each player controls the seven holes on his side and owns the “home” to his left. The goal is to accumulate as many pieces in your own “home”. On a turn, a player removes all pieces from one of the seven holes on his side. He then distributes them clockwise — one in each hole to the left of this hole — . This process skips an opponent’s “home” but not a player’s own “home”. The game ends when no pieces are left in any hole on both sides of the board.
The players now count the number of pieces in their own “home” and see who has won. Director Ahmad Idham produced before 1 movie name filem Congkak at the year 2008 . If you wish to understand more about Congkak , can refer to this movie. WAU Now we are moving to the next part, namely “Wau”. For your general knowledge, Wau is actually farmer’s friend. Normally, farmers use it to represent a flying scarecrow in order to fend off birds from paddy fields. To prevent from over-using chemical substances to control the productivity of paddy, this may be an effective method to avoid harvested paddy from falling victim to the winged creatures.
Somebody said that the sound made by Wau is an excellent lullaby for the farmer’s children. This is because the melody helps restless kids catch forty winks while the farmers could go about their tasks uninterrupted History of Wau Bulan shows that it is the brainchild of the Sri Wijaya empire, symbolizing Dewa Muda’s effort to reunify the empire. The young prince used the Wau as a canvas to map out the conquered districts using fine patterns and flowers. Before he went to war, Dewa Muda would meditate in a cave to gain some spiritual insights. He then exist the cave with a basic structure of Wau Bulan before he going off to war.
After his return from a battle, the design kept on ‘growing’, symbolizing the strength of his empire; much to the pride and delight of his people. As a result, Wau Bulan could then said to derive its name from its tail which resembles that of a crescent, from the medium of transportation for Dewa Muda to ascend to the heavens. Below are the steps for creating Wau your own. First of all, the spine of Wau is measured into 3 parts, then making the point of separation. Wau wing section will tie first. Wing that is tied will also be tied at the marked point of wau spine.
Then, bind at the top and bottom of the tail spine and make sure that the balance in both sides. After that, attach the end of the tail for both left and right to the wing. For the waist of the Wau, make 2 semi circles from the bamboo stick to form a circle as shown in Wau Bulan picture above. Lastly, make the head Wau with binding half of the head with Wau wing with 2-inch distance from the spine. SEPAK BULU AYAM (CHAPTEH) The chapteh is one of the Asian games. Before the “chapteh” have approached to Malaysia , actually the sepak bulu ayam game already appeared in the 5th century BC in china.
The earliest reference to a game of kicking a feathered object dates back to the 5th century BC in China . At that time, the chapteh is used to train military men and later known as Ti Jian Zu or ”kick little shuttlecock”. For the shaolin monks in Henan, they practiced the game to strengthen their martial skills. In Vietnam, the game is known as da cau, while in Indonesia they called it as sepak kenchi. In the 2003 SEA Games held in Vietnam, capteh was a prevalent sport. Internationally, Featherball Associations in Europe, USA and Turkey also show how international the game has become.
In Malaysia and Singapore, the game also known as chapteh . The game was most welcomed by the malay citizen in the Malaysia, and become one of their traditional games. After that, the chapteh was accepted by other races and as variants of the name of sepak bulu ayam included capteh, chaptek and chatek seem to appear in Malaysia. DESCRIPTION Chapteh consist of feathers attached to a rubber or plastic sole. HOW TO PLAY The chapteh requires players to keep a weighted shuttlecock in the air, usually using their feet, or other parts of the body may be used, except for the hands.
It can be play individually or in a team. For individual, the longest time you keep the chapteh in the air, the higher the score you will get, the higher the chance to be champion. While in a group or team, a circle is drawn. The game is played in the circle with the first assigned player attempting to keep the capteh in the air until it falls to the ground within the circle. Then the next team member continues the count while playing in the circle. This continues until all team members have taken a turn in the game.
The winning team is the one that scores the highest number of total kicks. BENEFITS The game can improve our hand-eye coordination. MAHJONG Mahjong is a game that originated in China, commonly played by four players. While the single player tile matching game mahjong solitaire is familiar in the West, in Asia it is the four-player table version which holds predominance and has little in common with the solitaire version other than using the same tiles. Similar to the Western card game rummy, mahjong is a game of skill, strategy and calculation and involves a certain degree of chance.
The game is played with a set of 136 tiles based on Chinese characters and symbols, although some regional variations use a different number of tiles. In most variations, each player begins by receiving thirteen tiles. In turn players draw and discard tiles until they complete a legal hand using the fourteenth drawn tile to form four groups (melds) and a pair (head). There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, stolen from another player and thus melded, the use of simples (numbered tiles) and honours (winds and dragons), the kinds of melds, and the order of dealing and play.
