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Human a&P Ch. 22 Respiratory System

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Link to: 22.1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

1. Which of the following is not part of the upper respiratory system? A)Nose B)Oral cavity C)Pharynx D)Trachea E)Nasal meatuses Ans:D

Link to: 22.

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1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

2. The conducting zone does NOT act to A)clean air of debris. B)conduct air into the lungs. C)add water to air. D)warm air. E)It does all of the above. Ans:E

Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

3. Which of the following is a passageway for air and food? A)Pharynx B)Larynx C)Paranasal sinuses D)Trachea E)Esophagus Ans:A

Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

4. The opening to the pharynx from the mouth is called A)Palatine B)Hypopharynx C)Meatuses D)Fauces E)Vestibule Ans:D

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

5. This structure prevents food or water from entering the trachea. A)Arytenoid cartilage B)Epiglottis C)Nasopharynx D)Thyroid cartilage E)Paranasal sinus Ans:B

Link to: 22. Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

6. During swallowing, which structure rises? A)Pharynx B)esophagus C)Trachea D)Palatine tonsils E)Primary bronchi Ans:A

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

7. These are triangular pieces of mostly hyaline cartilage located at the posterior and superior border of the cricoid cartilage. A)Corniculate cartilage B)Arytenoids cartilage C)Cricotracheal cartilage D)Cuneiform cartilage E)Laryngeal cartilage Ans:B

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

8. Pitch is controlled by A)vibration of the vocal chords. B)tension of the vocal chords. C)layers of cartilage in the vocal chords. D)arrangement of the vocal chords. E)None of the above Ans:B

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

9. This is located anterior to the esophagus and carries air to the bronchi. A)Trachea B)Larynx C)Nasopharynx D)Pharynx E)None of the above Ans:A

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

10. This is the primary gas exchange site. A)Trachea B)Bronchiole C)Nasal sinuses D)Alveolus E)Bronchus Ans:D

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

11. Which of the below tissues maintains open airways in the lower respiratory system? A)Stratified squamous epithelium with keratin B)Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells C)Hyaline cartilage D)Mucus membrane E)Bone Ans:C

Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

12. Which of the below tissues provides the functions of the inner layer of the conducting organs? A)stratified squamous epithelium with keratin B)ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells C)cilated cuboidal epithelium with goblet cells D)transitional epithelium with cilia E)columnar connective tissue with goblet cells Ans:B Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

13. The point where the trachea divides into right and left primary bronchi is a ridge called: A)Carina B)Secondary bronchioles C)Parietal pleura D)Visceral pleura E)Diaphragm Ans:A Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

14. Which of the below tissues forms the exchange surfaces of the alveolus? A)Stratified squamous epithelium B)Ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells C)Simple squamous epithelium D)Hyaline cartilage E)Columnar connective tissue with goblet cells Ans:C Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

15. These are cells of the alveoli that produce surfactant. A)Type I alveolar cells B)Type II alveolar cells C)Type III alveolar cells D)Surface cells E)Macrophages Ans:B Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

16. This is direction of diffusion of gases at capillaries near systemic cells. A)Oxygen into blood, Carbon dioxide into blood

B)Oxygen out of blood, Carbon dioxide into blood C)Oxygen into blood, Carbon dioxide out of blood D)Oxygen out of blood, Carbon dioxide out of blood E)None of the above is correct. Ans:B Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

17. This is direction of diffusion of gases at the alveoli of the lungs. A)Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide into blood B)Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide into blood C)Oxygen into blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood D)Oxygen out of blood , Carbon dioxide out of blood E)None of the above is correct. Ans:C Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

18. Exhalation begins when A)Inspiratory muscles relax B)Diaphragm contracts C)Blood circulation is the lowest D)Inspiratory muscles relax and the diaphragm contracts E)All of the above Ans:A Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

19. This means the lungs and the chest wall expand easily. A)High surface tension B)Low surface tension C)High compliance D)Low compliance E)None of the above Ans:C Link to: 22. 4 Lung volumes

