Human Resource (HR) Planning is the practice of determining and analysing the requirement for and supply of workforce in order to achieve the organisation’s goals and objectives, fulfil its mission and reach its vision (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). HR planning predicts forces that will affect the availability and requirement of employees in the future.
This process will result in top executives having superior analysis of human resource measurement for its decision making; HR expenditure being decreased due to the fact that management can forecast imbalances prior to them becoming costly; additional time will be available to place skills since requirements are predicted and analysed before staffing is done; excellent opportunities are present to comprise female and ethnic groups in upcoming developments; training of new managers can be improved.
The outcomes of these can be calculated and can be used for the evaluation of the accomplishments of HR planning (Mathis & Jackson, 2000). Human resource planning is a course of action that will aim to facilitate the organisation’s plan in recruiting, improvement and training, substitution, cross-functional development and management of programs for benefits and rewards.
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Subsequently to guarantee in building the best valuable human resource plan, the organisation should analyse the necessity of a strategic business plan, work proficiency plan, workforce planning, training and improvement planning, career development planning and planning for right-sizing (Macaleer & Shannon, 2003). Undeniably because of this analysis in HR planning, it is essential to have a sufficient Human Resource Information System (HRIS). The purpose of this is providing accurate, balance and on time information for the process.
Now a computer-based system should provide a form of information about human resources necessary for strategic business decision making. This system reflects the relationship between work requirements, employee’s individual skills and levels of performance. In this instance, the information system serves as simple reflections of reality which will help develop better and effective business decisions which are known results in the codification of knowledge (Liff, 1997).
In HR planning, external environmental forces should be considered such as present technology, political climate, economic situation, legal issues, social responsibility and cultural differences. Besides these external considerations are extremely important to HR activities especially, if HR planning is globally implemented. The serious pressures that are involve in a business are scarcity of talents, fast shifting technology, government regulations, environment, health, safety and changes in the market. In this situation, the human resource planning innovations of the company are affected.
This will make sure that the organisation has the right work force with the right skills in the right jobs at the right moment. There is no argument that human resource planning should be associated with the strategic goals of the company. Hence, human resource planning is an important factor in managing an organisation competently and successfully. Accordingly, HR planning positively improves organisation performance if the HR plan is strategy-based and human resource is a convincing strategic collaborator (Macaleer & Shannon, 2003).
Most parts of the world may be in recession and economies are in disorder will result in worldwide effects on organisations and businesses. Any type of HR planning is presented with a surmountable differences of opinion connected with unpredictable and uncertain times. In this case, if the planning is done by HR professionals who have superior knowledge of magnitude and quality of essential resources needed for revitalization, there is optimism of future positive outcomes.
According to Robert A. Simpkins (2009), an organisational adviser and educator, there are two types of plans. One is designed to guarantee ‘business continuity’ in the appearance of manmade or natural catastrophe. Second is a plan that is framed for the ‘uncertainty’ of the business environment. HR planning is the most critical part of the organisation’s strategic plans for the reason that observing and adjusting for environmental changes will make the success of the process.
All the drivers of the company’s internal and external environment are altering at an accelerating speed including advancements in technology with respect to hardware, software and connectivity, globalization, shifting of sources and consumers, changing competition, changes in markets, the alteration of demographics, change of population lifestyle, the macro and micro changes in economics and the progressively more bewildering government and international regulations (Simpkins 2009). Businesses have the desire to stay significant in the face of consumers and stakeholders.
Mostly, the organisations that maintained their importance have built remarkable HR plans that are continually reviewed and modernized. Regrettably, other businesses build better folders that compose overall strategic human resources plans that are short of any back-up planning, and these stay behind on the shelf gathering dust for years, inappropriate to a present shifting business climate. Finally, Simpkins (2009) concludes that an organisation needs to design a communicable HR plan that is not detailed enough to slow down operation.
Since HR professionals are with higher-level of understanding, the group will have the elasticity to adjust what will take place in the future. The solution to a positive result is to keep HR plan flexible (Simpkins, 2009). Human resources issues have been the first among all business issues to affect the outcome of a business organisation. Human resources have risks and these risks are the challenges that resulted from managing your employees, processes and procedures. Therefore by dealing with these risks in HR and finance, one can make positive organisational outcomes.
