Educational Theories And Learning Styles On Teaching Practice
The procedure of thought and acquisition has proved to be absorbing and interesting for many philosophers, faculty members and scientists for centuries. Due to psychological and neurological research, grounds has been gathered about usage of intelligence and the encephalon ‘s operation. Learning, both formal and informal, occurs every twenty-four hours and there are many definitions depicting its procedure.
These definitions vary harmonizing to theoretician ‘s ain positions and attacks towards larning ( Pritchard, 2009 ) .
When acquisition, persons frequently choose to utilize or accommodate a preferable acquisition manner. There are many defined acquisition manners and one manner of happening out which manner is the 1 that an person prefers, is by replying and measuring a learning manner questionnaire. Depending on consequences, scholars are being described in assorted footings such as ocular, reflector, pragmatist and many more. Not all theories provide questionnaires or trials to place learning penchants. These theories, for illustration Gardner ‘s Multiple Intelligences, are, however, utile tools assisting recognise countries of strengths and failings.
In this assignment I discuss assorted larning theories and how they are relevant to professional and personal pattern. I present a scope of larning styles/theories and sketch their chief points, for illustration Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Visual, Audio, Kineasthetic acquisition manner, Gardner ‘s Multiple Intelligences and Goleman ‘s Emotional Intelligence. I contrast assorted larning manners and look how they are implemented into the national course of study. I assess how realistic it is to use the acquisition manners in pattern and I besides reflect on my ain pattern and experiences.
Learning manners and theories
A acquisition theory, possibly more associated with grownup acquisition and staff employment, that identifies and classifies assorted personal types, is Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ) . The theory originates from thoughts of Carl Jung and it identifies four penchant graduated tables, they are: Extraversion ( E ) / Introversion ( I ) , Sensation ( S ) /iNtuition ( N ) , Thinking ( T ) /Feeling ( F ) and Judgement ( J ) /Perception ( P ) . By uniting the four letters of each penchant the personality type is established. In entire, there are 16 whole types that describe single penchants ( Myers, I. Briggs, 1995 ) .
Some critics of MBTI are speedy to indicate out that the descriptions of different personal types are excessively obscure, general and some convergence ( Bayne, 1997 ) . Additionally, assorted factors that can act upon persons when replying inquiries need to be considered, such as: Have they got old experiences of specific state of affairss when depicting their behavior and actions? How many experiences can they compare? How do they experience that peculiar twenty-four hours? Is at that place a possibility of a wages when falling into a certain class? ( For illustration publicity ) . Who is traveling to be reexamining questionnaires, employer or an outside bureau? Are consequences traveling to act upon any alterations in current occupation place? Are persons traveling to be stereotyped? Are they traveling to be encouraged to work with their strengths and non given chance to better their failings?
Despite the defects, the MBTI enables people to derive a better apprehension of themselves and how other people think and interact with each other. It is besides of import to retrieve that each peculiar personal type is as of import and utile as the remainder of them, and that there is no right, incorrect or better type.
Another theory, strongly promoted by the Department for Education and Skills ( 2004 ) , is the Visual, Audio, Kinaesthetic ( VAK ) larning manner. One manner of happening out which manner is the 1 that an single prefers is by replying and measuring a learning manner questionnaire. These penchants can be ocular, audile, kinesthetic, or sometimes a blend of two or three manners.
The VAK acquisition manner is supported by many pedagogues who are provided with valuable apprehension of what larning manner is preferred by an person, which larning environment enables the pupils to spread out their acquisition and, which learning schemes provide a balance of chances for the pupils.
However, there are besides many professionals who argue that formal VAK trials are misdirecting for instructors. Alternatively of pulling attending to how kids learn and how assorted facets can act upon their acquisition, the theory has led to pupils being labelled as peculiar types of scholars. Many theoreticians, including Dunn and Dunn and Gregorc, use the VAK attack. Although, Gregorc ‘s theoretical account was ‘theoretically and psychometrically flawed ‘ and both of their manners should non be used at schools ( Coffield et al, 2004, pp. 31, 33 ) harmonizing to the Department for Education and Skills ( 2004 ) , both theories should be considered by schools. The writers of the ‘VAK or VAK-uous? ‘ demonstrate, based on their study, that:
Rubing beneath the surface of it all, we find a instead challenging universe of accelerated and brain-based acquisition, a universe of pseudoscience, psychobabble and neurononsense. ( Bowker et al, 2008, p. 311 )
Some of the theories take into history other intelligences apart from lingual and mathematical accomplishments. Howard Gardner ( 1993 ) recognises assorted intelligences, originally there were seven: lingual, logical/mathematical, musical, spatial/visual, kineasthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal. He is right to believe that intelligence is non linked with IQ but some of his ‘intelligences ‘ can be viewed as endowment. His theory encourages pedagogues to look beyond reading, composing and mathematics, and to reflect on and accommodate their patterns. Teachers are persuaded to concentrate on pupil ‘s countries of strengths, to detect their accomplishments, and utilize them to actuate and raise self-pride of pupils who are otherwise classed as ‘underachievers ‘ . The Department for Education and Skills ( 2004 ) recommends Gardner ‘s model of multiple intelligences to be applied to be after lessons and activities guaranting that they are inclusive for all
kids, taking into history a scope of larning manners identified by instructors.