20. The conducting airways with the air that does not undergo gas exchange are known as the A)inspiratory volume. B)expiratory reserve volume. C)minimal volume. D)residual volume. E)anatomic dead space. Ans:E Link to: 22. 4 Lung volumes

21. This is the sum of the residual and the expiratory reserve volume. A)Total lung capacity B)Functional residual capacity C)Inspiratory capacity D)Vital capacity E)Minimal volume Ans:B Link to: 22. 6 Respiration

22. Which of the following is not a factor that the rate of pulmonary and systemic gas exchange depends on? A)Partial pressure difference of the gases B)Surface area for gas exchange C)Diffusion distance D)Molecular weight and solubility of the gases E)Force of contraction of diaphragm Ans:E Link to: 22. 7 Oxygen is primarily transported

23. Which is the dominant method of carbon dioxide transport? A)Bound to hemoglobin B)Bound to oxygen C)Dissolved in plasma as a gas D)Dissolved in plasma as bicarbonate ions E)Diffusion Ans:D Link to: 22. 10 Acid-base balance

24. When blood pH drops then the amount of oxyhemoglobin _______ and oxygen delivery to the tissue cells ________________. A)increases, increases B)Increases, decreases C)Decreases, increases D)Decreases, decreases E)Does not change, does not change Ans:C Link to: 22. 7 Oxygen is primarily transported

25. Which is a factor that does NOT affect hemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen? A)pH of blood B)Partial pressure of the oxygen C)Amount of oxygen available D)Temperature E)Respiratory rate Ans:E Use the following to answer questions

26-36

Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

26. Where are the nasal conchae? A)A B)C C)T D)U E)V Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

27. Where is the lingual tonsil? A)C B)E C)N D)P E)F Ans:E Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

28. Which tonsils are found in the oropharynx? A)V B)R C)S D)Q E)U Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

29. What is also referred to as the Adam’s Apple? A)G B)H C)I D)J E)K Ans:D Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

30. Where is the larynx? A)I B)M C)L D)N E)O Ans:A Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

31. This is a ring of hyaline cartilage that forms the inferior wall of the larynx. A)J B)K C)G D)H E)O Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

32. Where is the uvula? A)E B)F C)Q D)S E)U Ans:D Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

33. Where are the palatine tonsils? A)E B)F C)R D)U E)None of the above Ans:C Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

34. Where is the soft palate? A)C B)E C)G D)Q E)S Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

35. Where is the epiglottis? A)O B)R C)S D)F E)Q Ans:A Reference: Ref 22-1Link to: 22. 1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system

36. Where are the olfactory receptors found? A)A B)B C)C D)D E)U Ans:B Use the following to answer questions 37-40: Reference: Ref 22-2Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

37. What is line D pointing to? A)Thyrohyoid membrane B)Arytenoid cartilage C)Cricothyroid ligament D)Cricoid cartilage E)Tracheal cartilage Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-2Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

38. Where is the cricoid cartilage? A)D B)E C)F D)G E)H Ans:E Reference: Ref 22-2 Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

39. Where is the tracheal cartilage? A)J B)I C)H D)G E)F Ans:A Reference: Ref 22-2 Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

40. What is line A pointing to? A)Hyoid bone B)Trachea C)Adams Apple D) Thyroid E) Epiglottis Ans:E Use the following to answer questions 41-45: Reference: Ref 22-3Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

41. What line is pointing to the left terminal bronchiole? A)G B)N C)H D)A E)None of the above

Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-3Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

42. What is line J pointing to? A)Right secondary bronchus B)Left secondary bronchus C)Right primary bronchus D)Left primary bronchus E)Carina Ans:D Reference: Ref 22-3Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

43. Where is the right bronchiole? A)F B)G C)H D)L E)M Ans:B Reference: Ref 22-3Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