On the other hand, if these issues are not addressed appropriately these possibly will cause major harm to the business (Steffee, 2008). Public personnel management research and practices increasingly focus on creative human resource management (HRM) strategies for recruiting individuals with Information Technology (IT) expertise and retaining employees with institutional knowledge, particularly in light of impending retirements. Some agencies face unique workforce demographic challenges, while others face shifts in missions or technologies.
For these reasons, the U. S. Office of Personnel Management relaxed some regulations to allow federal agencies to meet their staffing needs (Mastracci, 2009, p. 19). With regards to staffing needs, workforce planning is the course of action that companies utilize to recognize and deal with the staffing implications of their strategic human resources plans or change of business plans. Workforce planning has a sole objective, to develop a long term perspective within which short term workforce decisions can be achieved efficiently.
Staffing strategy is a long term plan that makes sure that availability of employees matches its requirement for employees. Staffing plans illustrate short term plans which an organisation will make in the immediate future to deal with staffing gaps and excesses. By implementing this procedure, the businesses can make certain it has the accurate quantity of people, with the appropriate skill, in position at the right moment. Workforce planning can facilitate the execution of business changes and innovations. The growth in organisations is anticipated overtime during the workforce planning phases.
This process is essential in determining the staffing that would be required for growth that will make sure the needed skills will be obtainable to accomplish those development goals. It also allows a business company to construct and implement downsizing plans in the best efficient method. The absence of this strategy makes it hard to identify staffing reductions that have a positive effect on the future of the organisation (Bechet, 2008). Rightsizing or downsizing or organisational decimation is a persistent strategic human resource practice for the last thirty years (Gandolfi, 2008).
This refers to the planned removal of big quantity of workforce intended to improve organisational efficiency. In fact, this process is a commonly accepted company solution in times of financial difficulties of the organisation. Although studies show enough indication that rightsizing companies is not generally a successful method of reaching goals of optimum output and maximum profit. However, rightsizing sometimes cannot be avoided; workforce reduction ought to be a management means of last resort rather than first option.
For the duration of an economic recession, an organisation should think of all its options and examine the viability and applicability of cost-reduction alternatives before considering rightsizing. In fact predicting a business decline can be very hard, therefore, organisations have the immediate reaction rather than forecasting economic downturns (Gandolfi, 2008). Take the case of IBM, although the company planned to steer clear of downsizing its workforce however, the company declared plans of workforce reduction and by the early 1990’s IBM right sized its organisation by decreasing its employment by 40,000 at that time alone.
However, IBM made an effort to become reactive by changing products and attempted to acquire the promptness and responsibility edges of fast reacting manufacturers (Greer, 2001). On the other hand, back in the 1980’s a small number of organisations marked workforce planning and marked as part of their human resource strategy. AT&T and some large oil firms were the models of this. Due to the fact that having a large volume of employees, these organisations called for some forms of workforce planning.
AT&T made recognition for its succession planning, evaluation and career advancement programs. Rightsizing and reorganising achieved momentum for this time period. Strategic human resource was beginning to expand and become increasingly strategic because of the fast growing economy and globalisation at the end of the decade (Gubman, 2004). In another case, similar to any big organisations, Eastman Kodak has tried with a variety of human resource planning programs for the past decades. One of the successful programs centred on workforce requirements.
HR planning by that time was perceived as a method to make certain that the right number and right kind of employees were at the right position at the right moments. Skills assessments were believed to be the suitable base for HR planning. Similar to any firm, Kodak discovered that there were no general definitions of HR planning. The company realised that they ‘borrowed, adapted, discovered and created’ their way to an approach to HR planning that was aligned to the market situation at that time and be reactive to its changes (Bennet & Brush, 2007).
We have developed a framework and process for thinking about and doing HR planning, which I’ve labelled: “HR planning in “3D. ” The three dimensional environment at Eastman Kodak – diversity, decentralisation, and dynamism – has significantly affected the character and objectives of the HR planning process (Bennet & Brush, 2007, p. 46). In this concept, the human resource function at Eastman Kodak Company was restricted with the goals on magnifying the strategic dimensions of human resource management.
