Curriculum Development: Process
MODULE 5 Models in Curriculum Development INTRODUCTION Curriculum development is concerned with the drawing up of plans for teaching and learning activities in classroom situations that will bring about positive changes in the lives of the learners. It is based on the school’s mission and goals and identifies ways of translating these into a coherent and coordinated program of meaningful experiences and conditions eliciting responses that will lead to the transformation of the learners into authentic, warm and sensitive human beings (Palma, 1992).
Moreover, the all-important process of curriculum development has only one function, and that is, the formation of the “Ideal Graduate.
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” This becomes the ultimate measure of the success or failure of the total school enterprise. It should be pointed out, however, that the conception of the “Ideal Graduate” will vary since it depends on the school’s peculiar clientele, ecology and thrusts. General Objective. To know the different models of curriculum evaluation. Specific Objectives. After reading this module, you should be able to: . Know and understand what is curriculum development. 2. Identify the different models in curriculum development 3. Know and understand the steps in curriculum development. 4. Answer the questions given at the last page of this module. 1. The Michaelis Model The Michaelis model for curriculum development has been named after the principal author of the book New Designs for Elementary Curriculum and Instruction (2nd ed. , 1975), by John U. Michaelis. His co-authors were Ruth H. Grossman and Lloyd F. Scott.
Although their book is oriented to the elementary level, this model for curriculum development may be adapted to the secondary and tertiary levels. The Michaelis model includes the components generally recognized as essential to curriculum development. It is designed for use in two ways. First, it may serve as a guide to the development or revision of the curriculum. Second, the model may serve as a guide for the review and analysis of the curriculum (Aquino, 1986). Components of the Michaelis Model: (a) Foundations of curriculum development
There are five major sources of ideas that serve as the foundations for curriculum planning. The historical foundations are useful in identifying the problem issues, and perspective. An examination of the historical foundations of the curriculum points up threads of continuity as well as instances of rejection of precedents and illustrates the way in which the curriculum, at any point in time, is also a production that time. The philosophical foundations may be drawn upon to develop a framework of values and beliefs related to the goals, the selection and use knowledge and means and methods and other dimensions of education.
The social foundations are sources of informations and societal values, changes, problems, pressures and forces that merit consideration in curriculum planning, the Psychological foundation contains ideas about child growth, development and learning on which the program may be based. The disciplinary foundations serve as sources of information about concepts, generalizations, supporting data and modes, methods, and processes of inquiry that may be used in developing the curriculum and planning instruction. (b)Goals and objectives Related to the analysis of the foundations of curriculum development are he major goals of education that gives direction to planning at all levels and in all areas of the curriculum, the objectives must be consistent with, but more specific than goals so that immediate direction is obtained for intuitional planning ad evaluation. The general goals should be cooperatively developed by school personnel and lay persons and be generally acceptable to the community, the objectives should be defended by school personnel with assistance from experts in areas of the curriculum, evaluation, and formulation of objectives so that they will be optimally useful in planning and appraisal activities.
Each area of the curriculum should be analyzed to identify its specific contributions to the major goals. This step is helpful in developing a coherent curriculum in which all areas or fields of study are viewed as contributing to the common goals. This step is helpful in identifying the unique contributing that each area can make to the goals and thus makes possible the design of a complete and balanced program of instruction that incorporates aesthetic and others. The objectives of each area may be viewed as a detailed elaboration of contributions to the major goals. Their function is to provide specific direction to program planning.
The four sets of interrelated objectives that include the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains are as follows: skill objectives, and affective objectives. Special categories may be used to highlight the contribution of some areas such as, for example visual/tactile objectives, creative expression objectives and aesthetic judgment objectives, objectives in art education within such special categories, however, one may find conceptual, process, skill, and affective in behavioral or performance terms is done to facilitate unit and lesson planning and to evaluate instructional out comes. c) Organization of the curriculum Decisions must be made about the organization of the curriculum, the units within particular areas of curriculum, unit organization, and unit planning procedures, the scope or breadth of the curriculum must be determined and special attention must be given to learning sequences that provide for cumulative learning and the integration of learning. Other decision must be made about curriculum development procedures, broad fields or other patens or organization the roles of curriculum personnel, and the design of curriculum guides. d)Organization and extension of the learning environment The school organization must be considered in terms both the movement of students from level (vertical organization) and of the grouping of students and the placement of teachers at the various levels (horizontal organization). Attention also needs to be given to individualized and personalized instruction organizing and sequencing of group work, and interaction analysis.
Variety of ways of extending the learning environment merits consideration, ranging from open education to time and spatial extensions, and the use of the community as a laboratory for learning. Instructional media should be analyzed because of their fundamental importance as key ingredients in the learning environment.The full range of educational technology, including hardware such as equipment and software or courseware such as instructional materials, should be examined and selected in terms of multiple criteria.
Provision should be made for instructional media that are useful in all areas of instruction and for special media needed in particular area. A variety of printed materials, audio-visual materials, community resources, learning packages, multi-media sets of materials and multi-level materials should be considered. (e)Instructional support services The implementation of new or revised programs of instruction requires a variety of support services, the quality of leadership essential to sound curriculum development is also essential to implementation.
Consultant and supervisory services are needed to help solve general problem and problems related to areas of instruction, other needed services include those related to instructional medial, special education programs the diagnosis and correction of learning difficulties, evaluation, and the in-service education and the instructional staff. (f)Teaching strategies A variety of teaching strategies should be selected or designed for us in the instructional program. There is a need for inductive strategies that include moves from the particular to the general and deductive strategies that include moves from general to the particular.
