Last Updated 03 Jan 2023

A Research on the Relationship Between Gun Ownership and Gun Violence

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This research shows some background knowledge about the relationship between gun control and gun violence and what the implications of gun control and gun ownership in American' lives. Also, the research displays the significant impact of regulation guns on decreasing the rate of deaths and crimes in U.S. Furthermore, some of the solutions that Barak Obama impose to reform gun laws that would help to save more people lives and reduce gun violence and make America safer. These measures that the U.S. President wants to apply would face several obstacles inside the Congress with a Republican majority.

The U.S. Senate has rejected a bill on expanding investigations on the buyer of guns in a blow to advocates plan to tighten the terms of gun acquisition in the U.S. This rejection represented a victory for the pro-gun pressure group has announced that it will stand against any attempt to impose restrictions on the sale of guns or ammunition inside U.S. in violation of the constitutional right to bear arms. However, President Obama vowed to continue the push for the series imposition of reforms to the right of an American citizen in gun ownership, including reducing the murders until the end of his term in 2017.

Unlike theories of advanced democratic countries, United States experiencing multiple cases of killing American citizens each other, which is more percentage than their counterparts in other states. According to Jacobson (2016), president Barack Obama said "Here are the stats: Per population, we kill each other with guns at a rate 297 x more than Japan, 49x more than France, 33x more than Israel" (para. 2).

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With increasing the cases of murder as a result of the proliferation of firearms among American people, based on the right that guaranteed by the Constitution of the citizen to keep and bear arms, which became rooted in American culture, and desire of the president to impose more restrictions on this right, Both houses of the U.S. Congress (The House of Representatives and Senate), and Under control of the Republic in the wake of congressional midterm elections on November 2, 2014, refused Obama's desire that announced in a speech for him on Tuesday, January 5 for a range of measures through executive order that imposes restrictions on the right to own a gun. However, despite the agreement of the Americans on the restrictions on carrying guns, but they refuse to have this without the consent of Congress through executive orders issued by President.

According to Newport 2016, the percentage of the rejection of President issuing executive orders to modify gun ownership law reached 51% and approval 44% in the same poll (para.10). But given the previous polls about imposing restrictions on carrying a gun, the highest percentage was of the pollster surveyed refuse to set restrictions which are a ratio decreases with the incidents of murder.In this case, we will show the significant impact of gun control in reducing gun violence and mass shootings besides gun-related deaths, and we will talk about some solutions that might help us to reduce gun violence and keep our children, family, and friends more safe from guns and criminals in this beautiful country.

Gun law passed by US Constitution as a right of the citizens, to become U.S. the only industrial country in the world that allows its citizens to carry guns in the streets, which is rooted in American culture. The law falls within the framework of respect for individual freedom. Considered attempts to reducing access to the guns of proposals that candidates lose votes. However, increasing the bloody events of violence that left behind shooting incidents individually inside American society led to increased heightened voices demanding a review of the gun law legislation in U.S. to reduce gun violence.

The study in these three articles showed the relationship between the strength of gun control legalization and gun violence, and what the implications behind gun control law and gun ownership on gun-related deaths. The majority of researchers are split into two groups: the first and second articles focused on the effectiveness of gun regulation in reducing gun-related facilities. However, the third article is a debate between people, who with and against tighten gun control law in U.S to reduce gun crimes.

In "should congress pass stronger gun laws?" article, Kellydiscussed the position that Congress should be taken towards gun violence in America, and showed his support for putting stronger gun control laws and expanded background checks on firearm purchases to reduce gun violence and mass shooting. The author discussion focused on the Second Amendment Rights, which is the right of gun ownership in the U.S. These laws aren't dangerous as putting people lives at risk because the fail of responsible people to stand up for the laws that would keep people, who commit mass murder away from guns. For example, after Sandy Hook school incidents, which left behind 20 kids and six teachers dead by guns (Kelly, 2013, p. 22).

Kelly realized that there is a problem with gun violence in American society and the needs of Congress to act. Rights demand responsibility, so it does not extend to criminals, mentally ill, or terrorists. As a result, people will not be safe in public places, such as worshipping at church, movie theater, and conducting their daily business when dangerous people get guns, even people in campus or school would be all vulnerable. The researcher showed some solutions that help people, whatever call themselves pro-gun or anti-gun violence to pass the laws that can save more people's live. Some of the solutions are fixing background checks and enables healthcare providers to report the names of mentally ill patients to an FBI guns background check system (p. 22-26).