However there are many regional variations in the rules; in addition, the scoring system and the minimum hand necessary to win varies significantly based on the local rules being used. THE MAHJONG SET A set of mahjong tiles usually has at least 136 tiles (most commonly 144). Mahjong tiles are split into these categories: suits, honor, and flowers. Each rectangular shaped tile is about 1 ? inch x 1 inch x ? inch. The thick layer, the layer made of white bone or plastic is ? inch of the tile’s height, while the thin layer, the layer made of imitation onyx, is ? inch of the tile’s height.
Each tile weighs about ? ounce and has a smooth texture, much like the smoothness of marble. This can be attributed to the fact that all sides of each tile, including the edges, are polished to the point where no roughness exists. This is usually the work of machines which have the capacity to obtain complete smoothness. The face of each tile (length 1 ? inch x width 1 inch) is carved with different letters or symbols. Due to the complexity of some of the characters and symbols, the designs are hand carved and filled in with paints of various colors. The tiles can be divided into 4 groups of 34 tiles each.
Within each group, the tiles are divided among the five suits or series. Each of the 4 groups are identical. In other words, there are four tiles of each design (4 x 34=136). The remaining 8 tiles are flowers. Suits There are three different suits numbered 1 to 9, which are called simple tiles. They are bamboo, characters, and circles. Suit| 1| 2| 3| 4| 5| 6| 7| 8| 9| Bamboos| | | | | | | | | | Characters| | | | | | | | | | Circles| | | | | | | | | | Honors There are two different honor suits: the winds and the dragons. The winds are east, south, west and north, and the dragons are red middle, prosperity and White board.
They have no numerical sequence and there are four tiles of each honor (e. g. four Red middle tiles). Bonus Tiles There are only eight tiles: four flowers and four seasons. WindsEast,South,West,North| DragonsRed middle,Prosperity,WhiteBoard| FlowersPlum,Orchid,Chrysathemun,Bamboo| SeasonsSpring,Summer,Autumn,Winter | CHINESE YO-YO The Chinese yo-yo is a toy from China consisting of two equally-sized discs connected with a long axle. The Chinese yo-yo is kept spinning on a string tied to two sticks at its ends. Each stick is held in one hand.
In modern times, it is used as a children’s toy and as a performance tool in juggling and sometimes in Chinese ethnic dance. It is possible to perform a large variety of tricks with the Chinese yo-yo which can be as easy as throwing the yo-yo up into the air or tossing it around the user’s back. It was found during the Ming dynasty; roughly 1386-1644. Design Chinese yo-yos were traditionally made of bamboo, which was very easy to break and not convenient for complicated tricks. Modern models, however, are now made of plastic for added durability. The sticks used with the yo-yo ontinue to be made of wood. Some Chinese yo-yos have grooves inset in the rim of the discs; these grooves cause them to make a whistling sound when spinning at high speeds. The sound allows the performer to gauge his speed and adjust the yo-yo accordingly. vs The Chinese yo-yo has been adapted in western countries as the diabolo. The Chinese yo-yo differs from the diabolo in two primary ways. First, the axle of the Chinese yo-yo is much longer than that of the diabolo. Also, the Chinese yo-yo has wheel-shaped discs, whereas the diabolo consists of two bell-shapes.
The Chinese yoyo is also typically grooved and made of hard plastic, while diabolos are not grooved and usually made of a durable rubber material. How to play If you are right handed, follow the instructions precisely. If you are left handed, reverse the handedness of the instructions. 1. Place the yo-yo down on the ground directly in front of you. Put the string under the axle (the metal bit). 2. Roll the yo-yo over to your right foot, and let it stop. Then roll it over to the left or just back and forth, and lift the sticks into the air when it reaches the foot.
This gives the yo-yo initial rotational momentum that stabilizes it when you lift it into the air. 3. Before it stops spinning, move the right stick up and down in a “hitting” motion. Try to imagine cutting a carrot with a kitchen knife. Try to keep this up as long as possible without the yo-yo falling off. 4. The yo-yo will naturally tilt away from or toward you. Do not fret; this is easily controlled. If the yo-yo is tilting toward you, move your right hand forward. If it is tilting away from you, move your right hand back. Do this while continuing to move the right stick up and down.
