In this rapidly-changing environment, one has to keep phase with the developments in the patterns of consumer purchasing behavior, currently of varying degrees and categories, especially if one is in the field of marketing.
The tastes and preferences of the consumers, which we also aptly call as the market demand, is what fuels marketing. The capacity of a company or a firm to determine early-on the demand of the market of responsibility is of an advantage. At the same time, meeting this specific demand will complete the formula to success; otherwise, the extensive marketing research will all be put to waste.
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Bio-cosmetics in the 20th Century: The Response to the Revolution
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Change is everything especially when the universe entered the stage of globalization, where markets across regions face issues of product customization or adaptations according to the needs of the target segments. Exploring further unto this topic will be the main core of this paper which will particularly tackle the status and the progress made by the Bio-cosmetics industry in the 20th century, and how the market has reacted or is reacting to it.
The subject of discussion will delve into the evolution of this trade or field of commerce and what has been the efforts conducted by the involved companies in strengthening their core competencies for survival and competitiveness.
As previously mentioned, the behavior of the target market will be analyzed thoroughly in this paper by demonstrating the qualitative and quantitative aspects of the factors at play. In so doing, it is aimed that the stability of the bio-cosmetics industry be determined and that the prospects for future possible ventures be identified. This consumer behavior study will enable the marketers to garner feedback on this side of the cosmetics industry and leverage on the potential of the business, vis-à-vis the key market segments with strong demand for the bio-cosmetics line of products and services.
Theory and Practices of Negotiation
When you hear the word negotiation, what comes first to mind? Negotiation is almost always an everyday transaction being dealt with by each and every one of us. Indeed, how often do you negotiate - often, seldom, or never?
Everything in life is negotiated, under all conditions, at all times: from asking your parents to bring you to the shopping malls to take out the morning garbage to driving in the express lane in rush-hour traffic, from determining what time to schedule an appointment with a client to deciding which tv show to watch with your family—to some extent, every facet of life is linked with one’s using of negotiation.
Negotiation occurs "whenever people exchange ideas with the intention of changing relationships or whenever they confer for agreement." Another definition expanding slightly the above meaning of negotiation is to note that "negotiation is conducted neither to widen nor to breach the relationship, but to form a new or different configuration." In short, most of us are constantly involved in negotiations to one degree or another for a good part of any given day. Negotiation should be considered as a positive way of structuring the communication process.
It is usually more than helpful in one’s work environment and in closing deals with new clients or prospects. Win-win negotiation skills are assets to a company especially if you will be in-charge of marketing new and pioneer products to the market.
Effective negotiation helps you to resolve situations where what you want conflicts with what someone else wants. The aim of win-win negotiation is to find a solution that is acceptable to both parties, and leaves both parties feeling that they've won, in some way, after the event.
Preparing for a successful negotiation…
Depending on the scale of the disagreement, some preparation may be appropriate for conducting a successful negotiation. For small disagreements, excessive preparation can be counter-productive because it takes time that is better used elsewhere. It can also be seen as manipulative because, just as it strengthens your position, it can weaken the other person’s.
However, if you need to resolve a major disagreement, and then make sure you prepare thoroughly. Using our free worksheet, think through the following points before you start negotiating:
Goals: what do you want to get out of the negotiation? What do you think the other person wants?
Trades: What do you and the other person have that you can trade? What do you each have that the other wants? What are you each comfortable giving away?
Alternatives: if you don’t reach agreement with the other person, what alternatives do you have? Are these good or bad? How much does it matter if you do not reach agreement? Does failure to reach an agreement cut you out of future opportunities? And what alternatives might the other person have?
Relationships: what is the history of the relationship? Could or should this history impact the negotiation? Will there be any hidden issues that may influence the negotiation? How will you handle these?
Expected outcomes: what outcome will people be expecting from this negotiation? What has the outcome been in the past, and what precedents have been set?
The consequences: what are the consequences for you of winning or losing this negotiation? What are the consequences for the other person?
Power: who has what power in the relationship? Who controls resources? Who stands to lose the most if agreement isn’t reached? What power does the other person have to deliver what you hope for?
Possible solutions: based on all of the considerations, what possible compromises might there be?
The negotiation itself is a careful exploration of your position and the other person’s position, with the goal of finding a mutually acceptable compromise that gives you both as much of what you want as possible. People's positions are rarely as fundamentally opposed as they may initially appear - the other person may have very different goals from the ones you expect!
In an ideal situation, you will find that the other person wants what you are prepared to trade, and that you are prepared to give what the other person wants.
If this is not the case and one person must give way, then it is fair for this person to try to negotiate some form of compensation for doing so – the scale of this compensation will often depend on the many of the factors we discussed above. Ultimately, both sides should feel comfortable with the final solution if the agreement is to be considered win-win.
Only consider win-lose negotiation if you don't need to have an ongoing relationship with the other party as, having lost, they are unlikely to want to work with you again. Equally, you should expect that if they need to fulfill some part of a deal in which you have "won," they may be uncooperative and legalistic about the way they do this.
Facets of Negotiation
Negotiation is a peaceable procedure for reconciling, and/or compromising known differences. It is the antithesis of force and violence. A negotiation will be fruitful or completely meaningless, depending upon the existence of two essential elements. There are other less important elements, but two are absolutely essential - Good faith and flexibility. Both must be present on both sides of the table—one without the other on either side is a fatal defect.
Good faith and flexibility cover many facets. By good faith is meant an honest desire to reach agreement on the differences which exist through compromise and a realization that the agreement thus reached should be fair and reasonable for both sides, if the agreement is to endure. A negotiation must not be viewed as an adversary proceeding, such as a case in court, where one party wins and the other loses.
The existence or non-existence of good faith is sometimes difficult to determine with assurance, but there will come a time when a good negotiator will be able to tell if this essential element is missing. The second essential element of flexibility is the heart of a negotiation.
In every negotiation it must be assumed—unless you are dealing with juveniles—that your opposite numbers will always table maximum positions first. Equally important, it must be assumed—unless you are dealing with fools—that your opposite numbers have not disclosed their minimum positions in any manner.
The challenge to the able negotiator, therefore, is to start with the tabled maximum positions and by skillfully using all of the tools in his kit, reach the essence or basic minimum positions upon which an agreement can and should be concluded.
If a negotiator is unable to obtain any concessions whatsoever from the tabled positions, then either the element of flexibility is missing or the negotiator is inept, in which event you find yourself with no negotiation at all.
As in the case of good faith, it may be difficult and time consuming to convince yourself that what you are facing is a set of non-negotiable demands, but here again a good negotiator will see the handwriting on the wall and eventually realize just the situation he is in. The crucial and delicate decision to be made by the negotiator is—are his opponents still negotiating for advantage or is their position truly flexible, as it appears to be?
Thus, it is somewhat naïve to take the position that you will not negotiate on known differences until the other side has given assurances, satisfactory to you, and prior to the negotiations, that the negotiable positions are such that an agreement can be reached.
If the negotiator eventually concludes that these essential elements do not exist, he must proceed to make the record clear for all to see and suspend the so-called negotiations, in a manner which unmistakably places the onus on the non-negotiating party.
Processes of Negotiation
In simplest terms, negotiation is a discussion between two or more disputants who are trying to work out a solution to their problem. Negotiations typically take place because the parties wish to create something new that neither could do on his or her own, or to resolve a problem or dispute between them. The parties acknowledge that there is some conflict of interest between them and think they can use some form of influence to get a better deal, rather than simply taking what the other side will voluntarily give them.
Remember. This is just a sample.
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