Discovery strategies in which the students themselves find out on their own and teacher-directed strategies in which the students are guided systematically to in stated objectives are needed, along with strategies the call for varying degrees of teacher guidance, combinations of the preceding strategies may be used to be develop and apply concepts, clarify values, and attain other objectives as various media are used in different areas of the curriculum. In additions, construction should be given to the guidelines or principles of instruction for each area of the curriculum. g) Evaluation and accountability Diagnostic, formative and summative evaluations are needed to determine the needs of students assess progress towards objectives during instruction and appraised the outcomes of instruction at the end of given periods. A brad and comprehensive program of evaluation is needed in which a variety of instruments and techniques are used to evaluate the conceptual, process, skill, and effective outcomes of instruction. 2. The Tyler Model One of the best known models for curriculum development with special attention to the planning phases is Ralph W.
Tyler’s in his classic little book, Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction, “The Tyler Rationale”, a process for selecting educational objectives, is widely known and practiced in curriculum circles. Although Tyler proposed a rather comprehensive model for curriculum development, the first part of his model, the selection of objectives, received the greatest attention from other educators. Tyler recommended that curriculum planners identify general objectives by gathering data from three sources: the learner, contemporary life outside the school, and the subject matter.
After identifying numerous general objectives, the planners refine these by filtering them through two screens: the educational and social philosophy of the school and the psychology of learning. The general objectives that successfully pass through the two screens become specific instructional objectives. In describing general objectives, Tyler referred to them as “goals”, “educational objectives”, and “educational purposes”. The curriculum developer begins his or her search for educational objectives by gathering and analyzing data relevant to student needs and interests.
The total range of educational needs, social, occupational, physical, psychological, and recreational is studied. Tyler recommended observations by teachers, interviews with students, interviews with parents, questionnaires, and tests as techniques for collecting data about students. By examining the needs and interest of students, the curriculum developer identifies a set of potential objectives. Analysis of contemporary life in both the local community and in society at large is the next step in the process of formulating general objectives.
Tyler suggested that curriculum planners develop a classification scheme that divides life into various aspects such as health, family, recreation, vocation, religion, consumption, and civic roles. From the needs of society flow many potential educational objectives. It is apparent that the curriculum worker must “be somewhat of a sociologist to make an intelligent analysis of needs of social institutions. After considering this second source, the curriculum worker has lengthened his/her set of objectives. For a third source, the curriculum planner turns to the subject matter, the disciplines themselves.
It should be remembered that many of the curricular innovations of the 1950s the new math, audio-lingual foreign languages, and the plethora of science programs came from the subject matter specialists. From the three aforementioned sources, curriculum planners derived a multiplicity of general or broad objectives which lack precision and which one would prefer to call instructional goals. These goals may be pertinent to specific disciplines or may cut across disciplines. Tyler’s model emphasized the use of educational and social philosophy as the first screen for the goals.
He urged the teachers to outline their values and illustrate this task by emphasizing four (4) democratic goals: (a) the recognition of the importance of every individual human being regardless of his race, national, social or economic status, (b) opportunity for wide participation in all phases of activities in the social groups in the society, (c) encouragement of variability rather than demanding a single type of personality, and (d) faith in intelligence as a method of dealing with important problems rather than depending upon the authority of an autocratic or aristocratic group.
The application of the psychological screen is the next step in the Tyler model. To apply this, teachers must clarify the principles of learning that they believe to be sound. “A psychology of learning,” Tyler said, “not only includes specific and definite findings but it also involves a unified formulation of a theory of learning which helps to outline the nature of the learning process, how it takes place, under what conditions, what sort of mechanisms operate and the like. Effective application of this screen presupposes adequate training in educational psychology and in human growth and development by those charged with the task of curriculum development. After the curriculum planner has applied this second screen, his/her list of general objectives will be reduced, leaving those that are most significant and feasible. Care is then taken to state the objectives in behavioral terms, which turns them into instructional and classroom objectives.
After the selection of educational objectives, the Tyler’s model goes beyond this process to describe three more steps in curriculum planning: selection, organization, and evaluation of learning experiences. He defined learning experiences as “the interaction between the learner and the external conditions in the environment to which he can react. Tyler posited four basic questions for the school, namely: 1. What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2.
What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not? By addressing the assessment of curriculum development systematically, Tyler introduced the concept of a structural cycle whereby evaluation can lead to a reconsideration of purpose. Such a cycle reduces the somewhat cumbersome process of planning and makes it possible to treat curriculum-making in a systematic manner.
The three fundamental elements include: (a) purpose which indicates the goals and directions the school should take, (b) means which suggest the learning experiences and resources that are to be selected, organized, and implemented in pursuit of the purpose, and (c) assessment of outcomes, which measures the degree to which purposes have been met. The following model (Figure 1) shows the systematic view of the curriculum in graphic form: Figure 1.
System view of curriculum The three subsystems – Purpose, Means, and Assessment – are enclosed in a circle suggesting that they constitute the totality of curriculum. The circle is also indicative of the continuous process of curriculum development. Curriculum is far from being static. We can never speak of a “finished curriculum. ” Curriculum is always “tentative” and is meant to undergo a process of development to bring it to ever higher levels of effectiveness.
The concurrent process of planning and implementing, evaluating and revising the curriculum goes on in a never-ending cycle always taking into consideration the constantly shifting needs of the learners, the emerging thrusts of the school and its sponsors, the changing expectations of the larger society, and the exigencies of the times. The two-way arrows indicate the dynamic interaction and relationships that should exist among the subsystems if the system is to function well. The arrowheads in the outer circle going counter-clockwise indicate the normal sequence in the process of curriculum planning and development.