Kelley said," The lethality of the firearms we permit to be legally bought and sold. You can't just walk into a store and buy a machine gun, but you can easily buy a semi- automatic high velocity assault rifle and/or high capacity ammunition magazines. We should come together and decide where to draw that line in such a way that it protects our rights and communities alike" (p. 26).Finally, America and Congress can find a common sense agreement on preventing firearms violence and protecting American Inviolable Second Amendment rights when public places and children's school are at risk (Kelly, 2013, p 26).

Similarly, Lemieux agrees with Kelly, in his article "Effect of gun culture and firearm laws on gun violence and mass shootings in the United States: A multi-level quantitative analysis". Lemieux (2014), conducted a study in order to determine the relationship between gun control laws and gun culture on gun-related fatalities and mass shooting. For instance, some of the reports published that between 198 and 2012, they estimate at least 78 public mass shootings happened. These violent incidents resulted in the death of more than 540 victims and injured 480 persons. Therefore, the quantitative analysis points out that the legislative proposal, and there are four popular proposal of gun control, the first one is tighten up our background check system. Then, expand background checks.

Next, prevent suspected terrorists from buying guns. Finally, prevent suspected terrorists from buying guns. Also, the quantitative analysis points out the culture proposal, which is the right of American to bear arms. Both of these proposals have significant impacts on gun-related fatalities. While the legislative perspective seems to be related to a decrease in deaths by mass shootings and guns, the culture explanation associated with an increase in deaths by guns (p.74).

Several cases of mass shootings have shown evidence that shooters had existing records of mental illness and were known to utilize psychiatric services. This observation raises the debate in gun control legislation about who should be granted access to firearms (Lemieux, 2014, p. 76).

The researcher showed the impact of gun control regulations on gun violence. For example, one of the studies showed the process of passing gun control legislation has a significant impact on the homicide that committed with guns, so the rate of homicide drops of 5% to 10%. However, the mass shooting that happened in Australia caused to injured 37 people and killed 35 people. Australia adoption a new gun control laws after this tragedy in 1996. After reforming gun laws, the statistic showed the rate of firearm-related homicides declined by 7.5%.

Also, gun-related suicides decreased by 59% between 1997 and 2004, while the rate of other suicides decreased by 24.5%, which means no substitution effect (Lemieux, 2014, p. 76-77). Furthermore, the author discussed if there are a relationship between gun culture and gun violence. The pro-gun group said that the mass shooting and gun violence not because of ownership of firearms, but it's due to the violent culture. Lemieux said " the results that nations with the highest levels of gun ownership tend to have higher political and civil freedom, greater economic mobility and prosperity, and much less corruption than other nations. This relationship only exists for high gun ownership countries" (Lemieux, 2014, p. 78-79). Finally, the study found that gun ownership is the best predictor of deaths by guns. In the Southern region of U.S. gun culture prevalent is related with and estimate the murders by guns.

Also, some of the analyses showed that gun control legislation reduced gun-related fatalities. For example, in U.S. during the 10-year-long on assault guns, the number of victims, injuries, and mass shooting decrease significantly more than the 10-year periods that preceded firearm ban. Therefore, some of the implications of gun regulation and policy are that there is no indicator that more armed citizens or armed guards stopped or reduced the number of the 73 mass shooting. (Lemieux, 2014, p 90-91).As we can see, the results showed that the limitation of guns' capacity is clearly related to fewer victims, regardless what type of guns is used by the shooters. The more restrictive gun regulations, the more save of people's lives beyond mass shooting and gun violence. Also, it can counterbalance the fatal impacts of a violent gun culture (Lemieux, 2014, p. 91).

In "Gun control" article that wrote by Mantel, there is a debate over gun control law, which has been unable to be avoided after the mass shooting tragedy happened in December 2012 at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. The incident happened when a 20-year old man named Adam Lanza killed six adults and 20 first-graders. Lanza committed suicide by shooting himself in the head. For the moment, there are more than 1000 gun-related bills have been presented in state Congresses, but New York was the only state that passed one to date (Mantel, B, 2013, p. 235).“That wasn't just a killing. That was a massacre," said Neil Heslin, who lost his 6-year-old son, Jesse Lewis. Heslin told lawmakers that private citizens have no need for assault weapons like the one Lanza used to kill his son(Mantel, 2013, p. 235).

