Acknowledgments and Overview of Libraries

Last Updated: 26 Apr 2023
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We would like to extend our gratitude to the following staff and students of Barangka Elementary School who helped us while working on this proposal: Ms. Lourdes Larios, Ms. Violeta Dig, Ms. Aizaleen Marcelo, Jan Bernice Reign Cruz, Arch Gabriel Tesorero, Katya Santos, Patricia Kaye Cervantes, Reylaldo Jose, Kimberlyn Gumaro, Rudelyn Dingding, Eunice Roxas, Claire Erika Samsona, Maria Angelica Ronsairo, Rica Mae Guttierez and Jim Arron Abanos.

We would also like to thank our adviser, Ms. Mylene Alvaran who guided us throughout the whole process of this study. To our families who gifted us with education, the rest of our Informatics Marikina family, and last but not the least, to our Lord God. With Him all things are possible.


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The library is always been a “study room” for the people especially for the students who wants to make studies and researches. We simply define library as a room or building containing a collection of books. Before the advent of omputers, libraries usually used a card catalog to index all the items inside it. For academic libraries, if the students want to borrow a book, they should have their library card and they should give it to the librarian for the security of the books and for special libraries you should be member of that institution, organization or association. There are three types of libraries. First public libraries, it describes as large main branch and opens to the public and it is maintained by the local authorities like National Library here in the Philippines.

It has the most extensive reference collection (dictionaries, encyclopedia, indexes, historical documents of the Philippines, etc. ) and provides resources such as internet access and databases on CD-ROM. Second type of library is the College Libraries. This type is what all schools have. Sometimes it’s open to the public also and its collection reflects the academic majors and specialties of the school. Lastly, the Special Libraries, its being run by corporations, associations or governments or specialized in a particular subject.

The existence of a library for every schools, organizations, institution and associations come with much importance, like it can be considered as a store-house of knowledge and renders a great service to the society. It plays a very important role in promoting the progress of knowledge. Foe people who love read books which also called “bookworms” but can’t afford to buy books, library is the best for them, also a best help especially for students. It is also a very useful for rural youths to spend their time reading books instead of doing evil habits such as gambling and loitering.

Nowadays library has been evolving to automated library system (ALS) or also known as Library Management System (LMS). It is use to track all items inside the library and monitor who have borrowed and return books. It uses a software or program that interact with the database and has two graphical user interfaces (GUI), one for user and one for administrator. It is cost effective and space saving alternative to other document shelving, and addressing the need for secure and automated document and record handling. Radio-frequency technology has come far from its roots at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Russian physicist Leon   Theremin is commonly attributed as having created the first RFID device in 1946 (Scanlon, 2003). While Theremin may be recognized for the first successful application of the technology, RFID has earlier roots. RFID is a combination of radar and radio broadcast technology. Radar was developed in the U. S. in the 1920s (Scanlon, 2003). Scholars noted the relationship between electricity and magnetism, which is a foundation of radio broadcasting, at the beginning of the nineteenth century (Romagnosi, 2009).

Harry Stockman wrote a seminal paper in 1948, identifying the vast amount of research and development still needed before “reflected-power communications” could be used in applications. Interest in implementing RFID in libraries is on the rise (Dorman, 2003). RFID technology has been used to raise efficiency in transport, business and theft-monitoring systems. The evolution of RFID described below suggests that libraries may well benefit from widespread use of this technology. Background of the Study

Barangka Elementary school is located at General Julian Cruz Street, Bonifacio Avenue, Barangka. Marikina City. The school is currently has more than 1000+ book titles and copies. With only a librarian and a teacher librarian handling all transactions thru manual recording and processing, book borrowing and returning as well as master list updating has always been a tedious task. This has been causing delays in processing, organization, and inventory of currently available, currently borrowed, damaged, donated and phased-out books and consumes a lot of time.

Other than those problems it can also came up with the result of data mishandling, book records are not updated and lots of borrowers will have a time waiting for one borrower to another, librarian will be more confused if there will come a time were all students are borrowing a book all at the same time. T0he researchers came up with the idea of developing a Library System that would improve transaction efficiency. Being part of an institution where identification is used not just for efficiency but for safety as well, the proponents decided to make the usage of the library system but the library data files/ documents more secured.