44. What lines are pointing to tertiary bronchi? A)E and K B)D and J C)F and L D)H and M E)A and B

Ans:C Reference: Ref 22-3Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

45. What is line B pointing to? A)Carina B)Visceral pleura C)Parietal pleura D)Pleural cavity E)Diaphragm Ans:C Use the following to answer questions 46-48: Reference: Ref 22-4Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

46. Identify the alveolar sac. A)A B)B C)C D)D E)E Ans:D Reference: Ref 22-4Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

47. What is line C pointing to? A)Terminal bronchiole B)Respiratory bronchiole C)Alveolar ducts

D)Alveolar sac E)Alveoli Ans:C Reference: Ref 22-4Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

48. Where is the terminal bronchiole? A)A B)B C)C D)D E)E Ans:A  Use the following to answer questions

49-51: Reference: Ref 22-5Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system 49. This provides disease resistance within the lungs. A)A B)B C)C D)D E)None of the above Ans:D Reference: Ref 22-5Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

50. Which cells are the main sites of gas exchange? A)A B)B C)C D)D

E)All of the above Ans:C Reference: Ref 22-5Link to: 22. 2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system

51. Which cell secretes surfactant? A)A B)B C)C D)D E)None of the above Ans:A Link to: 22. 8 The basic rhythm of respiration

52. The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by the A)pons. B)medulla oblongata. C)hypothalamus. D)pneumotaxic area. E)apneustic area. Ans:B Link to: 22. 6 Respiration occurs between alveoli

53. The exchange of gases between blood in the systemic capillaries and tissue cells is called A)pulmonary ventilation. B)internal respiration. C)external respiration. D)expiration. E)inspiration. Ans:B Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

54. For air to enter the lungs during inhalation A)the pressure inside the lungs must become lower than the atmospheric pressure. B)the pressure inside the lungs must be higher than the atmospheric pressure. C)the pressure inside the lungs must be equal to the atmospheric pressure. D)the size of the lungs must be decreased. E)the diaphragm has to be relaxed. Ans:A Link to: 22. 6 Respiration occurs between alveoli

55. Which of the following affect(s) the release of oxygen from hemoglobin? A)partial pressure of oxygen B)temperature C)acidity D)carbon dioxide in the tissue E)all of the above. Ans:E Link to: 22. 7 Oxygen is primarily transported

56. Carbon monoxide: A)binds weakly to amino acids within hemoglobin B)binds to the heme group of hemoglobin C)binds more strongly to the heme than oxygen does D)binds weakly to amino acids within hemoglobin and binds to the heme group of hemoglobin E)binds to the heme group of hemoglobin and binds more strongly to the heme than oxygen does Ans:E Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

57. Name and briefly describe the three basic processes of respiration. Ans:1. Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of air in and out of the lungs due to contraction and relaxation of muscles that control the size of the thoracic cavity. 2. External respiration is the exchange of gases between the air in the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. 3. Internal respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaries and tissues. Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation

58. Describe the inward forces of elastic recoil, and explain why the lungs do not normally collapse during expiration. Ans:Elastic recoil is the recoil of elastic fibers stretched during inspiration and the pull of the surface tension of alveolar fluid. Intrapleural pressure is always subatmospheric during normal breathing, which tends to pull lungs outward and to keep alveolar pressure from equalizing with atmospheric pressure. Surfactant in alveolar fluid decreases surface tension to help prevent collapse. Link to: 22. 3 Inhalation and exhalation Inhalation and exhalation, 22. 5: Oxygen and carbon and 22. 6: Respiration

59. In chronic emphysema, some alveoli merge together and some are replaced with fibrous connective tissue.

In addition, the bronchioles are often inflamed, and expiratory volume is reduced. Using proper respiratory system terminology, explain at least four reasons why affected individuals will have problems with ventilation and external respiration. Ans:Answers could include: reduced compliance (reduces ability to increase thoracic volume); increased airway resistance (decreases tidal volume); decreased diffusion due to increased diffusion distance, decreased surface area, and changes in partial pressures of gases (altering gradients). Other answers may be acceptable.

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