This works by pushing against the top of the yo-yo with the string. 5. The yo-yo naturally tends to unbalance until you learn to keep it at consistent high speeds. Until then, you can rectify the balance of the yo-yo by moving the right stick it the opposite direction yo-yo is leaning, like if it’s leaning forward, bring the stick backwards. 6. When you can keep the yo-yo level and with reasonable speed, try learning to throw and catch it. This is done by simply pulling the two hand sticks apart rapidly, causing the yo-yo to fly up. To catch, simply position the string underneath he axle of the yo-yo. XIANGQI(CHINESE CHESS) Chinese Chess called as Xiangqi or Xiangqi in Chinese, it’s categorised under tactics and strategy game with only two players on each game. Besides, it’s one of the famous games among Chinese communities and played by adult as well as children. Actually, xiangqi has the meaning of ‘Elephant Game’, which Xiang refers to ‘Elephant’ while Qi refers to ‘Game’. The game regard as a war between two armies, Chu and Han, with the aims of capturing the enemy’s king, the player considered wins the game after successfully captured the enemy’s general.
There is a river separate the two opposite sides that called as Chu River and Han Jie, meaning Han Border, which is a reference to the Chu-Han war. Xiangqi normally played on a board that consist of 10 lines long by 9 lines wide, the pieces are placed on the intersections of the line which also known as points. There are total of 32 pieces on the board with 16 pieces on each side. Normally, the pieces are designed with red and black colours while each piece labelled with different character. Piece| Point| | Advisor| | Cannon| | Chariot| | Elephant| | General| | Horse| | Soldier|
Differences characters have different kind of movement on the board, player are not allowed to move the pieces to a point that already occupied by another piece of the same army or stack on it. But players are allowed to capture enemy’s piece by moved to the point occupied and remove the opponent’s piece from the board, the opponent piece is considered as being ‘killed’. The general is said to be “in check” when the general is in danger situation of being captured by the enemy player on his next move. At the same time, the player who’s going to capture the general should announce the check immediately in order to warn the opponent side.
If the general’s player can make no move to prevent the enemy from capture the king, the situation is called as “checkmate” and the game is end. Xiang Qi origins from Asia but there are a lot of leagues and club all around the world. For example, there are United Kingdom Chinese Chess Association in Britain and Malaysia Chinese Chess Association in Malaysia. Today, xiangqi developed rapidly and now everyone can plays xiangqi game through online or even install the game in the computer. KABADDI Kabaddi in India is counted among the most common and widely played traditional sports.
Kabaddi originated in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, almost 4000 years ago. According to a legend, this game came into existence, when a boy hit another boy for this candy. The boy who was hit chased the boy who hit him, and hit him back and ran away. Kabaddi also known as the “Game of the Masses” is the game, one person play against seven people which requires both skill and power on behalf of the players, and it also combines the characteristics of wrestling and rugby. LEGENDS ATTACHED TO KABADDI Kabaddi is a rather simple and inexpensive game, and it does not require a massive playing area, or any expensive equipment.
There are some ancient scripts that refers to the existence of kabaddi in India. In Mahabharata, Arjuna had a unique talent in the game of kabaddi, as he was able to go inside the wall of enemies, destroy them all and come back unscathed. According to the Buddhist literature, Gautam Buddha used to play Kabaddi for recreation. Morever, the game earned a lot of popularity in the Sourthen part of Asia. ORIGIN OF KABADDI Kabaddi is probably the only game of offence and defence in which attack is an individual attempt. The word ‘Kabaddi’ may have originated from the Tamil words kai (hand) and pidi (catch).
MODERN DAY KABADDI The standard rules and regulations for Kabaddi were also formulated in 1918; however, the rules were brought out in print in the year 1932. The Amateur Kabaddi Federation came into existence in the year, in 1972. This body was formed with a view to popularize the game in the neighbouring countries and also to organize regular National Level tournaments. India was also instrumental in including Kabaddi in the main disciplines of the XI Asian Games held at Beijing, China in 1990. This was a major landmark in the history of kabaddi in India, as India won the Gold Medal in this championship.
India also won the Gold Medals in the succending Asian Games held in 1994 at Hiroshima, Japan and in the Asian Games held in 1998 at Bangkok in Thailand. India played an important role in introducing the game of kabaddi to the African countries, while hosting a demonstration sport in the Afro- Asian games, in 2002. India also successfully took part in the first World Kabaddi Championship held at Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Kabaddi in india touched another milestone in 2004, when India hosted the first ever Kabaddi World Cup, in Mumbai.