The library system may only be used by authorized staff, but it would be better if the library itself was restricted for those who are supposed to benefit from it. By having the need to identify themselves with the use of RFID, everyone who borrows a book in the library is enlisted. Also, it will help the library staff to be able to monitor and distinguish the days and books the library is most used and the statistical details of the library. Statement of the Problem Current Library System of Barangka Elementary School (Manual Library System) . The system is inconvenient to use . The security of books is questionable . Take more effort and time consuming in listing and checking all the books . The librarians don’t have any idea about the circulating books.  The students and professors don’t know the books information and availability. Sometimes the librarian didn’t know the total amount of fines and date of dues of the students. The librarian can’t have a reports of who borrowed and returned books. . The student cant reserve book/s. Sometimes the books were being borrowed by students for more than 2 days. . The books were damaged after returning Hypothesis

There is no significant difference between the perceptions of the teachers, students and the librarian concerning the Library System using RFID. Scope and Limitation The study took place at the Barangka Elementary School. The researchers conduct a study inside the school and ask for permission to gather some information about their library. After that the researchers went to the library and have some study, they went to the Barangka Elementary School on February 22, 2013 to gather some information for the proposed library system using RFID and gathered these following variables to suits the proposal system.

These variables that the researchers gathered are student name, address, contact details, and book ID for further explanation student name is needed for the librarian to know who is the borrower and identify the borrower, Address to identify the borrowers current location, contact details to contact the borrower if there is some problems about the book and book id to identify the number of the book and the number of its copy when it is being borrowed. After gathering the variables needed, the researcher needs some programming language in order to use the gathered variables as data to the proposed system.

The VB6. 0 or shall we say Visual Basic 6. 0 or Visual Basic. Net is being chosen by the researcher as programming language. The researcher also needs some hardware for the proposed system in order to make some testing and runs. For the researchers they choose desktop and laptop computer which is currently installed with vb. 6. 0 and running to an operating system of Windows XP and Windows 7. Significance of the Study In this section, the study benefits the following people inside and outside the organization: 1. Librarian Once the new I.

T solution is implemented in the library, the librarian would be able to easily monitor more books that are available or unavailable. He/she can easily identify the borrower with the use of RFID. This means faster access to information and faster processing of book borrowing. 2. Students and faculty Students and faculty members can benefit from this study because with the new automated system, they would be able to easily find the books they want to barrow. They would also benefit from faster processing of book borrowing since the library staff would be able to easily track borrowers. . School administration The school administration will also benefit from this study because the library system also brings about more secure ways of managing the school’s library collection. This means that the possibility of losing books due to lost borrowing records and security problems will be minimized with the proper implementation of the new system. This new system serves as a good way to protect the school’s investment in library holdings.

Evaluation Design and Framework

 The association of research libraries (ARL) in North America has collected tatistics related to its member’s libraries for many years ago. These statistics focused on “input” measure size of collections or number or staff. Subsequently, ARL considered “Output” measures such as circulation statistics. Shim and Kantor (1996) used data envelope Analysis (DEA) to evaluate digital libraries. DEA measures the relative efficiencies of Organizations (“decision making units”), given multiple inputs and outputs the measurement of efficiency can apply to a single institution over time, or across multiple institutions.

As shim and Kantor state “ an efficient library is defined as the one which produces the same output with less input or, for a given input, produces more output. ” While this approach advance the notion of evaluation, Kyrillido (2002) points out that the relationships between inputs and outputs within a library are not necessarily clear. Additionally, Shim and Kantor indicate that libraries must describe how inputs are transformed into services, rather than outputs. ARL has acknowledged this need through its New Measures Initiative, which emphasizes outcomes, impacts, and quality, based on user satisfaction.

ARL‘s E-metrics projects represents an effort to define and collect data on the use and value of electronic resources. ARL’s LibQual+™ attempts to measure overall service quality in academic research libraries (Cook et al. , 2001). LibQual+™ arose from SERVQUAL, an instrument, based on the gap theory of service quality, which was used to assess private sector institutions. ARL intends to extend LibQual+™ to evaluate digital libraries, through the National Science Foundation’s National SMETE Digital Library (NSDL) program.

The affirmed Kantor, along with Saracevic, (1997a; 1997b) conducted a long term study to develop a taxonomy of user values for library services and a methodology for applying the taxonomy. They also provide arguments for the importance of used-based evaluation include Norlin (2000) who evaluated user satisfaction regarding references services with surveys to gather demographic data, unobtrusive observations of the delivery of reference services, and follow-up focus groups. Hill et al. (1997) used multiple methods to obtain feedback regarding the Alexandria Digital Library (ADL) at the University of California, Santa Barbara.

