Chapter I INTRODUCTION Background of the Study The National Achievement Test (NAT) is an examination given annually to assess the competency of both public and private school students. The students’ knowledge and skills are tested in the subjects of Mathematics, English, Science, Filipino, and HEKASI for grade school and Mathematics, English, Science, Filipino, and Araling Panlipunan for high school. The test is administered by the Department of Education's National Education Testing and Research Center (NETRC).
The results are intended to guide the Department of Education in its efforts towards the improvement of the quality of education in public schools and to provide appropriate intervention for the students. A score of 75% and up indicates mastery of the subject and 50% to less than 75%, near mastery; while a score of below 50% indicates low mastery. The NAT results guide decision makers in formulating policies relative to progression and promotion of students, especially in the public school system. These will also determine the deficiencies of students that need further intervention. According to DepEd Secretary Brother Armin A.
Luistro, NAT is just a part of the report card of DepEd and the whole education system. Results of this indicator will help them formulate appropriate interventions that aimed improvement of the education system. (Philippine Star, January 07, 2010) Calls for educational reforms to address the needs of students are frequent. Their focus has been primarily on the content -- what students should learn, context -- the circumstances students should be learning in, and outcomes -- the knowledge and skills students should acquire. Important changes have come about as educational reform efforts focused on the needs of students.
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The researcher believes that the profile of the students and school climate conditions greatly affect the students’ performance in the National Achievement Test. Students may not only provide a rigid classroom instruction but the school must provide them a good physical environment, physical facilities that is free from risks and a well-sounded classroom instructions. Researchers will examine relationships between several variables and students’ performance. For students’ demographic profile those are age, gender, birth order, monthly income of the family, parents’ educational attainment, and average grade for the last school year attended.
Secondly, the researcher will also examine the school climate condition that will carefully examine the school physical facilities, instructional focus and physical environment. Unfortunately, accompanying the calls for reform in school systems is an underlying assumption that the leadership needed to execute these changes will somehow emerge. The information will be useful to practitioners attempting to implement an educational innovation or a system wide change at the school or secondary level. In addition, this information may be useful for professional development.
The information might also be useful for the evaluation of school climate condition that may affect the students’ performance. This also helps administrators’ to carefully examine school rules and policies on executing the designed curriculum for each learning area. In addition, this may help the secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City to focus also in the school climate conditions. Finally, this paper attempts to raise awareness to internal and external stakeholders who wanted to promote educational transformation. Education literature has often pointed to the importance of student support services in promoting learning.
This is usually true in the field of basic education. Unlike in the traditional education delivery, learners tested in national achievement must be given enough attention by teachers, stakeholders and the principal itself. Low rating result in NAT is often blamed to the basic education services that were given to them and to the ability of the teachers. This is true in the eight (8) public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City who could not achieve the 75% passing rate in the consecutive NAT test results for school for numerous years that the NAT was implemented.
While there are lots of interventions to meet the national academic standard, best practices to improve NAT performance of second year students in the public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City, there are comprehensive student support system developed and implemented in Calapan City Division. More importantly, the National Achievement Test is not just a test for students but also for the principal leadership skills that promotes a positive school climate condition that can affect the student’s academic performance.
According to the Second Regional Comparative and Explanatory Study (SERCE), in order to promote learning among students it is essential to provide a welcoming and warm environment based on mutual respect. In this line, there is a need to evaluate the level of profile of the students and school climate condition to assess the needs of the students. The purpose of this study is to identify the students’ profile in terms of age, gender, family income, parents’ educational attainment, and grades for the last school year attended.
It also needs to identify the school climate condition that provides school to understand the working condition and leadership, instructional focus and physical environment. It will also investigate students’ perspective, questions concerning the school climate condition in response to the result of their National Achievement Test. The ultimate goal of this research is to aid the Public Secondary Schools in the Division of Calapan City for the improvement of students’ services academic program that would result to the increase of NAT against national standard. Statement of the Problem
This study aimed to determine the Factors Related toStudents’ Performance in the National Achievement Test in the Public Secondary Schools in the Division of Calapan City. Specifically, it sought to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: 1. 1 age 1. 2 gender 1. 3parents’ educational attainment 1. 3. 1 mother 1. 3. 2 father 1. 4monthly income of the family 1. 5 average rating for the last school year attended? 2. What is the extent of the school climate conditions as perceived by student respondents in terms of: 2. school facilities 2. 2instructional focus 2. 3physical environment? 3. What is the level of performance of students in the National Achievement Test in the public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City in: 3. 1English 3. 2Math 3. 3Science 3. 4AP 5. Filipino 4. Is there a significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and students’ achievement in NAT in terms of: 4. 1age 4. 2gender 4. 3parents’ educational attainment 4. 3. 1 mother 4. 3. 2 father 4. 4monthly income of the family 4. 5average rating for the last school year attended? 5.