A study found that there is no evidence of decreasing homicide rate after Brady act, which known as Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act. It is an act of the U.S. Congress that gives federal background checks on gun purchasers in the U.S. and forced a five-day waiting period on purchases until the NICS system was implemented in 1998. The study showed the difference between the rate of homicide in 23 states that affected by the Brady act and the rate of homicide in 18 states that also had similar laws on the books. However, the rates of homicide were dropping before the Brady act passed.

The experts said this is due to changes in policing, increased imprisonment rates, and the end of the crack cocaine epidemic. They found that both groups of states have similar trends of homicide rates after the Brady Act was passed. Cook blames "the private-sale loophole" primarily for the Brady Act's lack of detectable impact on homicide rates. “And we can close that,” he says. In addition, a majority of adults who end up committing a crime with a gun did not fall into any of the categories that would have disqualified them from buying the gun, says Cook. “In Cook County [Ill.] data, only 40 percent of defendants in murder cases were disqualified by having a felony conviction." (Mantel, B, 2013, p. 240-241). Mantel (2013), discussed if the ban on assault weapons, would reduce gun violence or not. For example, On December 20, Jacob Tyler Roberts, 22-year-old, used an automatic M- 16 rifle in Oregon shopping mall, and he killed two people and injured another before killing himself. Also, James Holmes, 24-year-old, used a 12-gauge shotgun and wounding 58 and killed 12 people in a Colorado movie theater (p. 238).

While the ban was in effect, "the percentage of crime guns that were assault weapons went down by a third or more," says Christopher Koper, the report's principal investigator and a professor of criminology at George Mason University in Fairfax, Va. However, prior to the ban assault weapons had been used in only a small fraction of gun crimes — about 2 percent — his study showed (Mantel, 2013, p. 238). Thus, what the study found is that banning assault weapons would help to reduce the firearm deaths, but not reducing the rate of crimes. Koper says. “People could substitute other guns for the ones that were banned. But by forcing that substitution, we thought it could reduce the number of gunshots and the number of victims.” (Mantel, 2013, p. 239).

Overall, increasing the bloody events of violence that left behind shooting incidents individually inside American society led to increased heightened voices demanding a review of the gun law legislation in U.S. to reduce gun violence. The review of the literature detects that the first two articles showed a positive correlation between the impact of gun control legalization or strict gun control on reducing gun violence and mass shooting. Also, increasing gun-related deaths associated with American gun culture or with the lax of gun laws in some states in U.S. However, in the last article, the debate showed different opinions of tightening gun restrictions. The first side believed that gun control legislation could help to reduce gun violence crimes by expanded background checks on guns and legislate stricter gun laws. On the other hand, the second group, who advocates against gun control, said that backing for a more controversial ban on assault weapons is slim in reducing gun violence.

Also, they see that gun doesn't kill people, but people do. Constitution of the citizen to keep and bear arms, which became rooted in American culture. However, the picture expresses clearly the Idea of this image that might gun control in public places is not a solution to stop gun related deaths. When we look at this picture that show two different mass shootings, we will recognize the problem of gun control, wouldn't help that much in a position like this. Regulation guns could be great to make it harder for the criminal to buy a gun legally. The criminal can also get illegal guns in a much easier way by the internet or from the black market. Already most of the gun- related crimes are committed by criminals with illegal guns. The question here is gun control or restriction guns mean it also harder to get guns illegally? The answer is absolutely not, criminals have always the ability to get guns no matter in an illegal or legal way, so if the government imposed gun control law to all people, people wouldn't have a chance to protect themselves from these dangerous criminals, especially, in public places. This what the picture is trying to say that most mass shootings are happened at school, where self defends is prohibited.

As a result, the Second Amendment Right is for dummies and this is exactly what the picture showed, so the purpose from this is that we should arm the teachers in all schools to protect themselves and to protect the children's lives from criminals. Also, we understand from this picture is sometimes gun control law cannot prevent criminals from killing and also cannot prevent the mass shooting, but if we just do a background check on the gun's buyers and addressing mental health issues that might help to reduce gun crimes. Clearly, the image message is to clarify the decision of the Second Amendment or applying gun control law on all people, and in all public places is not the best solution to make the state safer because not all people can protect themselves from criminals without a weapon.