India became the winner of the World Cup, as well. India has produced a number of talented Kabaddi players, so far, who have earned international recognition. CHATURANGA “Chaturanga “ is one ot the oldest brain in the game world, played in ancient India. The game considered to be the ancestor of moderm day chess and the kings and princes of ancient India. The Sanskrit word “Chaturanga” means “having four limbs or parts” and it was also used describe the Indian army of Vedic times, where a platoon had four division like elephants,chariots, cavalry,and infantry.
The board of chaturanga “Ashtapada” (eight – square)”. Chaturanga was played during Gupta period. The game is presumed to be the common ances of the games of Chess,Shogi, and Makruk and it is related to Xiangqi and Janggi, as well. Banabhatta’ Harsha Charitha (c. 625)contains the earliest reference to the name “Chaturanga” . the game developed in Gupta India around the 6th century and 7th century, it was adopted as Shatianj in Sassanid Persia. Rhere are evidences like Sanskrit document, “Vasavadatta” from Subhandu that suggests Chaturanga as the ancestors of modern Chess.
The pieces of Chaturanga had a lot of similarity with that of modern Chess. The pieces of Chauiranga were called as Raja(King), Mantri(Counsellor,ancestors of the Ferz), Gaja (Elephant,also named as Fil,later,Asva(Horse),Ratha(Chariot later called Rook) , and Pedati (Infantry of Pawns) . HOW TO PLAY The rules of moving the pieces in Chaturanga were also quite similar to that of modern Chess. The King was allowed to move as usual, but it had additional power. It could make Knight –move during the game, provided that it hasn’t been checked before it makes the knight move.
There were no rule of castling in Chaturanga. The Counsellor in Chaturanga, was allowed to move one square diagonally and the Elephants used to move two squares diagonally. However, the Elephants was allowed to jump the intervening square. In Chaturanga,the rules of moving the Knight were the same as a usual Knight and the Rook or Chariot also moved like usual Rook. Though,the Pawns or soldiers in Chaturanga also moved like a usual pawn ,they were not allowed to make the double steps on it first move, like modern Chess.
Acoording to the rules of Chatruranga, the Pawns could be promoted only when they arrived at the last rank of the board. However, promotions was available only to the type of pieces that was on the promotion-square in the opening setup. The main objective of a plyer in Chaturanga was to mate the opponent’s King . The player talemates its opponent was declared as the loser in Chaturanga. However, apart from the two-handed version of Chaturanga that has been discussed so far there was also another version named Chaturaji, having four hands.
There is game described in the Indian epic, Mahabarata that had similarity with that of Chaturaji. KHO KHO Kho – Kho is one of the most popular traditional sports in india. This games is an immense test of the participants’s physical fitness, strength, speed and stamina and it also requires a certain amount of ability on behalf of the participants. Additionally, many historians say that it is actually a modified form of Run and Chase. It is played by a team consisting of 12 players, where only 9 players enter the arena.
In Kho-Kho, the participants simply need to chase and catch their opponents in order to win the game. In the ancient time, the game of Kho- kho was played on ‘ raths ’ or chariots in Maharashtra and it was known as Rathera. The main aim of the participants in the game of Kho-Kho is to catch the opponent by pursuit and to chase, rather than just run. RULES OF KHO-KHO The rules for Kho Kho were framed in the beginning of the 20th century. According to the rules and regulation of Kho- Kho, each of the participating teams consists of 12players, though only 9players take the field for a contest.
There are two innings in a match and an innings consists of chasing and running turns of 7minutes each. One player of the chasing team play the role of an active chaser and the remaining 8members of the team sit in their 8squares on the central lane, alternately facing the opposite direction. The active chaser stands at either of the posts and gets ready to begin the pursuit. It is mandatory for the members of the chasing team to put their opponent out by touching them with their palms and without committing a foul. The defenders try to play out the 7minutes, and the chaser keep on trying to dismiss them.
There are 3ways through which a defender can be dismissed: * If an active chaser touches him with his palm without commiting a foul, * If the defender goes out of the limits on his own, or * If the defenders enters the limits the limit late. Usually, the defenders enter the limits, in batches of 3 and after the third and last defender of batch is out, the next batch has to enter the limits, before a Kho is given by the successful active chaser. The defenders are allowed to move on both sides of the central lane. However the active chaser does not have the permission to change the direction to which he is committed.
He is also not allowed to cross the central lane. An active chaser can only change his position with a seated chaser, by touching him from behind by palm, and uttering the word kho loudly. A chase or attack is built up simultaneously through a series of Kho as the chase continues with a relay of chasers. There are an interval of 5minutes at the end of each of the innings and there is also a break of 2minutes in between the turns. Each of the sides alternates their positions between chasing and defending. There is no bar for the participants in the game of kho- Kho and people from all age can participate.