Is there a significant relationship between the school climate conditions and students’ performance in NAT as perceived by the student’ respondents in terms of: 5. 1 school facilities 5. 2 instructional focus 3. physical environment? 6. Is there a significant difference in the school climate conditions as perceived by student respondents in terms of: 6. 1school facilities 6. 2instructional focus 6. 3 physical environment? Hypotheses of the Study 1. There is no significant relationship between the profile of the respondents and students’ achievement in NAT in terms of: 1. age 1. 2gender 1. 3parents’ educational attainment 1. 3. 1 mother 1. 3. 2 father 1. 4monthly Income of the family 1. 5average rating for the last school year attended? 2. There is no significant relationship between the school climate conditions and students’ performance in NAT in terms of: 2. 1 school facilities 2. 2 instructional focus 2. 3 physical environment? 3. There is no significant difference in the school climate conditions as perceived by student respondents in terms of: 3. 1school facilities 3. instructional focus 3. 3 physical environment? Significance of the Study Findings of this study provided vital information regarding the factors affecting the students’ performance in the National Achievement Test (NAT) in terms of students’ profile and school climate condition. The findings of this study will benefit the following: Superintendent. It may help the superintendent to identify the needs of the school and to plan for the support system that the school leaders need to prioritize when it comes to students’ performance.
It can also identify the critical gaps and weaknesses of the nine public secondary schools in the division when it comes to students’ learning and school climate conditions. Principal. The result of this study may also serve as framework for various programs and strategies to be employed on the school improvement planning. School climate condition assessment may use as data inputs on the reality check matters of school academic performance. Thus, appropriate programs and thrusts may be formulated and provided with appropriate budget for the improvement of the students’ performance.
It is also possible to have a rigid monitoring of monthly result of students’ mean percentage score (MPS) in their chapter test to be posted using graphical representation to easily identify the competencies that needs enough attention in classroom instruction. With the help of graphs, the principal can help and assist teachers in uplifting the performance of the students. Teachers. The result of this finding is of value to teachers because it will provide an overview of the needs analysis of the school.
They may be guided from the level of assistance the school and the principal may need and may help them to work cooperatively in order for them to attain success in the national achievement test. By means of carefully recorded grades of the student, the teacher and principal can work collaboratively to identify the competencies the students had mastered, not mastered and needs mastery. With this, teachers can be guided to the lesson that he needs to give more emphasis for students. Students. The improvement of school climate condition will be beneficial for the students.
A favorable school climate condition may serve as students’ motivation in improving their academic performance. The motivating factors that will start from the initiative of the school principal may help the students to be more enthusiastic in learning process. Future researchers. This study will help to encourage future researchers to conduct the most vital part of the school progress in terms of academic. The study may propel them to go into related area or they may study further school academic achievement for other perspective. This may also provide data bases for further innovation of this research study.
Scope and Limitations of the Study This study answered the factors related to students’ performance in the national achievement test given last school year 2010-2011 in the eight (8) public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City. The major task of this research is to answer the specific questions presented in the statement of the problem. This is limited to its complete reliance on the self-made questionnaire of the researcher as the primary instrument for answering the factors related to students’ performance in National Achievement Test in terms of students’ profile and school climate condition.
The result of this study will be limited on the perception of 276 student respondents from the eight (8) public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City namely; Bucayao National High School, Canubing National High School, Ceriaco A. Abes National High School, Community Vocational High School, Managpi National High School, Mamerta G. Tolentino National High School, Nag-Iba National High School and Pedro V. Panaligan National High School. Jose J. Leido Jr.
Memorial National High School will not be included in the study because it dominates the number of student respondents in this study for, it is the biggest public high school in the Division of Calapan City. Definition of Terms To facilitate better understanding of this research, the following terms were defined conceptually and operationally: Age – refers to the respondents’ age in the public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City. Average rating – refers to the average rating obtained by the student’ respondents in the last school year attended.
Instructional Focus – refers to the classroom instruction offered and teachers’ competence in the delivery of instruction. Monthly Income – refers to the income or financial status of student respondent’s family that may affect performance in school. Parents’ Educational Attainment – refers to the educational status of parents both father and mother of student’ respondents. Physical Environment – refers to the condition of school building and its surrounding area, any biological or chemical agent that is detrimental to health and physical conditions, such as temperature, noise and lighting. Source: www. Wikipedia. org) School Climate Condition – refers to the health of the learning environment that it is a multi-dimensional influences to many individuals such as students, parents, school personnel, and the community(source: www. wikipedia. org) School Facilities – refer to the availabilities of classrooms and laboratory and other buildings in school for effective classroom instruction. Theoretical Framework A theory without facts becomes fantasy, uncontrolled imagination, a reverie. Based on these requirements, several theories are presented.
This study can be associated to Social systems model theory (Waller, 1932) according to him every institution is a system of social interaction; it is organized whole comprising of interacting personalities bound together in an organic relationship. Further, the school is characterized by an interdependence of parts, a clearly defined population, and differentiation from its environment, a complex network of social relationships, and its own unique culture. The model suggests that a school consists of a number of important elements or subsystems that affect the organizational behavior.
Also this can also be patterned to Social systems (Scott, 2003) consist of independent parts, characteristics and activities that contribute to form the whole. The school consists of a number of important elements or subsystems that affect organizational behavior. The individual or members of an organization have their own individual needs, beliefs and cognitive perceptions of their environment and job. Further, the social systems model gives a dynamic view of the school, with the feedback mechanisms and elements providing the action of the components.