In America, more than 30,000 committed suicides and 30,000 Americans people have died by guns (Obama, 2016, p. 70). What we can recognize from these statistics is that U.S have a problem with gun violence. As a result, increasing the bloody events and the mass shootings that left hundreds of people died led to tightening up people voices to take actions and common-sense steps to reduce gun violence. One of the most controversial issues nowadays is gun violence, and here is the question, is gun control laws is the best way to reduce gun violence? While some people believe that gun is not a weapon, and gun control will not work to reduce gun violence because violence people don't need a gun to be violent, the other side of people believe that guns are dangerous because the main purpose guns are made for is to kill people and many people are getting killed with guns.

Therefore, gun control laws would be a good solution that can make guns harder to own, buy, and carry from dangerous people or people who are mentally ill or have a temper problem. America could be a much safer place if the country and the people agree to pass the laws that can save more people lives. In this case, we should look at all aspects of the impact of gun control on reducing gun violence, and some of the solutions that would help to reduce gun violence by reforming gun laws or passing the laws that can save more people lives.

First of all, the question that everyone ask is," do gun control work in reducing gun violence and mass shooting?" Australia 1996, In Port Arthur, a mass shooting that killed 35 people and injured 37, which resulted in 1996 in the adoption of major gun control laws and halt gun ownership in the country. After reforming gun laws, the statistic showed the rate of gun-related homicides decline by 7.5%. Also, gun-related suicides decline by 59% between 1997 and 2004, while the rate of other suicides decreased by 24.5%, which means no substitution effect (Lemieux, 2014, p. 77). Therefore, some people think that gun control or reforming gun laws doesn't have an effect on reducing the rate of gun violence or crime- related deaths. However, according to Lemieux (2014), found that the gun' buybacks contributed to a decline in gun suicide rates by almost 80% with no significant impact on non-gun death rates. The effect on firearm homicides followed a similar correlation.

Furthermore, he pointed out that before 18 years of reforming gun law, there were 13 mass shootings, but the next 10.5 years following the legalization of the 1996-gun control law, there were O mass shootings in Australia. What we have to understand that there are other factors that must be taken beside gun control law to explain the decline rate in mass shooting since was also a drop in mass shootings in New Zealand during the same period, where no drastic gun control law was passed. For instance, the incidents of violent influenced by employment levels and economic cycle that may have an effect on variations levels of mass shootings and violent crime (p. 77).

Also, we can explain the variations in gun violence rates by cultural characteristics between countries or regions. One of the major disadvantages of free access to guns is the unlawful premeditated killing that committed by juveniles. Shootings in school without the doubt are not a new phenomenon in U.S, and it's is a part of gun ownership policy. Secondly, if you live in America, you will understand the concept of gun culture. This horrible massacres at schools are the problem that origins are deeply rooted in the upbringing of kids and in the family background as well as in the free approach to carrying guns. For example, Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticutis one of the most horrible tragedies that happened in December 2012.

The mass shooting that happened in this school left six teachers and 20children dead. For the moment, there are more than 1000 gun-related bills have been presented in state Congresses, but New York was the only state that passed one to date (Mantel, B, 2013, p. 235). "That wasn't just a killing. That was a massacre," said Neil Heslin, who lost his 6-year-old son, Jesse Lewis. Heslin told lawmakers that private citizens have no need for assault weapons like the one Lanza used to kill his son (Mantel, B, 2013, p 235). The mass shootingsthat happened at school renewed debate about gun control law, which has recently created a large uproar throughout America, people think that the Second Amendment is for dummies and if they pass gun control law, they will not be able to protect themselves from criminals.

According to (Jacobs, 2012), that the tragic mass killings at that Connecticut school will undoubtedly spur renewed calls for gun control. According to one criminologist, that would be a welcome but somewhat ironic development, since mass school shootings seldom provide compelling evidence in favor of more restrictions on weapons. The scholarly journal American Behavioral Scientist devoted two issues in 2009 to the 10th anniversary of the Columbine High School mass killings and what, if anything, we have learned from them. Gary Kleck, professor of criminology and criminal justice at Florida State University, contributed an essay in which he called mass school shootings "the worst possible case for gun control" (para. 1-2)

