Introduction To Research
Research is a high-hat word that scares a lot of people. It is a welcoming attitude towards change. The research state of mind can apply to anything.
It is a problem-solving mind. What is Research? Research is defined as a careful, systematic study in a field of knowledge, undertaken to discover or establish facts or principles (Webster, 1984). Research is defined as a systematic process of collecting and analyzing data to find an answer to a question or a solution to a problem, to validate or test an existing theory.
The Value of Research Research helps professionals by providing information to make decisions, or o perform their functions more effectively. Teachers need to know what teaching method can be used Health services providers need health-related data in developing health programs Research Improves the Quality of Life Quality research is the lifeblood of any scientific discipline. Without it, disciplines would stagnate, failing to advance past their current limits and understanding. (Wan 1997 p. 7) General Types of Research Research can be classified into three categories: Descriptive research Correlation or association research Experimental or intervention research Descriptive Research The descriptive of study finds answer to the questions who, what, where and how. This type of research describes a situation or a given state of affairs in terms of specified aspects or factors. Examples of research topics fall under the descriptive type: 1 . ‘The management style of school administrators in Lillo City’ 2.
Tardiness and absenteeism among high school students” 3. “The insecticidal properties of pepper Explanatory or Correlation Research An explanatory study goes beyond description of the problem or situation. It attempts to explain the possible factors related to a problem which have en observed in a descriptive study. This study answers the questions why and how. The factors related to the problem, however, need not be viewed as real “causes” Of the problem, but factors which are associated with or may contribute to the occurrence of the problem.
Certain factors are “assumed” to explain or contribute to the existence of a problem or a certain condition or the variation in a given situation. The researcher usually uses a theory or a hypothesis to account for or explain the forces that are “assumed to have caused” the problem. For example, relationships between the following pairs f variables can be studied: 1. Gender Grades 2. Knowledge about cancer compliance with medical regimen 3.
Educational attainment repayment status of cooperative members Intervention or Experimental Research The intervention or experimental type of research evaluates the effect or outcome of a particular intervention or treatment. It studies the “cause and effect” relationship between certain factors on a certain phenomenon under controlled conditions. The following examples of research topics fall under the explanatory or correlation category: 1 . “The Effect of Different Levels of Applied Nitrogen on the growth and Yield of Rice” Experimental vs..
Non- experimental Research Experimental research Treatments are given to subjects Cause-and-effect questions Non-experimental research Treatments are not given to subjects Participants are observed as they naturally exist Other Dichotomies of Research There are other classification of research: 1. Pure or Applied 2. Exploratory or Explanatory 3. Quantitative or Qualitative Pure Basic Attempts to describe an existing situation and/or explain certain patterns of behavior using either or both qualitative and quantitative research cuisines Pure research offers better descriptions and better explanation of human behavior.
The intention is to accumulate knowledge about a certain phenomenon. Doesn’t necessarily provide results of immediate, practical use Applied Research Aims to see an immediate solution to a problem Focuses on variables or factors which can be changed by intervention in order to achieve a desired goal An experimental study comparing the effectiveness of two methods of improving a situation Exploratory Designed to describe an existing problem situation and examine the underlying factors that contribute to the emergence of the problem
Explanatory To understand or explain a prevailing situation or explain a relationship between factors which may have already been identified in exploratory studies Seek more specific answers to ‘Sunny” and “how” questions Quantitative vs.. Qualitative Research Quantitative – data are gathered such that they can be quantified and subjected to statistical analyses Qualitative – data are gathered such that they can be analyzed through informed judgment Research may be obtrusive or non-obtrusive: Obtrusive research – where the researcher introduces conditions that influence participants.