The game can be played by men, women, and children of all ages and kho- Kho does not require a lot of equipments to play. The time limit for the game is not more than 37minutes. PLAYING FIELD OF KHO- KHO The game of Kho- Kho require a rectangular playground that is evenly surfaced, with dimension of 29m by 16m. There are 2 rectangles at the end which comprises of 2 wooden poles. The central lane is 907. 50cm long and across the small squares, lie 8 cross lanes which are 500cm long and 70cm wide. There are 2 posts at the end of central lane, which rise 120cm above the ground surface with a circumference of 30- 40cm.
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN TRADITIONAL GAMES AND MODERN GAME Game is a recreational activity whether for fun, leisure time or work. It can be done alone or in groups. Games usually have rules that must be followed by all . According to the playing terms and condition,there are some win and some lose, or draw. Games that involve physical activity are usually called sports. Games are held until now but there is a difference between the first game and the game played now. Previous games such as wau game, dragon dance or top game features art that symbolizes the beauty and harmony of the people in Malaysia.
These activities will normally be done in groups where they have similar interests. Each will share their energy, ideas, and time just to ensure that such activities can be implemented. While for the game now, usually computer games that does not symbolize anything and do not need to be done by a group of people and not to strengthen the bond between people like the game before. In addition, computer games will cause addiction among players. Players who are too addicted to the game will not care about their health, do not eat or sleep just to play the game.
Those time games usually give different harmony with nature while nowadays games like computer games such as counter strike gives bad influence to boys. In turn this will contaminate the minds of the young people of this age. SUGGESTIONS TO PROMOTE TRADITIONAL GAMES * Promotion through mass media and multimedia such as TV advertising, internet social website such as Facebook, Twitter and so on. * Organization of activities by NGO – promotion via/through brochure,pamplets. * government roles – organise state,national and international level competitions among community. provides good infrastructure – such as, field,sports equipment. -organise awareness campaign – gives opportunities to upgrade the players skills. -gives rewards to player-such as trophy, cash money, giving honours such as “Dato”. * role of school authority – organise school level competitions among students. -actively involved in sports activities – upgrade their skills from school level. -sports school – give a lot of opportunities to many students who are expert and specialized in sports skills. -provides more bright future to skilled players. traditional games as one of the co-curriculum activities in school. CONCLUSION Advances in technology have made the loss of what was once very proud heritage. But,do we aware of the fact that we inherited the traditional game? Sadly there are those among young people today do not recognize traditional games such as pride, kite flying, top-spinning, kite, kabaddi, yo-yo and so on. Many benefits to be derived from traditional games such as can strengthen bonds among people, nourish the body by sweating and can preserves the cultural heritage of ages.
In addition, the state can promotes the game as one of the activities that need to be introduced to the tourists who comes to Malaysia. It will also be the pride of Malaysians. Unfortunately, Malaysian think about it they just want the excitement and follow all the latest technological changes which made them to forget the heritage that should be treated well. Therefore, teenagers can follow and continue the game technology but at the same time still maintain and uphold ancestral heritage. REFERENCES * Lau, H. T. Chinese Chess. Tuttle Publishing, Boston, 1985. ISBN 0-8048-3508-X. Leventhal, Dennis A. The Chess of China. Taipei, Taiwan: Mei Ya, 1978. (out-of-print but can be partly downloaded) * Li, David H. First Syllabus on Xiangqi: Chinese Chess 1. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1996. ISBN 0-9637852-5-7. * Li, David H. The Genealogy of Chess. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-2-2. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Cannon: Chinese Chess 2. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 1998. ISBN 0-9637852-7-3. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Elephant: Chinese Chess 3. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2000.
ISBN 0-9637852-0-6. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Pawn: Chinese Chess 4. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2002. ISBN 0-9711690-1-2. * Li, David H. Xiangqi Syllabus on Horse: Chinese Chess 5. Premier Publishing, Bethesda, Maryland, 2004. ISBN 0-9711690-2-0. * Jupiter Infomedia Pvt. Ltd. Kabaddi. Retrieved 7/05/2012. from http://www. indianetzone. com/1/kabaddi. htm * Jupiter Infomedia Pvt. Ltd. Chaturanga. Retrieved 7/05/2012. from http://www. indianetzone. com/39/chaturanga_chess. htm * Wikipedia,Kho-Kho, Retrieved May 22,2012, from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Kho_kho