This study is also linked with invitational theory (Myers and Monson, 1992). The main tenant of invitational theory is to revitalize schools and to encourage students to want to go to school. According to the advocates of the theory, there are five factors that affect the appeal of schools; people, places, policies, programs, and processes. Invitational theory claims that these five factors make schools more socially appealing and safe. To create a more positive learning environment, school administrators must provide programs which are attractive for the students and teachers.
Programs, policies, curriculum supervision, human resource management, school climate condition must provide a positive impact for teachers and learners in order for them to uplift the school academic standards. A democratic leadership with an open system to stakeholders can create an increased performance. Furthermore, research from Sternberg (2000) which is Theory of Mental Self-Government emphasized that students' learning and thinking styles (which are usually ignored), together with their ability levels, play an important role in student performance. The
Theory of Mental Self-Government refers to an inventory of different thinking styles that gives an indication of people's preference of thinking patterns. Where the Triarchic Theory focuses on the ability itself, the theory of Mental Self-Government refers to different thinking styles which constitutes preference in the use of abilities. According to the Theory of Intellectual Abilities, three kinds of intellectual abilities exist, namely analytical, creative and practical abilities. Measures of abilities tend to focus mainly on analytical abilities, whereas all the three types of abilities need to be regarded as equally important.
Research done by Sternberg showed: The more we teach and assess students based on a broader set of abilities, the more racially, ethnically, and socioeconomically diverse our achievers will be. From Wikipedia (2011) Theory of relative weight of Nature and Nurture is a basis of this study about gender influences of pupils on their academic achievement. The biological differences between males and females - sexual differences - account for a relatively small part of the actual differences between men and women.
Most of these differences are matters not of sex but of gender which, unlike sex, is socially formed and cultivated. Differences of gender, however, are used to justify inequalities between the sexes and the appropriation by males of the major part of power, leisure, time and property. CONCEPTUAL MODEL Figure 1 Figure 1 showed the hypothesized relationship between profile of the respondents and school climate condition to the students’ performance in the National Achievement Test.
The dependent variable consists of the students’ performance in the National Achievement Test in five learning areas such as English, Science, Math, Filipino and Araling Panlipunan. The independent variables such as profile of the respondents which comprises the age, gender, birth order, monthly income of the family, parents’ educational attainment, and average grade for the last school year attended and the next independent variable consists of school climate condition comprises of school facilities, instructional focus and school physical nvironment. The arrows from the two independent variables show the hypothesized relationship between them. The respondents of the study are third year students in the nine public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City. The two-tailed arrow in the independent variable which is the school climate conditions will be used to test the hypothesized difference among each variable such as school facilities, instructional focus and physical environment. Chapter II RELATED LITERATURE AND RELATED STUDIES
This chapter presented the reading surveyed on and database documents which are significant research materials in this study. The purpose is shown that the content of the subject matter in this study are supported by the authorities. Local Related Literature From the interview of Bulatlat Magazine dated June 2006 to the Chairman of Alliance of Concerned Teachers (ACT), Mr. Jerry Tinio said that public school students do poorly in diagnostic and achievement tests. Last June 2002, the overall performance score of Grade IV pupils who took the national diagnostic test (NDT) was 39. 9%, while the first year high school students had a lower 28. 04 percent. The national achievement test (NAT) given last March 2010 delivered slightly better results, with the fourth graders garnering a 43. 55%, while the first year high school students earned a 36. 13%. Despite the slight improvement, the scores are still way below the 75% passing rate, Tinio said. From the article of of Dr. LeopoldoSichon (2006)in his article entitled Our Schools, Our Teachers, our Students vs. he National Achievement Test concluded that the plight of the school and students is somewhat murky; the goal of having 75 percent and above mastery levels in academic performance in the National Achievement Test does not seem to be in cognizant of the teaching and learning environment that we have. Of course, we do not discount the fact that DepEd is doing what it perceives to be the best- programs and initiatives had been conceptualized and implemented to answer the pressing need for quality education.
Somehow we are doing the best we can to bridge the gap between what we have and what we want for our students. Yet, the effort seems futile due to the fact that we still have to reckon with real problems that confront us the system. These problems are more dominant than achieving higher academic performance alone and we could not just blind ourselves from the fact that when basic needs are not met, all other needs will be just be meaningless. He said that the teachers need greater empowerment.
More than just salary increases, educators need the morale boost by knowing that they belong to a truthfully dignified organization whose philosophical foundation, visions and mission statement are in congruence with its built-in processes and mechanisms. We need local leaders who can charter our educational direction through open channels of communication and can guide us through well-planned, needs-based and competency-based programs that will hone teachers’ managerial skills.
These teachers will in return become self-managing, self-governing and self-sustaining and without further ado, can mutually exchange expertise with peers both conceptual and technical. He also said that we need to realize also the disparities between our schools, their locations as well as the diverse clienteles that we serve. Students from rural areas are different from those in the urban areas. Demographic characteristics such as family background, economic status, school distance, family background, etc. should be considered in formulating the testing materials intended to measure students’ academic performance.
There and then in his perspective, that we can truly measure the quality of teaching instruction done in our schools. Lastly, he added that everything will ever be a never-ending cycle, unless the government can come up with a plan that will finally address these problems especially graft and corruption. From the issue of De Guzman (2002) entitled “Restructured Basic Education Curriculum” stated that whether in high school or in the elementary level, curriculum must be balanced, articulate, sequential, integrative and continuous.