Logically, the first step should be the determination of purpose and objectives. However, in curriculum development it is possible that one can start with any step. One might even begin with the assessment or evaluation phase. Using the result of this evaluation or assessment, we can examine and make adjustments in the purpose and the means of attaining this purpose. The all-important process of curriculum development is the formation of the “Ideal Graduate. ” 3. The Stufflebeam CIPP Evaluation Model
According to Stufflebeam, evaluation is undertaken for the purpose of acquiring fundamental knowledge about the [program, making decisions or judgments, getting data or information as the basis of the program planning intervention. Furthermore, evaluation helps one understand the factors which make which make for success or failure with a view of finding out how the program can be improved (Posner, 1995). The Phi Delta Kappa National Study Committee on Evaluation, chaired by Daniel L. Stufflebeam, produced and disseminated a widely cited model of evaluation known as CIPP (Context, Input, Process, Product) model.
Comprehensive in nature, the model reveals types of evaluation, of decision setting of decisions, and of change. In shaping their model, Stufflebeam and his associates defined evaluation in the following way: “Evaluation is the process of delineating, obtaining, and providing useful information for judging decision alternative”. Stufflebeam clarified what was meant by each of the parts of the definition as follows: 1. Process. A particular, continuing and cyclical activity subsuming many methods and in using a number of steps or operations. . Delineating. Focusing information requirement to be served by evaluation through such steps as specifying, and explicating. 3. Obtaining. Making available through such processes as collecting, organizing, and analyzing, and through such formal means as statistics and measurement. 4. Providing. Fitting together into systems or subsystems that best serve the needs or purposes of the evaluation. 5. Useful. Appropriate to predetermined criteria evolved through the interaction of the evaluator and client. 6. Information.
Descriptive or interpretive data about entities (tangible or intangible) and their relationships. 7. Judging. Assigning weights in accordance with a specified value framework, criteria derived there from, and information which relates criteria to each entity being judged. 8. Decision Alternatives. A set of optional responses to a specified decision question. The evaluation process, said Stufflebeam, includes the three main steps of delineating, obtaining, and providing. These steps provide the basis for a methodology of evaluation.
In the flow chart form the model which consists of rectangles (with small loops attached), hexagons, ovals, a circle, a fancy E, solid and broken lines with arrows and three types of shading. Crosshatched, the hexagons show types of decisions, hatched, the ovals, the circle, and the big E depict activities performance; and mottled, the rectangle stands four types of evaluation (Figure 4). Four types of evaluation. The Phi Delta Kappa National Committee pointed to four types of evaluation: Context, Input, Process, and Product, hence the name of the model, CIPP.
Context evaluation is the most basic kind of evaluation. Its purpose is to provide a rationale for determination of objectives. At this point in the model, curriculum planner-evaluators define the environment of the curriculum, and determine unmet needs and reasons why needs are not being met. Goals and objectives are specified on the basis of context evaluation. Input evaluation is that evaluation of the purpose of which is “to provide information for determining how to utilize resources to achieve project objectives”.
The resources of the school and various designs for carrying out the curriculum are considered. At this stage, the planner-evaluators decide on procedures to be used. Process evaluation is the provision of periodic feedback while the curriculum is being implemented. It has three main objectives – the first is to detect or predict defects in the procedural design or its implementation stages. The second is to provide information for programmed decisions, and the third is to maintain a record of the procedure as it occurs.
Product evaluation the final type, has as its purpose “to measure and interpret attainments not only at the end of a project cycle, but often as necessary during the project term”. The general method of project evaluation includes devising operational definitions of objectives, measuring criteria associated with the objective of the activity, comparing these measurements with predetermined absolute or relative standards, and making rational interpretations of the outcomes using the recorded context, input and process information.
Four types of decision. The hexagons represent four types of decision: Planning, Structuring, Implementing, and Recycling. Note that planning decisions follow context evaluation; structuring decision follow input evaluation; implementing decisions follow process evaluation; and recycling decision follow product evaluation. Three types of changes. In these setting, three types of changes may results: neomobilistic, incremental, and homeostatic. Neomobilistic change occurs in a setting in which a large change is sought on the basis of low information.
These changes are innovative solutions based on little evidence. Incremental changes are a series of small changes based on low information is so rare that it is not shown in the CIPP model. Homeostatic change goes back to structuring decisions. The model plots the sequence of evaluation and making from context evaluation to recycling decisions. The committee has touched up the model with small loops that lock like bulbs on the evaluation blocks to indicate that the general process of delineating, obtaining, and providing information is cyclical and applies to each type of evaluation.
The ovals, the circle, and the E in the model represent types of activities, types of change, and adjustment as a result of the evaluations made and decision taken. The CIPP model presents a comprehensive view of evaluation process. Said the Phi Delta Kappa Committee: “To maximize the effectiveness and efficiency of evaluation, evaluation itself should be evaluated…the criteria for this include internal validity, expervasiveness, timeliness, and efficiency”. 5. The Taba Model Taba took what is known as a grass-roots approach to curriculum development.
She believed that the curriculum should be designed by the teachers rather than handed down by higher authority. Further, she felt that teachers should begin the process by creating specific teaching-learning units for their students in their schools rather than by engaging initially in creating a general curriculum design. Taba, therefore, advocated an inductive approach to curriculum development, starting with specifics and building up to a general design as opposed to the more traditional deductive approach of starting with the general design and working down to the specifics.
To improve and refine the Tyler model, Hilda Taba listed a five-step sequence for accomplishing curriculum change, as follows: 1. Production by teachers of pilot teaching-learning units representative of the grade level or subject area. Taba saw this step as linking theory and practice. She proposed the following eight-step sequence for curriculum developers who are producing pilot units: a) Diagnosis of needs. The curriculum developer begins by determining the needs of the students for whom the curriculum is being planned.
Taba directs the curriculum worker to diagnose the “gaps, deficiencies, and variations in students’ backgrounds. ” b) Formulation of objectives. After students’ needs have been diagnosed, the curriculum planner specifies objectives to be accomplished. Interestingly, Taba uses the terms “goals” and “objectives”. c) Selection of content. The subject matter or topics to be studied stem directly from the objectives Taba pointed out not only must the objectives be considered in selecting content but also the “validity and significance” of the content chosen. d) Organization of content.
