External and Internal Factors
Management is a universal concept because its principles and techniques are used all over the world, irrespective of their level of development. The basic objective of the management is the progress of people and not the direction of things. The conservative explanation of management is obtaining work done through its people, but the factual management refers to the development of people through work.
The management should make the difficulties interesting and their solutions productive for the team members so that everyone can deal with these situations.
Management has to provide effective leadership, promote team spirit, set in motion bilateral and multi-lateral channels of communication and enroll the participation of its people, commitment and contribution through an appropriate system of financial and non-financial incentives. Functions of Management The four basic functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The internal or external factors of an organization influence the ongoing process of an organization. They create an impact on the above-mentioned functions of the management.
An impact of these internal and external factors will help in modifying the organization culture. Planning refers to designing policies and procedures to build up production or service capabilities, or to diversify its business and extend its existing capacities. Organizing refers to as the management of resources – material and immaterial. Once a plan is made, it comes to the implementation phase. Further it moves toward the leading phase. To have a desired result, creative strategy is appropriately monitored and evaluated. Globalization
The combination of national economies into an international economy through various deals between the different countries along with the foreign direct investment all refers to globalization. Proper planning and organizing have to be done while planning for globalization. It involves various material and immaterial resources to be used in exchange of the interrelated processes between the borders. To understand the impact of internal and external factors, the example of AT&T is taken. American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T) is the largest fixed telephone company in the United States.
The American Bell Telephone Company established AT&T in 1885. According to AT&T (2007), “Today’s companies are realizing that growth abroad must be supported by corresponding IT investments” (Convergence as a global competitive driver, Para. 13). When globalization is in play, AT&T uses platforms as a planning key because organizations are seeking to maximize their voice and investments; trying to reduce their communication costs. AT&T will stay organized by integrating multiple communication channels and increasing the richness of communications to the people who need it.
Integrating the companies, which are working with AT&T, will be able to arrive at decisions in shorter time and enhance their workflow. In leading in globalization, AT&T has experts who have in-depth consultancy and experience to relate technology to business quickly; this leading will keep AT&T in control by forming tighter lines with their customers, partners, and vendors. AT&T can delegate globalization responsibilities by using services they provide and distribute it through there strategists, engineers, and specialists who can help achieve their goals in globalization.
Technology One of the most revolutionary technological advances of the time is the Internet. Our corporate and personal culture quickly became dependent on this technology and has influenced every other aspect of lives, but eve n more so for AT&T. Cell phone companies are racing to keep up with the growing demand from business and individual customers who want, and need, to be connected continuously. When a new technology or an up-graded version is adopted in an organization, it affects the existing planning.
The new modifications have to be done so that the new technology adopted fits in and is aligned with the organization. To carry out for each of the norms of the company and to be periodically evaluated needs to be done properly. AT&T has remained on the border of technology, because of its inception in 1877 as The Bell Telephone Company, the predecessor of AT&T (AT&T, 2010). Today, these new technologies vary from IP network management to automatic speech recognition and next- generation text-to-speech products. To maintain this impressive record of innovation, takes thorough planning, and vision.
AT&T is equally committed to the bond they the share with one another and their customers; their focus on technology leadership and innovation; and a culture of commitment (AT&T, 2010). These high-tech gadgets have made it possible for professionals to stay connected to work anytime, anywhere via cell phone, personal digital assistants, smart phones, and laptops. However, “using technology effectively is more than a matter of learning new skills; it also involves making judgments about when and where to apply the technology for maximum benefit” (Bateman & Snell, 2009, Para. One p. 9)
Innovation Innovative systems and processes need proper planning and organizing. The requirements of the innovative system should be properly managed and taken into consideration. Also new creative ideas should be developed in the organization and properly monitored so as to create liveliness in the organization and avoid monotony in the system. The four factors of management extensively come in to play when concerning innovation. When AT&T has a new product is being advertised there are many procedures that need to be done. First, planning on how they are going to advertise the new product can truly make or break the sales of the device.
When planning a big sale, the company needs to organize how they will handle all the extra people coming in. They may need to have more people on staff and organize how they will all the extra products until they have sold them. They also need to know how to keep all the plans for the sale organized to make sure everything is done for the sale. Innovation is not new for AT&; new products and new service plans seem to come out all the time. A good manager needs to lead and control the situation and store when the business has large sales of new items.
A good way that they can do this is to delegate some of the work to other employees. If the managers have the employees do tasks that they can handle it will make everything run more smoothly. Making sure that everything is ready for the sale of a new product is the manager’s job and by delegating work to others helps in making sure that everything needs to be finished in a timely manner. This is when leadership and control come in handy. Managers need to have positive leadership with their employees and control to make sure everything is done correctly.
Diversity One of the primary internal factors from the four functions of management at AT&T is the diverse demographics of its workforce. Demographics are defined as “measures of various characteristics of people who make up groups or other social units” (Bateman & Snell, 2009, Para. Three p. 56). Demographic classification categories include characteristics such as age, race, religion, gender, family size, national origin, sexual preference, income, education, and geographic location. AT&T executive acknowledge that the diversity of its workforce better enables them to meet the demands of its diverse customer base.
In support of this philosophy AT&T has planned for workforce inclusion, community involvement, multicultural marketing, and supplier diversity (AT&T, 2010). To build a dynamic organization, AT&T invested 244 million in training programs and 1. 2 million in health care and retirement benefits. AT&T also supports workers union affiliations, providing avenues for workers to negotiate fair wages and benefits and actively participate collectively in negotiations (AT&T, 2010). Management is proud to lead a diverse workforce, of whom 41% is female and 38% is of ethnic origin.
Reward systems are performance-based and employees are provided with opportunities to develop their professional careers through initiatives such as Talent Development Program and Accelerated Development Program. AT&T management recognizes that talented and dedicated employees can be inspired to achieve team and organizational goals (AT&T, 2010). Control of the management functions are exercised by carefully monitoring performance and implementing changes when necessary. For example, AT&T requires, and assists diverse suppliers to include global strategies, such as supporting minority, women, and disabled veterans business enterprises.
Ethics Ethical dilemmas are very common these days. The management needs to take proper tools to plan and control it. The manager should possess the delegation skills that mean that he should be acquainted with the ability to get the work done by using the skills, abilities, and time of the other people. It has been quoted that “effective delegation is a vital survival skill for supervisors and managers” (Effective Delegation Skill, 2002). Managers can use delegation skills for enhancing productivity, imparting training, reducing workloads, etc. The impact of globalization requires the approval of the top management.
At this level, there is a huge possibility of taking a firm decision. The guidance of state or local federal agencies is also required. When organizing, the basic tasks of the managers are to manage the planning and the monitoring phase in a way to obtain the set goals. Managers in the innovation phase can take decisions related with the new up-gradations and technologies to be used. The managers at the top level should keep a proper check on each level of the management. Every phase should be properly managed and an effective decision has to be taken at each level.