The issue of too overcrowded curriculum was answered by the implementation of the 2002 Restructured Basic Education Curriculum which offshoot to restructuring the learning areas, integration of values education and related skills within the learning areas, greater emphasis on the learning areas and integrative strategies in teaching, increased time task allocation in major learning areas such as English, Math, Science, Filipino and Makabayan. Experts agree that there is no perfect formula for the solution of problems especially when they involve human feats.
Learners are diverse and the tendency of educators to adopt a one-size-fits-all type of teaching is said to be contributory to low performance of students. Curriculum must be flexible and must allow teachers to freely innovate as necessity and propriety dictate. From the manual, School Based Teachers Program (2002) in the article “Woes of a Teacher” declared that the effectiveness of teachers in delivering the right and proper instruction is another question that must be considered if we are to delve seriously into the root causes of our students’ academic performance.
Salary issues had been answered by the government although some of the recommendations regarding teachers’ benefits was shelved due to lack of government funds. Strategies for reforms in reference to teachers pay were implemented as well as reforms in the processes of promotion. Teachers were encouraged to sustain professional upgrading and development. Principals were tasked to revitalize the school-based instruction program where teachers were taught effective managerial and instructional skills through the SBTP (School Based Teachers Program).
He added that if salary issues were somehow met, look then at the actual classroom teaching scenario. Imagine the nightmarish teaching condition where a teacher has to teach 60 to 70 students in a class with only a piece of Manila paper as her instructional material. This is happening and a clear manifestation that the problem of teachers’ effectiveness is also surrounded by so many intertwining factors aside from salary. Salary alone cannot guarantee effective teaching when the daily travails of teachers show work overload beyond human capacity.
From the DepEd report (2010) declared that technology has brought us sophisticated learning tools but textbooks remain to be the most valuable learning reference of teachers and students in the classrooms. However, despite government initiatives to solve the yearly textbook problems, observation shows that textbooks are always lacking and some of them are found to be erroneous. In answer to this, DepEd reported a more stringent evaluation process it did since 2005 in textbook procurement project.
Their evaluation on the textbooks focuses on determining the completeness and sufficiency of development of the learning competencies, accuracy and up-to-datedness’ of contents, determining the appropriateness of the materials to society, to target users and to culture and on the language used to ensure that these are grammatically correct and appropriate to the level of the students. Improvement on this aspect is still not fully realized for we know that students still do not have enough textbooks to meet the demands of their studies.
The Internet has become an effective substitute to information getting, however, since access to Internet is still limited in many areas of the country, this does not solve the problem yet. As mentioned by Meinardus (2003) entitled “Our Students: the Family Level Factors” mentioned that only some of the internal and external environments affecting the quality of education we deliver. He also said that do not forget the economic situation in our country, the income that sustains the family, the family structure in itself and many others.
Experts agree that the educational condition attributed to the family is beyond all doubt or discussion, as there is an ever-increasing awareness of the importance of the parents’ role in the progress and educational development of their children. Researchers consider family background the most important factor in determining the academic performance attained by the student; among these factors of greatest influence are socio economic status and the educational environment in the family. With regard to social class, relevant research tells us that one’s results and expectations for the future are better when one belongs to the social ladder.
A student who expects to become a doctor like his parents someday shall perform most likely well than a student who has no clear vision of the future because he/she knows very well that his or her parents could not afford to send him/her to school. Also, influence of the family educational climate is defined by the amount and the style of help that children receive from the family; this is determined by elements of the family context, like the dynamics of communication and affective relationships, attitudes towards values, expectations, etc.
Along these same lines, it is also reported that parental expectations have a notable influence on academic results. It is also noted that there are indirect relationships between performance and the student’s perception of how much importance his or her parents assign to study at home. What do we expect about NAT results then after considering all these factors? As mentioned by Meinardus (2003), 95 per cent of all elementary students attend public schools, therefore the educational crisis in the Philippines is basically a crisis of public education.
The wealthy can easily send their offspring to private schools, many of which offer first-class education to the privileged class of pupils. Foreign Related Literature Lent (2000) in his toolkit entitled Improving Academic Achievement stated that students’ achievement in basic education has become an index of child’s future in this highly competitive world. For him, academic achievement has been one of the most important goals of the educational process. It is also a major goal, which every individual is expected to perform in all cultures.
Academic achievement is a key mechanism through which adolescents learn about their talents, abilities and competencies which are an important part of developing career aspirations academic achievement and career aspirations in adolescence are often correlated. Crow and Crow (2009), defined “Academic achievement as the extent to which a learner is profiting from instructions in a given area of learning i. e. , achievement is reflected by the extent to which skill or knowledge has been imparted to him”.
Marzano (2005) reviewed in his article entitled Factors influencing Academic achievement that the factors like parent’s education, parental occupation, type of family, family size, ordinal position and even gender and age of the child are found to have their impact on the academic achievement of every student. He stated that the effect of family environment on student’s achievement suggest that several characteristics of family life are relevant. Cromwell (2006) from his text titles Study habit: Students’ Role- A question pointed out that the efficient and effective way of learning depends upon the study habits of the students.