With the selection of content goes the task of deciding at what levels and in what sequences the subject matter will be placed. Maturity of learners, their readiness to confront the subject matter, and their levels of academic achievement are factors to be considered in the appropriate placement of content. e) Selection of learning experiences. The methodologies or strategies by which the learners are involved with the content must be chosen by the curriculum planners. Pupils internalize the content through the learning activities selected by the planner-teacher. f) Organization of learning activities.
The teacher decides how to package the learning activities and in what combinations and sequences they will be utilized. At this stage, the teacher adapts the strategies to the particular students for whom he or she has responsibility. g) Determination of what to evaluate and of the ways and means of doing it. The planner must decide whether objectives have been accomplished. The instructor selects from a variety of techniques and appropriate means for assessing achievement of students and for determining whether the objectives of the curriculum have been met. h) Checking for balance and sequence.
Taba counseled curriculum workers to look for consistency among the various parts of the teaching-learning units for proper flow of the learning experiences, and for balance in the types of learning and forms of expression. 2. Testing experimental units. Since the goal of this process is to create a curriculum encompassing one or more grade levels or subject areas and since teachers have written their pilot units with their own classrooms in mind, the units must now be tested “to establish their validity and teach-ability and to set their upper and lower limits of required abilities. . Revising and consolidating. The units are modified to conform to variations in student needs and abilities, available resources, and different styles of teaching so that the curriculum may suit all types of classrooms. Taba would charge supervisors, the coordinators of curricula, and the curriculum specialists with the task of “stating the principles and theoretical considerations on which the structure of the units and the selection of content and learning activities are based and suggesting the limits within which modifications in the classroom can take place. Taba recommended that such considerations and suggestions might be assembled in a handbook explaining the use of the units. 4. Developing a framework. After a number of units have been constructed, the curriculum planners must examine them as to adequacy of scope and appropriateness of sequence. The curriculum specialist would assume the responsibility of drafting a rationale for the curriculum which has been developed through this process. 5. Installing and disseminating new units.
So that the teachers may effectively put the teaching-learning units into operation in their classrooms, Taba called on administrators to arrange appropriate in-service training. Taba’s inductive model may not appeal to curriculum developers who prefer to consider the more global aspects of the curriculum before proceeding to specifics. Some planners might wish to see a more comprehensive model that includes steps both in diagnosing the needs of society and culture and in deriving needs from subject matter, philosophy, and learning theory.
Taba elaborates on these points in her final text. 6. Palma’s Linear Model of Curriculum Development Using Tyler’s Rationale and Taba’s paradigm, Palma (1992) formulated the following linear model including four subsystems (Figure 2). Figure 2. A Linear Model of Curriculum The curriculum model above suggests end-means integration. This model clearly shows that curriculum and instruction are not separate independent components but contiguous parts of a continuum or system. They are two-sides of the same coin, you cannot have one without the other.
The curriculum component represents the thought plan aspect of curriculum development which includes the selection and organization phases while the instruction component is the means-action part consisting of the implementation and evaluation phases. Subsystem I indicates the direction and intention of the educational effort. This includes the School Vision or the set of unifying beliefs and values according to which the school personnel behave and perform their roles individually and collectively.
This is eventually translated into the Mission Statement and further delineated in the school-wide and level goals and finally translated into learning objectives contained in the units of instruction and individual lessons. Subsystem 2 is the learning content. The learning goals are fleshed out in a continuum or scope and sequence of learning content in terms of knowledge and understanding, skills and competencies, attitudes and values which become the basis of subject matter for instruction and mastery. As one student puts it matter-of-factly, this is the “stuff that kids must learn in school. The school expects every student to master these basic requirements of school learning content which define the standards against which every prospective graduate will be measured. Subsystem 3 is made up of learning experiences, activities and resources which constitute the where-withal for attaining the learning objectives. Working on the principle that “he who wants the end, wants the means,” the school employs the most relevant and effective strategies and resources that will ensure mastery of learning content.
All these are indicated in a plan of instruction, both on the unit and the lesson level, to be carried out in the classroom. Subsystem 4 has to do with measurement and evaluation of learning outcomes. The evaluation reveals whether the objectives are being attained or not and at what level. And more importantly, if objectives are not being met according to acceptable levels or standards, why these are not being met and what should be done about it. This is indicated by the feedback loop.
Curriculum Development for Higher Education in the Philippine Setting The Rogelio V. Cuyno observed that life is by itself a curriculum. The small day-to-day experiences add up to a total experience which make us what we are. We learn from them. We become somebody because of these experiences. A curriculum is like life. The only difference is that an educational is purposive, designed by specialist and educators. The day-to-day events and activities in our lives are largely shaped by random forces which are beyond our control.
Learning comes out of the necessity to survive and to adapt to the demands and contingencies of the external environment. Such is not the case in a university environment. The experiences that students are made up to undergo are not random but carefully structured and planned towards meeting a goal, guided by theories and by tested principles. A faculty curriculum design will reveal itself in performance of graduates in the job market or world of work and in adult social life. Designing a curriculum for higher education of the tertiary level in the educational hierarchy is hereby presented.
This unit is intended for university teachers, administrators and those in the non-formal system of education who is or will be reviewing and revising a specific course within a college curriculum or preparing a new curriculum. The UP Mindanao Campus Experience The aim of curriculum developers is to produce graduates who will behave as the curriculum aimed them for, who will be relevant to the world of work, who will be efficient and who will have flexibility and plasticity to withstand a shifting job market and environment realities.
