According to the dependency theory, the high-income, more-developed nations can improve their standard of living only with a period of intensive economic growth and accompanying changes in people’s beliefs, values, and attitudes toward work. False According to social scientists, absolute poverty exists when people may be able to afford basic necessities but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living; it is measured by comparing the actual income against the income earner’s expectations and perceptions. False
Analysts using a development framework typically view industrialization and economic development as essential steps that nations must go through in order to reduce poverty and increase life chances for their citizens. True * Of all age groups, persons aged 65 and over are the most likely to be uninsured in the United States. False * * Global stratification refers to the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and prestige on a global basis, resulting in people having vastly different lifestyles and life chances both within and among the nations of the world.
True * * Intragenerational mobility is the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next. Intragenerational mobility may be downward as well as upward. False * * Most low-income countries in Africa and South America are core nations that are dependent on peripheral nations for capital, have little or no industrialization, and have uneven patterns of urbanization.
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False * * According to sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein’s world systems theory, the capitalist world economy is a global system divided into a hierarchy of three major types of nations in which upward or downward mobility is conditioned by the resources and obstacles that characterize the international system. True * * Educational opportunities and life chances are directly linked. Symbolic nteractionists view education as the “elevator” to social mobility. Improvements in the educational achievement levels of the poor, people of color, and white women have been cited as evidence that students’ abilities are now more important than their class, race, or gender. False * * Low-income countries are primarily hunting and gathering nations with some industrialization and moderate levels of national and personal income. False * *
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