Study habits are important they influence the academic achievement of students. So parents and teachers must help in improving the study habits of students. Some investigators have sought to determine what study habits are characteristically used by students when left to work by themselves with little or no direction. Teachers in schools should become facilitators of learning. The finite treasure within every learner should be discovered and nurtured for the purpose of improving learning effective study skills have to be taught. Study skills involve reference, reading listening, study habits and strategies.
Learning improves with planning of where, when and how much to study. Positive attitude, proper physical condition and balanced emotional states are important factors influencing study habits. From the book of Singh (2004) entitled Gender and Academic achievement declared that the performance of every individual is not equal. There is a lot of variability and dispersion. The variability cannot be attributed to a single factor, but it is the outcome of number of factors as intelligence, study habits, self-concept, creativity, aptitude interests, socio economic factors, area etc.
Along with these gender of the child is also an influencing factor on Academic achievement of the child. Singh made a survey of the study habits of high, middle and low achieving adolescents in relation to their sex, intelligence and socio economic status and found that study habits of boys and girls differed significantly at different levels of academic achievement. Vijayalaxmi and Natesan (2002) in their article Socio- Economic Status: Factors influencing academic achievement declared that girls had a higher mean academic achievement compared to boys.
However, Kaur and Gill (2003) revealed that achievement in English and total achievement was independent of sex, but boys scored higher than girls in achievement in Punjabi, Mathematics and Science. Ahmed (2008) reported in his review entitled “ Achievement Motivation that the influence of sex on achievement motivation was found to be statistically non-significant. He carried out that there are differences among adolescent boys and girls of various ordinal positions.
The study was over conducted on sample of one hundred and twenty students belonging to the age group of 13-18 years, studying in co-educated English medium institutions confined to the suburbs of Mumbai city. Local Related Studies From the study of Galih, (2008) entitled “Extent of Principal Role and School Structure in Students’ Achievement” mentioned that the principal is central to the extent of stakeholders’ involvement, the relationships among the principal’s leadership, student achievement, and school effectiveness are more indirect, both in this study and in the literature.
He also found that the principal’s leadership has strong direct effect on in-school processes and only indirect effects on outcomes. The study also found that principals have a key role in the success of schools generally and, especially, in student outcomes. This result is consistent with the later study of he cited from Leithwood and Jantzi which shows that effective leaders have a powerful indirect impact on student achievement and school effectiveness. He also cited the study of Heck et al. oted that “Principals do not affect individual students directly as teachers do through classroom instruction, but that activities of the Principal directed at school-level performance have trickle-down effects on teachers and students. ” This is also consistent with the findings of Gali that the principal’s leadership has a direct effect on school conditions such as school goals, planning, structure, climate, and work conditions which in turn show a direct effect on classroom conditions such as instruction, policies, and procedures.
Masi (2008) in his study entitled “Relationship of leadership style, school climate, and the organizational commitment of teachers in the Seventh-day Adventist secondary schools in the Philippines” explored the relationship of principals’ leadership style, the school climate, and the organizational commitment of teachers in Seventh-day Adventist secondary schools in the Philippines. Major findings in this study lead to the following conclusions: The principal’s leadership style, school climate, and the organizational commitment of teachers are interrelated.
Teachers perceive higher commitment under a leadership characterized by high consideration, regardless of the level of initiating structure. Teachers’ organizational commitment is positively related to climate openness characterized by supportive principal behavior and teacher engagement, intimacy, and low levels of teacher frustration. Furthermore, considerate leadership behavior is positively related to climate openness. Predictive models of organizational commitment, accounting for approximately 25% of the variance, include marital status, consideration leadership behavior, and aspects of school climate.
Although the theoretical concept of leadership quadrants was upheld in the study, it appears that leadership behaviors, particularly the consideration dimension, are more useful in relationship to the areas of school climate and organizational commitment. Major implications are that school principals should seek to practice considerate leadership behavior and create an open school climate. School boards and accrediting agencies should include leadership, school climate, and teacher commitment surveys as an integral part of school program evaluation.
It may be of value to conduct additional studies to examine other theoretical antecedents as well as expected outcomes of organizational commitment. San Antonio (2006) in his study entitled “Effective Participatory School Administration, Leadership, and School Climate Management: Does It Affect The Trust Levels of Stakeholders? ” reported on his study that the effectiveness of participatory school administration, leadership and management (PSALM) as perceived by 282 stakeholders in one school division in the Philippines.
In his study, he also examined the correlation between the indicators of PSALM effectiveness and the trust levels of the stakeholders. The results indicate that the stakeholders found the implementation of PSALM through advisory school councils to be effective. The effectiveness of implementing ASC (Advisory School Council) as perceived by the respondents reinforces the finding that their levels of thrust were also high.
Indeed, many factors affect the fostering of thrust in the school. However, this study has shown that, to some degree, the adequacy of time for ASC business, the satisfaction with the composition of the ASC, the appreciation for the usefulness of committees, the sharing of information, the perceived influence on teaching and learning, and the overall satisfaction with the operation of the ASC significantly related to the trust levels among the stakeholders.