The study adopted several methods to evaluate user views including: online surveys, ethnographic studies, focus groups, and user comments. The goal of this study was not to compare the value of the library system to its costs, but rather to incorporate the user feedback in the ongoing design and implementation of the ADL. Talbot et al. (1998) employed a Likert type survey to evaluate patron satisfaction with various library services at the University of California, San Diego. This survey was conducted in response to a comprehensive change in the library management’s philosophy.

Chris Borgman at UCLA has written extensively regarding digital libraries from user-centric perspective. One of her recent works, Borgman (2000), provides a multi-disciplinary, holistic, human- centered perspective on the global information infrastructure. Many economists including Hal Varian, Malcolm Getz, and Jeff Mackie-Manson have examined the evaluation of libraries and information. Mackie-Manson, and the others, examined the issue of electronic journals pricing during the Pricing Access to Knowledge (PEAK) 2000 conference.

There are numbers of studies that adopt multi-attribute, stated-preference techniques, or some variant of them. Crawford (1994) describes a multi-attribute, stated-preference application for evaluating reference within academic libraries and provides an overview of an earlier study using similar techniques (Halperin and Stradon 1980). Harless and Allen (1999) utilize contingent valuation methodology (CVM), a subset of multi-attribute, stated –preference techniques, to measure patron benefits of reference desk services.

Basically, CVM explores user’s willingness to pay in dollar values, for varying levels of services. The most widely cited reference for CVM’s Mitchell and Carson (1989). The Harless and Allen paper raises the important distinction between use and option value, concepts that have been developed in the context of environmental. Use value reflects the value of benefits as assigned by actual users of specific services. Option value incorporates the additional benefits as determined by users who might use specific services in the future (i. e. individual who had not used the reference service but still placed a value of its existence). Any evaluation study that focuses only on individuals who use a specific service (e. g. , interviewing only patrons as they leave the reference desk) will most probably underestimate the benefit of the service in question. Outside of the US, the eVALUEd project team has implemented a questionnaire designed to collect data regarding evaluation methodologies in the UK. The questionnaire was offered to the heads of Library/Information Services in Higher Education Institutions in UK.

The goal eVALUEd is to produce a transferable model for e-library evaluation and to provide training and dissemination in e-library evaluation. The results of this effort should provide an interesting comparison to efforts based in the US. These studies demonstrate an increasing emphasis on both inter and intra-institutional measures, outcomes rather than inputs, a user-centric perspective, adoption of evaluation techniques from various disciplines, and evaluation of libraries that is published as a software.

The aim of conceptual model of the study is to visualize the theoretical plans that will be used in the study. It is composed of three blocks, explicitly the input, the process and the output blocks. The Input Block is made up of personal information such as name and address contact details . Book number for the numerical arrangement of book according to its accession number and identification card for serial number purposes. The Process block is made up process where all the variables in the input is being used to make a process that will definitely return a certain output.

The Output block is made up of what will be the outcome when the inputs and process have been done and it is Library system using rfid The Evaluation will now see if the system meets the client’s requirements if it is working properly. It will serve as assembly practice for the comments, feedbacks, and suggestions from the user of the system. Importance to the study The importance of name to the study is to identify who are the borrower / user of the library system. The importance of address in the study is to identify the borrowers / user’s location for security purposes.

The importance of contact details in the study is to identify the borrowers/ user’s details whenever there are some arguments about the book that has been borrowed or returned. The importance of the Book ID/ Book Number is to identify the current book status whenever it is in or out of the library. Chapter 3 Methodology Method of Research The proponents use the following techniques or methods in order to achieve data gathering for this study. First, the researchers use the descriptive method of research that involves a process of observation of events and facts and their description in words and/or numbers.

Second, the proponents also use the job analysis method that deals with the assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of practices, policies, instruments or other variables in work process of an organization. These two methods were used because the tasks in the study involves the observation of perceptions of the respondents and the analysis of existing work practices in order to come up with improvements. Locale of the Study The study took place in Barangka Elementary School, located at Bonifacio Avenue Barangka Marikina City, beside the Barangay Hall of Brgy. Barangka.

The library currently uses manual process of borrowing and returning of books, a data base that contains an inventory of books. However the library doesn’t give students and faculty members/ staffs the ability of borrowing and returning of books more secured and much detailed information. The database just helps the librarian in performing regular inventories of books. The researcher then thought of coming up with a solution to help improve the way the library’s collection and book borrowing are managed. For further analysis here a scenario for us to know about the process currently happens in Barangka elementary school library.