Specifically, this unit aims to make the participants: 1. Identify and discuss concepts in curriculum planning; 2. Cite and explain elements in a curriculum; 3. Formulate educational objectives following norms and practices in education; 4. Identify and discuss the different factors to consider in curriculum planning; and; 5. Outline and discuss the procedures in curriculum development. Content A. Concepts 1. Definition of curriculum planning A curriculum is a series of planned experiences that a learner is made to undergo in a given period to achieve a given goal.
It involves direct teaching where the teacher gives structured technical inputs on a face to face basis or through assigned tasks. There are also educational experiences which are meant not to impart a professional stock of knowledge and skills of a craft but to mold the character, internalize universal moral values, hone social and organizational skills, or appreciate the finer things in life. This is often called extra-curriculum activities or those activities outside the formal courses. Even this is programmed and deliberate rather than accidental or a product of afterthought.
Planning the curriculum involves determining the aim of education; identifying the students to whom the system will be geared; deciding what to teach and how these are sequenced; providing organizational and logistical support so that the teaching process can be managed efficiently; and, insuring that the curricular and extra-curricular component are interrelated. 2. Tripodal source of influence The structured of a curriculum is formed in response to three sources of influences: the learner’s systems; the teacher and knowledge system; and society or the market for the products of the curriculum (Figure 3).
For the learner system, we need to know the entry level of the learners in terms of their preparation in the prior educational level. A curriculum may be too difficult resulting in failures if the curriculum of the previous lower school system where students came from is deficient. On the other hand, the higher education curriculum might be boring because the courses are too easy and familiar to students who have covered the subjects sufficiently in the secondary level. Learner System Teacher- The Market Knowledge and Society System Figure 1. Tripodal Influence in Curricular Design
The teacher-knowledge system refers to the stock of knowledge, tools and skills in the discipline that an incoming professional is expected to posses. Due to advances in research and practice of the profession and the changes in educational objective, the present curriculum would be more updated than the previous one. Finally, due to changing technology being used at the world of work and the new demands of employers, the market require that the curriculum be realigned to these new realities. For example, nowadays, students need to be computer literate because employers are requiring the skills.
New medical curricula for community practice have now to be more of a general practitioner type than before. Those studying agriculture today have learn about environmental sustainability, farming systems, food systems, agribusiness and political economy, because society expects them to be enlightened on these issues. 3. Economy and Self-Sufficiency The curriculum must be designed to enable the learner to assimilate the subject sufficiently and as economically as possible. Scheffler (1958) wrote about three types of economy: • teaching effort and resources • learners effort and resources; and economy of subject matter The last type needs further explanation. Economy of subject matter refers to maximum generalizability or transfer value. To be economical in this sense is to learn subjects to facilitate other learning. For example, math and physics should facilitate learning chemistry and genetics. Not only that, content should “enable the learner to take responsible personal and moral decisions”. 4. Integration of Subjects Whitehead (Frankena, 1965) enunciated two commandments in curriculum planning “Do not teach too many subjects” and “What you teach, teach thoroughly”.
Teaching many subjects which are disconnected is fatal to further learning. It could lead to passive reception of ideas and confuse the learners. Thorough teaching could lead students to discern relationships and application and the connection of the present to the past and the future. The thorough learning of the scientific method, for example, could lead to discovery of an inner logic which applies to problem-solving and decision making in the field of management. 5. Principle of Option Most young people go to college without really knowing what they would want to become later in life.
Hence, besides the General Education subjects outside the major field. Such subject may comprise what is known as the minor or cognate or electives and which we shall term as option subjects. The other function of option subjects is that the students can pursue fields which are personally interesting and fulfilling and in the process develop certain natural talents and inclinations. The implication of all these in curriculum development is that it is better to emphasize teaching of tools, collecting, organizing and processing information rather than memorizing of facts and defining things. 6.
Aim of Education A curriculum is a means to achieve an educational goal. In the normative theory of education, the content, activities and process of instruction must serve the end goal. This will lead to us to the study of philosophy of education. To Dewey (Frankena, 1995), the aim of education is to promote growth. According to him, growth is dependent on increased control by the self. It refers to “having an end” instead of “being the end”. Possession of intellectual ability and the knowledge of how to learn empower an individual to pursue personal growth. Learning here is viewed as a lifelong process.
Dewey defines education as a continuous “reconstruction or reorganization of experience which adds to the deepening of meaning of experience, and which increases ability to direct the course of subsequent experience”. Whitehead (Frankena, 1965) viewed the aim of education as “producing men and women who posses both culture (including philosophy and art) and expert knowledge in some special direction”. Whitehead believed that the learner should be helped and made to experience the joy of discovery for that is what life is all about. Whitehead was an exponent of problem focused learning.
He believed that the mind is an instrument that need to be sharpened and that it is never passive but active in perpetuity, receptive and responsive to stimuli. The mind can not be told “learn this now, you will need it later”. The implication in curriculum design is that theory and practice and the mental and physical components should be integrated. Because education is “life in all its manifestations”, Whitehead advocate wholeness in education which assumes that behind all living things is interconnections. Another educational philosopher worth noting for his thoughts on the goal of education is Maratain (Frankena, 1965).
He said that the aim of education is to guide the learner to shape himself as “a human person-armed with knowledge, strength of judgment, and moral virtues-while at the same time conveying to him the spiritual heritage of the nation and civilization”. B. Elements of a Curriculum A curriculum has a structure which is made up of elements. For the structure to take shape the elements must have harmony and internal consistency. Otherwise, it will appear disjointed and discordant just like when musical notes do not blend. The elements of the curricular structure are: • Objectives; • Content; • Method of procedure; Requirement; and • Extra curricular activities. 1. Objective In contrast to educational aim or goal, the objective element of the curriculum is more operational and observable. The objective can be found in the analysis of the courses and in the various teaching units. At the end of the teaching procedure, the teacher or any external evaluator can refer back to the objective to determine if the procedure was effective. Objective is the learning destination toward which the teacher tries to bring the learner to: Educators use ABCD as guide on how to formulate a learning objective stated from the side of the learner:
A = Stands for audience or the students. There is a need to direct or target the objective towards a known participant, e. g. , “For all the first year students to . . . . . . . ” B = Stands for Behavior or an overt/visible activity the students should be doing if learning indeed has taken place. If stated in an overt behavioral terms, it is easy to measure if change had taken place. E. g. , “For first year students to enter a statement in the computer . . . . . “ C = For condition or the assumption and parameters that have to be provided by the teacher so that the students will feel the experience.