In this situation, HR is reshaped as a foundation of market competitive edge and new HR planning procedures were built to strengthen this edge. In the 1990’s, the implementation of this procedures required new HR abilities. The company’s made efforts to utilize HR planning to create a tougher and more aggressive corporation (Bennet & Brush, 2007). We have found several key integrative elements which, from an HR standpoint, seem to make sense in a “3D” environment. These elements are: corporate management themes; HR planning processes; and HR competencies.
Working together, in an ensemble of influence and activity, these elements help to create, sustains, and reinforces strategic business unity (Bennet & Brush, 2007, pp. 48-49). Corporate management themes facilitate in building a focus for a united business environment to achieve its objectives. As of HR planning processes, planning is staged at the corporate and business points. In this process, Eastman Kodak Company is creating efficient HR staff and on this level, this will make the company’s HR planning a ‘competitive weapon in our business arsenal’ (Bennet & Brush, 2007).
In the belief that the existing process of uniting and sharpening the corporation’s HR goals will result in considerable outcomes over the decades by concentrating our efforts and finances and giving to the corporation’s evolution. In HR competencies, HR planning is designed to support the Kodak Company by developing its ability to face the future and having the objective for improvement of Corporate Relations. An efficient production HR team, a competent HR planning process and the corporate themes put together will create unity of goals and objectives and create production’s capability to implement strategy.
On the whole, the Kodak Company started to distinguish the advancement and positive results as the outcome of knowledge acquired on this process. As Kodak Company has started to achieve its goals, there is an opportunity for transformation of HR functions. The corporation anticipate that successful HR planning, in a ‘3D environment’, will be Kodak’s ‘vehicle for landing safely in the 21’st century’ (Boroski, 1990). The point of view on the Annual HR Strategic Planning Process of Corning Incorporated is that the HR staff employs to make HR investments and services the main concern in support with business needs.
Overtime, this procedure has contributions from Human Capital Planning process, HR objectives and other organisation innovations. To efficiently attached HR strategy with business strategy a Human Capital Planning process was created in Corning Incorporated. The outcome gave managers tools and skills for ability development and gave HR a method of determining requirements over the organisation. To allow the determination of the skill that will affect the positive outcome of business strategy, HR planning should find out the quantity of employees needed and determine talent gaps.
Incorporating both the workforce planning and operating plan process have facilitated to create a more aligned global HR function for Corning Incorporated. Important components of a good HR planning process are composed of different methods for collecting information; corporate strategy input from top executives; direction from top managers and business participation from each business facilitated by HR function. Furthermore, placement of the HR planning process with the business strategy procedures enhances HR’s capacity to support the functions it presents with the requirements for its market Bennet & Brush, 2007). In the early 1990’s, in order to meet Colgate-Palmolive Company’s objective of ‘becoming the best truly global consumer products company’ (Khanna & Randolph, n. d. ) it human resources made the building of its human resources strategy. The corporation is continually dedicated to developing the human resources for sustainable competitive edge in the global market. The HR strategy team was grouped into Geographic Excellence, Category Excellence and Functional Excellence. The Global Human Resources Business Plans is nothing until it is put into action.
Colgate should consider consumer’s needs in order to accomplish the innovations of HR planning. HR plays an important part to assist Colgate employees to continually improve. HR makes an effort with management to build training, career planning, performance development, communications and reward systems. The process will make sure that Colgate employees have the chance for advancement, empowerment and continually improve its abilities (Smith, Boroski & Davis, 1992). On other respects, the organisation that is considering outsourcing, HR planning staff should be active partners of workforce planning processes.
In the present economic situation, active human resource planning processes integrating flexible workforce preparations are adapted to a much greater degree. Outsourcing is not only part of workforce planning besides it is also a tool in human resource planning. HR planners should be part of the organisational change: evaluation, contract negotiation, transition and stabilisation as these control decisions of the process. HR planning should have the control of the decisions and as the effect of its absence of this practices may result in failures (Khanna & Randolph, 2005).