It is therefore suggested that school leaders wishing to enhance the levels of trust among the stakeholders in their schools should endeavor to achieve a balanced representation in the school council, utilize committees appropriately, share more information with other stakeholders, provide adequate time for doing ASC business, and focus on teaching and learning to make the overall functioning of ASC highly effective.
Benito (2009) in her the study titled “Analysis of the Performance in Trigonometry of the First Year College Students of Divine Word College of Viganstated that subject difficulties exist because of its complexity in using symbols and in computations. Hence student finds it as a difficult subject it not properly taught. It exists too because they forget previously learned concepts and skills that are needed for the new skills to be learned. So, a student cannot comprehend higher level of mathematics if one did not understand yesterday’s principles and skills learned.
With these difficulties, students always have a negative connotation of the subject matter. These negative attitudes includes: fear of the subject, anxiety in learning the subject, meaningless of the subject and its abstraction. These lead to inability of students to comprehend the subject which further led to low performance in mathematics. The low performance is true not only of high school students. In the National Elementary Achievement Tests (NEAT), administered to sixth graders from 1993 to 1999, science and mathematics ranked the lowest or second lowest among elementary school academic subjects.
According to the study of Soriano (2008) “Teacher-Related Factors Of Sophomore Students’ Achievement In Mathematics In Three (3) National High Schools In Maragondon District” educational researchers have investigated many factors considered to affect student learning. At the heart of this line of inquiry is the core belief that teachers make a difference. Indeed, teacher plays an important role in the intellectual development of the students, using various assessments and teaching styles to improve students’ performance in school subjects.
School subjects’ performance is determined by giving an achievement test. The results of which are used to determine their achievement level, strengths and weaknesses in each subject area. Foreign Related Studies Cash (2008) from the study entitled “Improving Student Achievement and School Facilities in a Time of Limited Funding” pointed out that school building condition, attendance, and academic achievement in New York City, found building conditions to be a predictor of student attendance and student achievement on standardized tests.
These results were reported after controlling for other possible factors, including socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and teacher quality. (Duran-Narucki, 2008) That poorer building condition negatively impacts student attendance and that coming to school is necessary to learning are both logical arguments that continue to be supported by research. The National Summit on School Design (NSSD) reported eight recommendations for school design excellence.
These included designs to support a variety of learning styles, and the creation of healthy, comfortable, and flexible learning spaces. These recommendations have several implications for changes in the learning environment (NSSD, 2005). While the cumulative effect of the school facility’s condition has been related to student outcomes, further research has been done to pinpoint several specific factors that contribute to this overall phenomenon. These pecific factors include lighting, building cleanliness, health and safety, painting, and student and teacher morale From the dissertation of Akbari (2004) titled “Teacher Characteristics as Predictors of Students’ Academic Achievement” declared that there has been a substantial theoretical and practical shift of emphasis, mostly in mainstream education, towards acknowledging that teachers are among the principal components of any pedagogical program.
In the past ten years, a burgeoning research base has increasingly shown that teachers are among the most important players influencing student achievement, holding the key to sealing the gaps in students’ achievement outcomes. Sanders (1998), for example, states that the “single largest factor affecting academic growth of populations of students is differences in effectiveness of individual classroom teachers. He also believed that the “more can be done to improve education by improving the effectiveness of teachers than by any other single factor. Along the same lines, Alexander (2005) argues that “few educators, economists, or politicians would argue with the contention that all things being equal, highly qualified teachers produce greater student achievement than comparatively less qualified teachers. ” From the thesis of Steenson (2006) titled “The School Size and Its Relationship to Student Outcomes and School Climate: A Review and Analysis of Eight South Carolina State-wide explained what size should a school be to optimize learning and teaching -- while striving for cost efficiency in operation.
At least in South Carolina, after numerous studies, the answer is yet to be found. While on the surface it first appears that, with rare exception, smaller schools don’t produce better results and cost more to operate, closer observation reveals that the issue is much more complex. In South Carolina smaller middle schools appear to produce better student outcomes. And, at the elementary and high school levels, even where bigger appears better, there is evidence that results can vary significantly depending upon the children served.
Further, poverty has such a dramatic effect on school outcomes in South Carolina that possible influences of other variables such as school size are possibly masked. Based on the studies to date the only logical conclusion that can be reached is that finding the “ideal” school size is at least elusive, and possibly so complex that an “absolute ideal” does not exist. However, the findings from the South Carolina studies supply sufficiently intriguing data to suggest further study of school size is warranted.
Sanders and Harvey (2002) in their study entitled “Beyond the School Walls: A Case Study of Principal Leadership for School- Community Collaboration described how one urban elementary school in a high-reform district and state has been able to develop strong connections with community businesses and organizations as part of its program of school, family, and community partnerships. The case study identifies four factors that allowed the school to build successful bridges to its community.
These factors are (1) the school’s commitment to learning; (2) the principal’s support and vision for community involvement; (3) the school’s receptivity and openness to community involvement; and (4) the school’s willingness to engage in two-way communication with potential community partners about their level and kind of involvement. The concluding section of the paper discusses the implications of the study’s findings for school, district, and state educational leaders.