E. g. , given a working PC, all first year students should be able to enter a statement in it. D = For degree of visible achievement. This is commonly referred to as quantifiable indicator of learning. E. g. , Given a working PC, all first year students must be able to enter a statement in the computer allowing 5% error. 2. Content Content in a curriculum is the body of knowledge, tools, skills, (psychomotor, manual and mental) and attitude that the teacher intends to pass on to the students or wants the students to develop. Put concisely, content is what is intended to be learned.
A good curriculum is one which allows students to explore and learned content beyond what is prescribed. As discussed earlier in the section on philosophy of education, a course not only prepares a student for a profession or job but to become complete human being and citizen of the country. The choice of content should follow the aim of the curriculum. Universities perform research to expand the knowledge-base of the profession or widen the general state of the art, science and technology that will catalyze and become the cutting edge of the economy.
Such outputs of research should also be channeled to and enrich content thus making the curriculum more dynamic and up-to-date. 3. Method and Activities Method is how the content element should be taught or how the experience should structure so that the student will acquire and discover the content. It is the procedure of instruction that can take place not only in school but also outside-in the industry, society, community and at home. Many educational philosophers, among them, Dewey and Whitehead, believed that application of theory and principle should not be delayed to a much later time but should be experienced here and now.
They also believed that activities must be relevant to the real world. The teaching procedure in a curriculum should attempt to bridge academe with industry and society, theory with practice. Thus there should be a reinforcement, supplementation and complementation among the different methods of instruction such as; lecture, discussion, apprenticeship, library work, independent study, individual and group work. 4. Integrative Requirements The final requirements of a curriculum are usually in the form of thesis, special project, internship, practicum, rural service and volunteer work.
The purposes of such requirement are: to provide opportunity for integration, for deepening of knowledge and application, exposure to the real world or to facilitate one’s induction to a profession. 5. Extra Curricular Activities In our previous discussion, we referred to extra-curricular activities as outside the curricular structure. But in terms of the principle of total learning experience in higher education which we favor here, here is important to consider extracurricular work as part of curriculum.
Being a variable, extra curricular activities influence attainment of the educational aim as they tend to reinforce and strengthen teaching of content and values. C. Factors in Curriculum Design Earlier we cited and discussed the elements of a curriculum. This time there is a need to identify the factors that influence how the elements will be structured. 1. Industry Young people to challenge because they eventually want earn and make a living-either working for an employer or for themselves. In any case, after college, they’ll have to belong to an industry.
Industry is the market for college graduates. Naturally, if the graduates have to fit the requirement of industry, they have to be prepared for it through the courses in the curriculum that they enroll in. If the needs of industry are for more practical skills, the curriculum will pay more attention to practical skills; the curriculum will pay more attention to practical skills. It is a simple case of demand and supply. 2. Economy Industry and economy are closely linked. The economy has a direct way of attracting certain skills and it creates expectations, hopes and aspirations.
If the economy is on the rise due to contribution of a certain sector, people would move towards that sector. Economy provides ambience to a profession. Hence the curriculum developers could not and should not ignore it. As an example, there is a proliferation of computer schools, computer-related courses and the field of information science because of the large contribution of this field of information science of the large contribution of this field to the country’s economy. 3. Competition Competition has a way of extracting the best from the system.
If curriculum “A” is drawing students’ attention at the expense of curriculum “B”, curriculum B has no choice but to shape up. Otherwise that curriculum will have nothing but empty chairs and the school will go under. Schools go into self-improvement or externally induced-improvement through curricular reviews. Administrators than use the recommendation of the review group as leverage to change or reform the curriculum. 4. Government Policy In many countries, the Philippines included, some courses are required to be part of the curriculum through legislation or force of law.
Recently the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) which oversees higher education in the country received severe criticism from leaders in culture a history including newspaper columnists. It was because of perceived non-implementation or lack of heart to implement the teaching of “Rizal and His Works” in the tertiary level of education. 5. Previous Level and Students Capability The quality and the structure of the secondary level curriculum have an impact on the tertiary level curriculum.
If most of the in-coming freshman is deficient in certain subjects like Mathematics or English or Science, the college curriculum has to be adjusted to correct the deficiency. This can be done through remedial courses or adding more subjects. Students with advanced proficiency in Mathematics, science or English, on the other hand, are accelerated to higher courses. 6. Culture Education in a generic sense refers to the total social process by which the individual acquire beliefs, acceptable behavior, standards and values, and a way of living in society.
Only a small portion of how one is educated actually is due to the school system. Schools being one of the teaching institutions in society have an obligation to help preserve, promote and enhance the culture of a particular society which constitutes the bedrock of national identity and the moral foundation of the people. As pointed out earlier, a curriculum must have a common universal content that has to be taught as part of the socialization process and a means for social control. This must embrace the most crucial and significant ideas and major themes in the national consciousness.