The social responsibility of business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and discretionary expectations that society has of organisations at a given point in time. The social responsibilities of a business include to produce goods or services, to make a profit, to obey the laws and regulations, to act ethically, to consider the public good in every decision that is made and to place ethics above personal gains. To be socially responsible a person or business must consider all aspects of society when making a decision. (Clark & Seward, 2000, p. 2) In human resource planning the process should incorporate the highest level of social responsibility. As Milton Friedman maintains that a business organisation has no social responsibilities other than to get the highest possible profits (Ramlall, 2009). In spite of this belief, now there is a general awareness among business organisations that sustainable achievement and stockholders share value cannot be materialised by maximising production but rather by having social responsible attitude (Ramlall, 2009). In another case, human resource should consider employee participation for good governance and corporate social responsibility.
As an evidence of its importance is that, it is the basis as a legal tool in composing international institutions to regulate global corporations. In spite of this, business corporations make a general view in making HR procedures regarding the implementation of corporate social responsibility policies and personal views on employee relations that will affect the overall view of labour relations (Daugareilh, 2008). For multinational corporations like Enron, WorldCom and Citigroup, ethics are the most important aspect as an organisation.
Everyday all kinds of organisations have to face some kind of moral issue that has the making of a scandal that sometimes will end up in the multimedia business sections. In today’s era, it is a challenge to confront moral dilemmas such as workforce retention, attracting people, promotion, pay, sexual harassment and other HR practices. How a business corporation will respond to these moral issues will affect organisational environment and will also incite legal actions and will result a negative perception from investors and consumers.
Human resource planning practises call for not only reaching organisational objectives besides it will also institute and sustain these processes around ethical grounds (Kubal, Baker & Coleman, 2006). HR staff should have the foresight and the character to incorporate in its practises the various value systems in a business corporation. Although this is not just idealism, global competitions compel HR orientation to focus on profit. HR planning practices must consider decisions that are driven by the business or driven for the business.
HR should lead as the guardians of the organisation’s strategic ability. Likewise HR practises must also be the guardians of the whole organisation’s ethical and moral integrity (Wright & Snell, 2005). Unquestionably, in having human resource management program it must recognize laws and regulations in dealing with its people. This will make the legal environment of human resources. Due to the fact that this is a complicated aspect of the organisation, this increasingly involves Human Resource Management.
Persistent labour laws must be taken into consideration in overall Human Resource Planning formulation because in practising legal compliance is usually the source of strategic edge in the human resource management point of view (Greer, 2001). Human resource management policies and practices are designed to decide employee’s disagreements and make workplace justice. Similarly, an ethical decision to arrive at a solution to this dilemma is the innate character of human resource management practices and has brought about changes to Australian labour laws.
Human Resource management role as a ‘strategic partner’ and also the one who will look after employees’ welfare cannot be seen as a neutral overseer of workplace disputes. That is why a development of a code of ethics should be considered when creating human resources planning processes (Van Gramberg &Teicher, 2006). Take the case in workforce resizing under human resource planning processes, there are legal implications in this situation. With regards to employing and terminating people in an organisation, there is training involved that covers different fair employment and antidiscrimination laws.
A typical case in this matter was the case of United Steelworkers of America v. Weber (1979). Brian Weber sued Kaiser Aluminum and his union for racial discrimination (Clardy, 2003). On the whole, Human Resource (HR) planning is the process of combining human resource procedural plans with strategic business plans. HR planning is integrated along the whole of the business planning process. After identifying business goals and objectives, HR planning practices deal with building the workforce, capabilities and management needed to implement the strategic plans.
HR planning is created to make sure that the organisation has the important ability to compete in the business world considering the unpredictability of today’s economy. External environment considerations such as economic, social, legal, cultural, political, ethics and technology should be taken into account since this will influence HR planning. The concept of HR planning of Eastman Kodak, Corning and Colgate Palmolive is to develop organisational capability that both will facilitate the innovation of human resource management strategy and integrating this with the companies’ business strategy.
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