At first the student will confront the librarian asking for a book and then the librarian will look up to his/ her records of the books. If the book is in the book shelves then the librarian will tell if it is available or out. When the book is available then the librarian will ask if the student will borrow the book and ask for his/ her library card and fill it with the following information. After registering the book as being barrowed the librarian take a look at his/ her records and record the book that is being borrowed.

And this is the process in the Barangka elementary school library. Participants The participants in this study were librarian, Students and faculty members. During this conduct of study the population of the participants could be broken down to 150 students, 10 faculty members and staff and school librarian with the total of 161 persons. The survey was held to get the general perceptions of the librarians, students and faculty members on the accuracy, efficiency and security of the current library system. Research Instruments

Interview about the existing library system was done by asking questions related company’s background, existing library process, problems encountered while using the existing system. The answers are answerable by their own insights of the person involved during the interview session. The purpose of the surveys and interviews is for the proponents will know of there will be improvements that they are going to add for their proposed project. The proponents used questionnaires for surveys of Barangka Elementary School Library system using rfid.

The questionnaire is composed of 4 questions. These are answerable by the numbers which are from their own perceptions and experiences and experiences. Number one  is equivalent to always answer, number two  is equivalent to often, number three  is equivalent to sometimes answer, number four is equivalent to rarely answer and number five  is equivalent to never answer. The proponents chose the survey to be answerable by 1,2,3,4 and 5 only because they want it to be more convenient and answerable by the students of the Barangka Elementary School.

Before initiating the study, the researchers requested permission through a letter signed by the adviser, and approved by the school Principal. The questionnaire to be used for the survey was prepared and presented to the adviser for the approval. After the adviser’s approval of the questionnaire, the researchers conducted the survey in the school where the participants include the librarian, students and faculty members. Design Strategy 1. Planning On completing the survey and the data gathering, the researchers started the planning stage in the developing the Library system using rfid.

Through the survey and interview, the researchers learned more about the existing manual library system, and how it can be improved through with the use of RFID. During the planning stage, the data flow diagram, entity relationship diagram and flow chart were prepared. 2. Writing The researchers used VB. 60 and VB. net in programming the process and Microsoft Access for the database. Vb6. 0 and Vb. net was selected it can handle a program more reliable, Microsoft Access is selected because it can handle database more efficiently. 3. Testing The Library system using rfid was tested first among the researchers.

The librarian, students and the faculty members also tested the system and gave suggestions in improving its usability. 4. Implementation The proponents have launched the Barangka Elementary School Library system using rfid after all testing, analyzing the final results and all the criteria and said goal are accomplished. Should the proponents and benefactors of the said system are not satisfied; the system will then undergo a new evaluation. The implementation has the following stages: 1. Training of staff and librarian – The staff, administrations and librarians will be trained later on time.

They’ll learn the security features, how to enter data produce reports. 2. Live run of the System – The proponents will present during this initial live run to troubleshoot possible errors. 3. Turnover of documentation and software - The software and documentation will be turned over to the administrators and librarians of the school as soon as the System was being approved. Chapter 4 Results and Findings This chapter presents the data gathered through the survey. The results were analyzed by using the weighted means, and their corresponding verbal interpretations.

Table 1, 2, 3, and 4 show the results of the survey conducted for the students and librarian of the Barangka Elementary School, Marikina City on the accuracy, security, accessibility, and usability of proposed library system which is Barangka Elementary School Library System using RFID. They asked 160 respondents including the librarian and faculty staff.

The result implies that the users can use the system with minimum trainings or without trainings at all. Chapter 5 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation This presents the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations to solve the problems. A. Summary The findings of this study are shown under the categories of accuracy, security, accessibility, and usability. 1. Perception of accuracy According to the perception of the students and the librarian, accuracy of data are well maintained by the system. 2. Perception on security According to the students and librarian, all the books can be secure. . Perception on accessibility According to the students and the librarian, user accessibility of the system is applicable and working properly. 4. Perception on usability According to the students and librarian, the system is easy to use with graphical user Interface. B. Conclusion Taking into the account the finding mentioned previously, proponents came up with their conclusion that the system has meet the minimum requirements and important requirements that the client needs. All the modules are working properly and satisfy the users.

Although the system is open for future enhancement. C. Recommendation The proponents came up with the following recommendations based on the result of the live run testing of the system; . User Level – logout of the existing account first before another user can login. . Quantity of the books - the total number of books in each category.  Fine computation – computation of fine of each student. . Usability of internet in accessing accounts of the users – using of internet in accessing user accounts.

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Acknowledgments and Overview of Libraries. (2017, May 09). Retrieved from

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