A curriculum exists within a culture. The two, curriculum and culture, therefore are interwoven. As culture undergoes transformation in time, so must the curriculum. In this way, a curriculum exists in the service of the nation and of society. D. Professional, General and Post-Graduate Education Many years back, educators and philosophers debated over whether college education should be more for professional development or for liberal education. The two aims of education were thought of as being on opposite poles. That is, if the curriculum is slanted to general education, there is ess professional training and vice versa. If there is a bias for professional education, something is taken away from general education. At the University of the Philippines this was resolved with the institution of General Education courses. General Education (GE) makes the individual a whole person, able to cope with multi-dimensional aspects of life-relationship with the natural environment, social life, economic well-being, cultural roots and identity, developments and advances in science and technology, relationships with political-legal institutions and contributing to political maturity and responsiveness.
Moreover, GE trains the person to be a life-long learner and equips the person with analytical and explanatory tools as well as methods of observing, organizing of observations and then making decision and judgments. In other words, the student learns to identify and solve problems and scientific way. In the University of the Philippines Mindanao, where the author is the Dean, we review our curricula as somewhere in the middle of the continuum of general and professional education. Our aims are to prepare a person to be a professional with continuing proficiency in his/her craft, and able to induce productivity and growth of the enterprise.
At the same time, the person should be aware and must internalize social and political responsibility, conservation and sustainability of natural endowment and feel his cultural heritage. He must not neglected to appreciate the finer things in life-the “good and the beautiful” and must contribute to make his surroundings a decent place to live in. In the teaching of the craft or the tools, knowledge and skills in the profession, we believe that the teacher must not only teach content but must inculcate a liberal attitude to his craft. That is, being open minded, creative, a problem-solver and change agent.
E. Procedures in Curriculum Development As pointed out earlier, curriculum, culture, science and technology, industry and the economy and legal-political reality are interwoven. The curriculum, therefore, has to be dynamic. There must be a formal mechanism for internal and external reviews. Internally, the university/college must be sensitive to any discontinuity in society. Globally it must be sensitive to new opportunities in the environment. All these changes have to be watched, anticipated and even enhanced. A senior official of the university must be made responsible for this function.
Logically, this task will fall on the Office of Academic Affairs or of Planning and Development Office. A system wide recommendatory committee is usual appointed to do a fact to environmental changes and opportunities. External reviews need more time to prepare. In addition to representatives from faculty, non-academic staff and students, representatives from industry, government, NGO, and the professions as well as parents compose this committee. The recommendation is usually validated in a forum with invited reactors. Curriculum Planning What is curriculum planning?
Objectives #4, under section 4, “declaration of objectives” of the Education Act of 1982 that the educational system aims to respond effectively to changing need and conditions of the nation through a system of education planning and evolution”. Bernard M. Reyes (1974) explains the nature and scope of educational planning as follows: Education planning is an instrument for providing the needed coordination and direction of the different components of an education system and ensures that widely accepted long-term goals, such as universal primary education, are approached more objectively.
It provides realistic appraisal of the country’s resources (material human and institutional) which is and important factor in the successful implementation of the plan. Though education planning, a country indicates its willingness to effect an orderly change or reforming its education system by bringing into focus the shortcoming or needs that hitherto had been ignored or unknown and so that appropriate action can be affected coupled with the proper allocation of energies and resource to their sector.
Educational planning takes into account the past and present realities of the country’s education and training programs. It is commonly preceded by survey of the educational situation and needs. Well-organized statistics services are necessary to provide essential and reliable data. To ensure the full acceptance and implementation of the plan, person who is to implant the plan, such as school administrators, supervisors, teachers, other personnel, should participate in the formulation of the plan (Reyes, 1974).
Reyes attributes to Boquiren (1965) certain accepted principles on which educational planning is based, among which are first, that planning is a high-level staff function professional guidance of the authorities in the determination of educational goals and the evolving of the educational goals and evolving of educational policies and their execution; (2) that education planning involves all levels of education of both public and private sector and the related economic and financial agencies of the nation; (3) education planning must be a comprehensive and continuous process and must be periodically evaluated (Reyes, see Manuel, Guerrero, and Sutaria, 1974). According to Reyes, the essential elements of educational planning are: 1. Quantitative planning. This covers all questions involved in the expansion of educational facilities based on pedagogical, demographic, geographical, economic, and social factors. Quantitative planning makes references to school population (enrollment, drop out, and promotion) the recruitment of teachers and supervisors, and the provision of classrooms and equipment (furniture, laboratories, etc. ). 2. Qualitative planning. This covers aims, content, and methods of ducation, curricular planning (the levels and branches), teacher training, educational guidance, research, and textbooks and other teaching aids. 3. Administrative planning. This is concerned with the needs and assets, costs, sources or finance or distribution or expenditures (recurrent expenditures and capital investment), grants, and loans. In education planning, two approaches are: involved the macro approach and the minor approach. The macro approach refers to the over-all planning which is primarily concerned with the aggregates in the education system; e. g. , new enrollment at the various level, numbers of schools to be constructed, etc. the macro approach, on the other hand, lays emphasis on the individual component which go to make up the educational system.
The essential steps in the planning process are: 1) statement of objectives; 2) diagnosis of the present situation; 3) formulation of the plan; 4) implementation; and 5) evaluation. Varied terms used in the literature There are varied terms used in the literature in connection with the curriculum planning process. Among such terms are curriculum developing, curriculum improvement, curriculum study, curriculum making, and of course curriculum planning. As far as the term curriculum development is concerned many authors have used, and continue to use, this term. Bernardino and Fresnoza (1963), for example, state that curriculum development involves three kinds of activities: 1) planning the experiences to be utilized, 2) reorganizing them in program, and 3) evaluating the curriculum thus developed.
In doing all of these, they explain further, attention is given to the ultimate purposes of education, to the more immediate objectives, to the various aspects of child and to the other factors associated with teaching (Bernardino and Fresnoza, 1963). To Agoncillo (1977), curriculum development should be regarded as “a practical inquiry” the outcome of which is to specify the means for carrying out and educational intent or purpose. Such an inquiry should focus attention on purposes, goals, and objectives on a continuum from levels of generality to specify: on materials, media and resources to be employed on plans of action at various levels and various educational situations; and finally, on the evaluative measures for various specific purposes (Agoncillo, 1977). By the very nature of the curriculum, its development is a decision-making process for many people.
