Globalization the process, accelerated by communication technologies, of turning the world into a single community & In particular, a single market. It has been described as 'boundlessness'. Structural change a temperamental transformation tot some activity or institution which brings about a change in its essential quality. Or structure. It Is permanent, there Is no return to the prior level or state. Temporary change an alteration in a certain measure or condition In an activity of institution to which it is likely to return later.
Causes for structural change globalization, competition, economic crisis, health crisis, social changes, customer preferences, war/ terrorism. Tourism market consists of all potential customers sharing a particular need/want, who might be willing/able to satisfy it by buying a tourism product. Sustainable development achieving growth In a manner that does not deplete the natural & built environment & preserves the culture of the local community.
Sustainable tourism all forms of tourism development, management & operations that malting the environmental, & concern Integrity & well being of natural, built ND cultural resources, Socio cultural a term used to Indicate impacts bringing about change to a social organization of a group of people as well as more fundamental reorganization of society organization. Sustainable transport doesn't harm the environment, or use resources that cannot be replaced_IEEE. Cleaner trucks/cars- alternative engines, alternative fuels (unleaded) non combustion systems.
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Reducing aircraft emissions-technology advances, regulations, air traffic management, dealing with noise-creating footprints e. G. Aircraft Boeing has a footprint of 14 SMS squared, airbus AAA noise footprint 1. Km squared. Travel ; tourism industry the aggregate of all businesses that directly provide goods and services to facilitate business, pleasure ; leisure activities away from home environment (smith 1988) Impacts of tourism = effects of tourism * Positive impacts = benefits of tourism * Negative impacts = costs of tourism * Impacts are often referred to as Sculptural Impacts, Environmental Impacts, Cocoon Impacts.
Model a theoretical system of relationships, which tries to capture the essential elements In a real word situation. Modes are useful tools for general analysis, discussion and as an aid to understanding more complex systems. System an assemblage or combination of things or parts forming a complex or unitary whole. Descriptive models replicate selected features of a situation ; alma to show how It operates. Predictive models rearrange a descriptive model so that causes ; outcomes can be determined, predictive modes prescribe a pathway towards a certain outcome.
Planning models allow for alternative course tot action to be evaluated. Key issues of models aim to simplify reality, select key issues to prevent ; explore, they deed to be applied, tested and reviewed regularly to maintain relevance. Policy - outlines a series tot desired outcomes and objectives (values) Planning - Examines alternative method of reaching those objectives Tourism Policy and Planning - For both the sort ; long term Is required to balance all stakeholders wants and needs Unplanned Tourism - Uncommon, unpopular, unwanted.
Unhappy most community Has social/environmental/economic impacts Visitor Management - The strategies ; action programs used to control ; influence tourism supply and demands to achieved fines policy goals Planning ; operational techniques - site management ; people management Selective - Targeting visitors who are socially and economically more attractive to a destination or other destination Demarcating - Marketing designed to reduce or regulate the number of people visiting a location Objective - Specific, measurable results that an organization plans to achieve in a given period Strategies - the meaner of achieving objectives Tourism Involves: psychology, sociology, economics, anthropology, business administration, geography, ecology, law and education.
Industry - Refers to a group tit similar economic output in terms of product Tourism Industry - Described in both terms of the production and consumption of goods and services Businesses in Tourism Industry Primary Trade - Transport, Hospitality, attractions, activities and retail Business indirectly involved - Petrol stations, bakeries, car dealer, banks, newsagents rent - Heavily involved but not included as part of the industry Tourism: The sum of government and private sector activities which shape ; serve the needs and manage the consequence of holiday and business travel the central activities so the overspent and private sector include promotion planning, providing services and preventing impacts Hospitality - Specifically refers to a focus on provision of accommodation and commercial catering services Tourist - A person who travels from place to place for non work reasons. Promotion - Structure in the generating region: ticketing services, travel agents, tour operators.
Need to influence potential tourists Transport - All meaner of traveling within the destination Infrastructure - Development that provides for tourism (ranging from large to small) Markets and destinations Markets are where the tourists are before they reach the destination * Market demand is affected by needs and wants * Markets need to be identified and defined * Information about the market needs to be gained Destination - the place that tourists visit and experience Key Characteristics of service - 1. Intangible (can't be sampled) 2. Inseparable (provider is part) 3. Variable (Individual experience) 4. Perishable (can't be warehoused) 6 Steps for Segmentation of Tourist Demand: 1. Identify 2. Profile 3. Rank 4. Select 5. Assign Priorities 6. Access Target Market Models can be: descriptive, predictive, prescriptive and planning
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