However, Gardner ‘s theory lacks research and grounds to back up this. His critic John White ( 2006, pp. 82-83 ) openly says that because it is ‘backed by
authorization of a celebrated Harvard professor ‘ does non intend that it is accurate and even Gardner himself admits that ‘it is merely by opportunity that he ( Gardner ) decided to name his classs ‘intelligences ” .
Another theoretician that focuses on intelligence separate from IQ is Daniel Goleman. In his work he speaks of Emotional Intelligence ( EI ) . EI has become omnipresent and is widely used in assorted countries, which proves that many grownups, every bit good as kids, can profit from utilizing Goleman ‘s rules in pattern every twenty-four hours. Goleman ( 2004 ) identifies five cardinal rules: ego and other consciousness, temper direction, self-motivation, empathy and direction of relationships. The term ’emotional intelligence ‘ is known worldwide and closely associated with working environment. Goleman ( 2004 ) argues that EI is more of import than IQ. For illustration when sing using a baby’s room practician, emotional and societal accomplishments are more of import than academic accomplishments as the practician needs to be able to associate to parents, kids, co-workers and other professionals involved in a kid ‘s attention. Additional preparation, to guarantee that the practician has appropriate making, can be provided by employer or sought by an employee.
One of the cardinal points of Goleman ‘s response to criticisms is that he is non showing a new theory but a topic that has been studied for old ages under personality research. The theory was originally introduced by Jack Mayer and Peter Salovey, whom Goleman seldom references in his work. He uses the term emotional intelligence excessively loosely as he besides includes facets of personality and behavior. Even so, many schools in the United States of America have successfully incorporated programmes on emotional intelligence in their course of study and have been running them for a decennary ( Gilbert, 2008 ) .
Both, Goleman and Gardner, suggest that non merely academic accomplishments, such as authorship and reading, but besides other intelligences are portion of the acquisition procedure. They suggest the intelligences are every bit of import, and need to be considered when organizing inclusive acquisition environment for kids and
With the Department for Education and Skills ( DfES, 2004 ) and the Office for criterions in instruction ( Ofsted, 2006 ) advancing personalised ‘tailored ‘ larning for all pupils and raising criterions, pedagogues are put under force per unit area to guarantee that larning demands of all pupils are met. DfES ( 2004, unit 19, p. 2 ) provinces that theory of larning manners is based on ‘tried and tested techniques and draws on academic research and the experience of rehearsing instructors ‘ . However, the unit 19 was withdrawn in 2007.
Assorted larning theories offer their ain account of a learning manner, their point of position and frequently besides a formal trial or questionnaire. They all promise positive consequences and an account why a scholar prefers a peculiar acquisition manner. It is so up to a instructor to happen ways how to implement the national course of study that best suits the scholar. However, harmonizing to Susan Greenfield ( 2007 ) the pattern is ‘nonsense ‘ from a neuroscientific point of position and she stresses that after 30 old ages of educational research, there is no independent grounds that any learning manner stock list has any direct educational benefits.
Evaluation of my pattern and past experiences
For me, the most important facet of this assignment was the whole construct of larning manners and theories. Initially, I did non cognize much about the topic and I found it more and more absorbing as I continued in my reading. Previously, I realised that kids ‘s larning penchants can be monitored through elaborate observations and ratings, I was able to concentrate on kids ‘s strengths and failings. I think that observations are every bit of import as questionnaires but I besides realise that they are more clip consuming, which was seldom an issue for me as I have merely antecedently worked with little groups of immature kids. Having analysed assorted larning manners I now wonder how utile they are to my pattern. I realise that kids ‘s different attacks to larning demand to be recognised. However, I am non confident about benefits of assorted larning manners to kids ‘s
acquisition, particularly after reading Coffield ‘s critical points of position that arose from his research.