It affects a number of people, the pupil or learner, who is the focal point of the entire endeavor, the teacher, who is the primary implementer, the parents who after all will foot the educational bill; the administrator/supervisor, who is responsible for the leadership; and society in general, which will be the ultimate recipient of the educational output (Socrates, 1977). According to Socrates, there are many principles underlying curriculum development, but one basic principle stands out namely that the curriculum should be planned. In his own words: “there is simply no substitute to planning-systematic planning” (p. 3). Consequently, Socrates adds, if systematic planning undertaken, there are other principles which answer four basic questions: 1) who plans the curriculum? (principle of cooperation); 2) When is the curriculum planned? (principle of continuity); 3) What are planned? (principle of comprehensiveness); and 4) How is the curriculum planned? (the principle of systematic approach).
In addition Socrates states that curriculum development has certain stages or phases (a) identifying objectives; (b) structuring learning experience; (c) deciding on content; (d) organization; and (e) evaluation. Stratemeyer et al. (1957) state that there are at least three facets to curriculum improvement: first, continuous appraisal of the existing program in terms of emerging needs; second, changes where evaluation indicates they are required; and third, the operation of and effective ongoing educational program while making changes. Conceived in this manner, curriculum improvement is a ceaseless process, flourishing in a dynamic, flexible educational environment in which security and stability exist without complacency or crystallization. To these writers, curriculum improvement is a process which suggests a continuous study of programs.
Aquino presents the following as part of the considerations in curriculum planning and organization: INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT Besides, in developing a curriculum consideration must be given to the factors that should determine the nature of the education to be provided to the children and youth in the schools. Next the educator faces the responsibility of actually developing a curriculum. What kind of experience shall be planned for pupils? How these units for experiences shall is organized? What kind of curriculum should the school provide so that pupils may attain the objectives of education it has defined? These decisions become the curriculum plan.
Such plan defines the nature of the educational experiences to be provided pupils, the methods of selecting and organizing the elements of the curriculum into coherence and unified program of education, and the place in the education of the child and the sequential arrangement in which the elements of the curriculum are to be developed. A plan for the curriculum is essential efficiently to the attainment of the outcomes sought for the pupils. The curriculum of the school is encompassed within the following aspects of educational program: 1. The class programs of the school, which utilize bodies of contend selected and organized on some predetermined structure. 2. Extra classroom activities. 3. Services provide by the school, such as guidance, health, library, food, and transportation services, and special services fro exceptional children. 4.
The social life of the school and the interpersonal relationships among pupils and teachers. 5. Organizational policies and procedures for providing the instructional program. Organization of learning content Curriculum design refers to how the curriculum content is organized and laid for purposes of instruction; this is intended to accomplish orderly and meaningful coverage of content so as to bring about the cumulative effect of education in terms of residual or habitual leaning. This also ensures economy through optimum use of time and effort, efficiency through and orderly and systematic progression of learning and affectivity in obtaining the desired learning outcomes.
In organizing curriculum content we are usually guided by the following complementary basic principles: 1. Balance. This refers to the equitable and fair distribution of content among the different level of instruction to ensure that no level is unduly overburdened or under burdened. 2. Articulation. This refers to provisions for establishing the vertical from level to level. This way we can avoid the glaring “gaps” and wasteful “overlaps” in subject matter and ensure and unbroken chain of learning. Proper articulation promotes team work among the instructional staff and will prevent the perennial “blaming syndrome” so prevalent in schools where this principle is not observed. 3. Sequence.
This term is used to describe the sequential and graded arrangement of subject matter. It refers to a deepening and broadening of content as it is taking up on the higher levels. The term Spiraling has been used to denote this idea of sequence. For instance, a senior high school class will take up paragraph writing but at a more sophisticated and advanced level than a first year class. 4. Integration. This denotes the horizontal link or content in related subjects’ areas. There is integration where an individual is able to connect what he is learning in a subject area to a related content in another subject area. Thus concepts and skill learned in Math (e. g. geometric in science).
The quality of schooling improves as learners are able to integrate their learning instead of acquiring isolated fragments of information. Ruing isolated fragments of information. Integration helps a person to get a unified view of reality and to use it to improve his total behavior pattern and outlook in life. 5. Continuity. This refers to a constant and consistent repetition, review and reinforcement of major learning elements to bring about mastery or “executive control” of subject matter. Learning is not a one-shot activity and requires continuing application for the new knowledge, skill or attitude or value to endure habitual use in daily living.
Conclusion: Thus, it is useful for leaders to consider the need of curriculum development incorporated with, planning, articulating and developing, implementing as pointed above. Questions to Answer 1. Having taken a course in curriculum- instruction, you are now task to enrich the existing curriculum/program of the school/agency where you are employed, how do you go about it? Enumerate the steps and discuss on how you are going to work on this task. 2. Due to changes taking place in the society in what considerations would you provide in the curriculum to meet the needs of the day and why? 3. Explain why in organizing the curriculum content, we should be guided with the basic principles in organizing curriculum content and if not considered what is likely going to happen? ———————– PURPOSE
IDEAL GRAUATE MEANS ASSESSMENT Instruction Components Curriculum Component Subsystem 4 Subsystem 3 Subsystem 2 Subsystem 1 Learning Experiences Evaluation Of Learning Outcomes Learning Objectives Learning Content Feedback loop Learning Activity With a colleague, discuss the issue of “how far should the curriculum designer accommodate the demands of the market”. Learning Activity Figure out another example of “economy of subject matter” as explained above. Learning Activity Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? “It’s better to load students with more sub