The literature and studies reviewed by the researcher will help to understand the interconnection of variables that may affect to the students’ performance in the national achievement test. These literatures will help explain the research - after all, literature review will show what other researchers have done. The review aims to show why the research needs to be carried out, how to choose certain methodologies or theories to work with and how the present study adds to the research already carried out.
Chapter III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presents the methodology of the researcher employed by the researcher in analyzing and interpreting the data pertaining to the variables of this study. Research Design The researcher used the descriptive-correlational method of research that seeks the relationships which exist between different factors of students’ performance in the national achievement test in the public secondary schools in the division of Calapan City.
The researcher also used the comparative method of research that aims to make comparisons among different variables in school climate conditions such as physical facilities, instructional focus and physical environment. Descriptive research involves the description, recording, analysis and interpretation of the present nature, composition or process of phenomenon. It involves some types of comparison or contrasts and may attempt to discover a cause and effect relationship that exists between non-violated variables.
Correlational studies are designed to estimate the extent of which the different variables are related to each other in the population of interest. The distinguishing characteristic is the effort to estimate the relationship as distinguished from simple description. Research Locale This study was conducted in the eight (8) public secondary schools in the Division of Calapan City namely; Bucayao National High School located at Bucayao, Calapan City, Canubing National High School at Canubing, Ceriaco A.
Abes National High School at Mahal Na Pangalan, Community Vocational High School at Masipit, Mamerta G. Tolentino National High School at Parang, Managpi National High School at Managpi, Nag-Iba National High School at Nag Iba I and Pedro V. Panaligan National High School at Comunal. Respondents of the Study The respondents of this study were the 276 third year students for school year 2011-2012 from public high schools in Calapan City. The table shows the distribution of the respondents of the study:
Table A. Respondents of the study from eight (8) public high schools at Calapan City Division. | | | | |HIGH SCHOOL |TOTAL NUMBER OF THIRD YEAR STUDENTS |RESPONDENTS | |Managpi National High School |146 |45 | |Mamerta G.
Tolentino National High School |115 |36 | |Bucayao NHS |95 |30 | |COMMUNITY VOCATIONAL HS |102 |32 | |Ceriaco A. Abes MNHS |82 |25 | |Pedro V.
Panaligan MNHS |118 |37 | |Canubing NHS |152 |47 | |Nag-Iba NHS |78 |24 | |TOTAL |888 |276 | Sampling Procedure
The respondents were taken from the total population using stratified random sampling at 5% error of tolerance. The sample size was determined with the use of Slovin’s formula: Where:n=sample population N=total number of population e2=Error Formula:n = N 1 + Ne2 n = N 1 + Ne2 n = 888 1 + 888 (. 05)2 n = 276 The sample population of each school is computed using the stratified proportional sampling. Research Instrument The main instrument used in this study was the constructed questionnaire by the researcher. The questionnaire was divided into two parts; the respondents’ profile and the school climate condition.
The first part of the questionnaire asked questions pertaining to the students’ profile such as age, gender, birth ordinal position, monthly income of the family, parents’ educational attainment, and average grade for the last school year attended. On its second part, respondents asked about their school climate condition which comprises the school facilities, instructional focus and physical environment of the school. The scale used is as follows: 1-Poor/ Pre-Basic 2- Fair/ Basic 3- Good/ Approaching to Proficiency 4- Satisfactory/ Proficient 5-Excellent/ Above Advanced Reliability of the Instrument
To test the reliability of the instrument, the test retest procedure was used. Ten student respondents who were not included in the study were given the test-retest. After 10 days, the questionnaires were given again to the same respondents. The reliability was computed using Pearson’s r. Table B. Results of test-retest |Variable |R-value |Description | |School Facilities |0. 95 |Very high reliability | |Instructional Focus 0. 92 |Very high reliability | |Physical Environment |0. 90 |Very high reliability | Data Gathering Procedure After finding out the reliability of the research instrument, the researcher requested permission to conduct the study through request letter and asked approval from the Schools Division Superintendent and the eight (8) public secondary school principals in the Division of Calapan City through letter.
After the approval of the request, the researcher personally administered the set of questionnaires to the student-respondents. The assistance of the teachers was requested to assist the researchers in administering the instrument to ensure the full cooperation of the respondents. Direction for answering the test was explicitly stated to guide the respondents in answering the test. The researcher saw to it that all instruments was returned completely. After the retrieval of the questionnaire, the researcher tabulated and processed the data manually.
Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed and the results were interpreted. Data matrix was based on dummy tables to organize, summarize, and analyze the data how variables differ with each other. Scoring and Quantification of Data A 5-point numerical scale with their description was employed as shown below: Table C. Numerical Scale. |Numerical Scale |Statistical Limit |Verbal Description | |5 |4. 1 – 5 |Excellent | |4 |3. 41 – 4. 20 |Satisfactory | |3 |2. 61 – 3. 40 |Good | |2 |1. 81 – 2. 60 | Fair | |1 |1. 00 – 1. 80 |Poor Statistical Treatment of Data The data gathered from the questionnaire were analyzed and interpreted using descriptive statistics such as Weighted Mean, Pearson’s r, and Chi Square and ANOVA was used to describe the variables of the stud The following formula was used in this study: 1. Mean X = ? x / n Where: ?x is the sum of all the sample observations n is the number of sample observations x is the mean The formula for mean was used in computation of mean scores of students’ performance in school climate conditions and students’ profile. 2. Pearson’s r: r = n? xy – ( ? x)(? ) v [n(? x2) – (? x)2] [ n (? y2) – (? y)2] Where: r is the Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation n is the number of scores x is the first variable y is the second variable ? is the sum of scores or the variable ?x2 is the summation of squared variable x ?y2 is the summation of squared variable y This formula was used to test the relationship between the students’ performance in NAT in terms of age, monthly income, average grade and the school climate conditions in terms of school facilities, instructional focus and physical environment. 3. Chi-square test statistic X2 = ? (O-E2
E Where: X2 is the chi-square statistic, O is the observed frequency ? is the symbol for summation differences of cumulative E is the expected frequency This formula was used to test the relationship between the students’ academic performance and respondents’ profile in terms of gender, parents’ educational attainment to the academic performance of the student’ respondents. 4. One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is the statistical procedure that was used to test mean differences between among three variables by comparing variability between groups to variability within groups.
TSS = Total sum of square SSb= sum of squares of each group SSw = sum of squares within groups dfb = degrees of freedom between groups dfw = degrees of freedom within groups k = number of samples n = total of all scores N = total number of samples ?Xi = sum of squares in each group X = individual value in all the groups TSS = ? X2 – (? X)2 ?(X1)2 ? (X2)2 ? (X)2 SSb = + n1 n2 N SSw = TSS – SSb dfb = k – 1 dfw = k (n-1) The formula was used to determine the difference among the school facilities, instructional focus and physical environment. Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the discussion of the data gathered by the researcher. These are analyzed and interpreted below. 1. Profile of the Respondents 1. Age As shown on the table, age ranging from 14 to 15 dominates the number of respondents, which is 86. 59 percent of the respondents of the study. This is attributed to the fact that the right age for third year level is this range. On the other hand, as shown in the same table, it could also be noted that only one or 0. 36% falls under the age bracket of 20 and above.
This might be because the respondent’s dropped from school for 2-3 beyond the age required in in Grade I. Considering the age bracket ranging from 12-13, the table also reveals that only one falls under it which simply means that the respondent enrolled to Grade I, one year ahead of the required age. Table 1. 1 Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to age |Age |Frequency |Percentage | |12-13 |1 |0. 6 | |14-15 |239 |86. 59 | |16-17 |31 |11. 23 | |18-19 |4 |1. 45 | | 20 and above |1 |0. 6 | |TOTAL |276 |100 | 1. 2 Gender Table 1. 2 reveals that female respondents are outnumbered males by 58. This might be attributed to the fact that there are really more females than males. Based on the Philippine Demographic Profile (2011) record from www. indexmundi. com/philippines, as to age structure of male and female from 15-65 years old and over, there were 32 980 772 males while female has 33 568 847. Table 1. Frequency and percentage distribution of respondents’ as to gender |Gender |Frequency |Percentage | |Male |109 |39. 49 | |Female |167 |60. 51 | |Total |276 |100 | . Parent’s educational attainment 1. 3. 1 Mother As could be gleaned in Table 1. 3. 1, it could be noted that 97 or 35. 14% of the mothers of the respondents are graduates of high school and only 26 or 9. 42 % of them did not finish grade school. This means that mothers of the respondents could assist their children in making assignments and projects at home. Since, all of them have entered schooling they knew how to read and write. The table also shows that there are only two mother who are doctoral degree holder.
It is also revealed in the table that all mother respondents have attended schooling. Table 1. 3. 1 Frequency and percentage distribution of Respondents’ as to mother’s educational attainment |Mothers’ Educational Attainment |Frequency |Percentage | |Did not finish grade school |26 |9. 42 | |Graduated from Grade school |42 |15. 2 | |Did not finish high school |44 |15. 94 | |Graduated from High School |97 |35. 14 | |Some College education |26 |9. 42 | |Technical Vocational |21 |7. 1 | |Bachelors’ Degree |14 |5. 07 | |Master’s Degree |4 |1. 45 | |Doctorate Degree |2 |0. 72 | |TOTAL |276 |100 | 1. 3. 2 Father Table 1. 3. presents the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents as to fathers’ educational attainment. It could be noted in table 1. 3. 2 that the highest frequency of 88 or 31. 88% is obtained by those who graduated from high school and the lowest which is 35 or 12. 68% representing those who did not finish grade school. There were also fathers who gained higher education such as college, technical-vocational, bachelors’ degree and master’s degree. This supports that the fathers of the respondents have the capability of assisting their children in doing their homework and projects. Table 1. . 2 Frequency and Percentage distribution of Respondents’ as to father’s educational attainment |Fathers’ Educational Attainment |Frequency |Percentage | |Did not finish grade school |35 |12. 68 | |Graduated from Grade school |50 |18. 12 | |Did not finish high school |40 |14. 9 | |Graduated from High School |88 |31. 88 | | | | | |Some College education |23 |8. 33 | |Technical-Vocational |23 |8. 33 |Bachelors’ Degree |15 |5. 44 | |Master’s Degree |2 |0. 725 | |Doctorate Degree |0 |0 | |TOTAL |276 |100 | 1. 4 Monthly Income of the family Tab
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