In my pattern I have ever believed that advancing empathy and positive attitudes amongst kids would understate unwanted behavior, hence, supplying a composure and exciting learning environment. As kids grow they become cognizant of their ain feelings and responses they receive when exposing a peculiar emotion. By furthering empathy, instead than sympathy, kids and grownups can derive a better apprehension of each others feelings and emotions, what triggers them, how to command and cover with them. I would non travel every bit far as stating that these facets should be classed as ‘intelligences ‘ , they are, in my sentiment, more associated with personal/social accomplishments and behavior, therefore holding an impact on larning attitudes. A theoretician who recognised empathy as an of import portion in kids ‘s acquisition and development was Carl Rogers. He identified that non merely kids but besides grownups need to experience valued, respected and treated with fondness. Rogers ( 1989 ) speaks of unconditioned positive respect, intending that parents and others, who play of import portion in a kid ‘s life, accept and love a child/person for what they are no affair their actions and behavior. To make emotionally warm environment where all kids are accepted but besides going more effectual in interpersonal relationships, instructors need to expose empathetic apprehension and communicate openly and candidly.
Learning manner questionnaires and my acquisition attitudes
By finishing one of VAK self-assessment questionnaires I identified that my preferable learning manner was a ocular 1. On contemplation, I can see elements of this manner in the manner I learn and organise undertakings as I do work best from lists and written waies. I besides write down notes and slug points when reading, fixing lessons and activities for kids or be aftering staff meetings. I frequently use different symbols or colorss to associate up topics. I have discovered that seeing something written down enables me to do connexions quicker and retrieve information better. Harmonizing to MBTI on-line study my personality
type codification is likely ESTJ or possibly ESTP. After carefully reexamining the results I agree with most of the consequences. I ever plan in front, I have got really good organizational accomplishments and I use them good in my professional and personal life. Although, I prefer undertakings to be done in a certain manner, I am besides willing to accept new suggestions ( see appendix A ) .
Having analysed results of other trials I undertook, such as Belbin ‘s Self-perception Inventory and Honey and Mumford questionnaire, I discovered new facets of myself and I identified forms that are dominant in my personal penchants. Furthermore, it confirmed that I am efficient and dependable, and I like construction and modus operandi. However, I am introspective, I do non like role-play in forepart of looker-ons, I am loath to depute ( which was commented on in an assessments by my old employer ) and sometimes I do non react to new thoughts. Additionally, I do non like being rushed though I seem to work better under force per unit area. I besides stand by my determination or position if I am certain that I can back up it with a valid statement.
The rating was helpful as it made me cognizant of my preferable learning mode but besides encouraged me to admit, see and develop other manners, as on many occasions I have expected people to portion my acquisition penchants.
As a following measure, I need to utilize the cognition of my larning attitudes in my surveies and implement my ‘study program ‘ . I have devised a new structured timetable and monthly program, which enables me to clearly see my marks. I made certain that I allowed myself a sufficient sum of clip for library research, visits and reading and I besides took into history clip that I spend set abouting online research. Equally, I made certain that I took regular interruptions and I besides allocated clip for regular exercising.
It has been a twosome of old ages since I completed degree three in Children ‘s Care, Learning and Development, and the return to instruction was exciting but besides a nervous measure. I was cognizant that the surveies were traveling to be more demanding. Rather than roll uping grounds and information, edifice portfolio and being assessed at work every bit required in the yesteryear, future surveies would be
based on thorough grounds based research and personal and professional contemplations. Having acknowledged strengths and identified failings, I now feel that I can utilize them to my advantage. In the past I learned how to cover with unfavorable judgment, which I did non ever take good, but being cognizant of this encouraged me to work on my accomplishments. Now I use unfavorable judgment to my benefit and expression at it from a positive angle as a tool to better myself.
In decision, the chief rule that we are all different to each other, and that we develop and learn in a different manner is still core. The cognition of assorted larning manners provides instructors and practicians with utile information on how to heighten kids ‘s acquisition. The instructors are so able to be after lessons and organise activities suiting assorted larning manners that consequences in a lesson that engages all of the pupils in the category. Pritchard ( 2009, p. 43 ) provinces that ‘Learning manners are non fixed traits which an person will ever expose ‘ . There are many factors that can act upon scholar, therefore do a alteration of a learning manner.
As this assignment shows, every acquisition manner and its theory have its dedicated protagonists and house critics. It is up to pedagogues to happen a balance and guarantee questionnaires and trials do non overpower kids.
When utilizing questionnaires to set up acquisition manners, it is of import to retrieve that consequences are non one hundred per cent accurate and some questionnaires are easy to forge. Nevertheless, they are practical tools to assist persons happen out more about their strengths and failings. However, clip and resources should non be wasted on measuring consequences that may hold an insignificant or no impact on pupils ‘ acquisition. Besides there is a certain sum of hazard of kids being confused with assorted labels and attacks, which may alter as students leave school scenes. Alternatively, a broad assortment of learning methods and an apprehension of an person ‘s needs consequences in a category environment that is inclusive, appealing and that makes
scholars aware of their ain qualities. Most significantly, kids should come
out of a school system as whole ‘complete ‘ scholars able to dispute and accommodate assorted attacks to larning. They should derive an apprehension of what their strengths are and how to utilize them so they can maximize their possible, and be cognizant of their failings and how to better and better themselves.