On the other hand, After the incident, Obama made a speech about gun control and taking an immediate action to stop gun violence in U.S. The Actions that management intends to apply are through executive orders, not a legislation issued by the Congress that provides the background check for everyone who wants to purchase at a gun show or by the internet. From the White House, Congress invested 500$ million in addressing mental health issues, and include funding to recruit 200 FBI agents in the security forces to implement these new laws. In return, the President would order all of Defense Ministry, Judiciary, and Internal Security a procedure or care of a new research in the protection of gun technology ("FACT SHEET: New executive actions to reduce gun violence and make our communities safer," 2016). These measures would lead to smoother actions for the gun law-abiding gun owners, and stronger procedures for making people safer and to protect them from dangerous criminals (Obama, 2016, p 72).

Clearly, some of the gun's control proposal measures that would have been futile for stopping either the mass shootings at a school or Columbineof the late 1990s, it might be completely sensible measures for preventing and protecting people from ordinary gun violence. If you hear the argument about "Gun control wouldn't have prevented tragedies like the one in Connecticut,” The answer to this question is probably not false. However, it would reduce the probability of a lot of other, smaller incidents that receive less public attention but still cause a huge pain for Americans family who lost their children (Jacobs, 2012, para. 10- 13).

So,gun control laws will play a significant major in reducing the crime and murder rate. Another thing," if we love our kids and care about their prospects, and if we love this country and care about its future, then we can find the courage to vote. We can find the courage to get mobilized and organized ", Obama said (Obama, 2016, p 73). We can see here Obama as a President of U.S. decided to take meaningful actions against gun ownership to prevent gun violence and mass shootings, regardless of the politics. He vowed to use his power of his office to change America positively. As a result, there are some actions that President Obama took, which could help to reduce gun violence and protect our kids and all Americans after what happened at Sandy Hook elementary school. Some people think that tighten up the rules and the system of guns, will not help to reduce gun violence because criminals have the ability to get guns no matter in an illegal or legal way.

Therefore, people in public places, will not be able to protect themselves and protect their family, and this choice of gun control will not help to reduce gun violence and gun related deaths. In contrast, anti- gun violence people believe that some of the Second Amendment measures could help to reduce gun violence and gun-related fatalities in America. People know that no one can take their rights or guns away, but they have to know that the Second Amendment rights are not at risk, but people lives at risk when responsible people don't stand up for laws that will keep guns away from criminals, who use them to commit mass murder (Kelly, 2013, P 20). Americans are responsible for solutions to put a limit on gun violence and mass shootings, and they have to realize that they have a big problem with gun violence, and they need to the Congress to act on this issue. Firstly, one of the Obama's proposals that can help to prevent more deaths is background check system.

For example, people who work in selling guns must get a background check and licenses, or be subject to criminal prosecutions. No matter where they do it over the internet or at the gun show, but what they do. Also, expanding background checks to discover violent criminals who try to buy guns by hiding behind trusts and various cutouts and corporations. Try to take some steps to make background check system works more efficiently, and funding to recruit FBI agents in the security forces to implement these new laws and to process the applications faster. These steps will help to a smoother process for law-abiding gun owners, and these stronger process will help to protect people in public places from criminals and lead to a smoother process for responsible gun dealers (Obama, 2016, p72).

Secondly, we can treat mental illness issues as a solution to reduce gun violence. There is a study showed that 56% of the majority of shooters had suffered from mental illness, and a few categories of domestic-violence offenders or were involved in an intense divorce/ custody battle (Kelly, 2013, p 91). According to Obama (2016), people who suffering from mental illness need to get more help as they need. Few people with mental illness are associated with the high profile of mass shootings because they tend to inflict harm on people. In fact, almost two in three gun deaths are from suicides, so we need also to work to prevent people, who want to hurt themselves. That's why we made sure to the implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

In addition, Congress invested 500$ million in addressing mental health issues to increase assess to mental health care (p. 72).Obama said, "we're going to ensure that federal mental health records are submitted to the background check system, and remove barriers that prevent states from reporting relevant information. If we can continue to destigmatize mental health issues, get folks proper care, and fill gaps in the background check system, then we can spare more families the pain of losing a loved one to suicide." (p.72). Thirdly, gun control law doesn't mean banning all guns or take it away from people, but it means that certain types of guns should not be available to access for everyone, especially in public places. For instance, some specific types of guns like M19 or assault weapons shouldn't be available in public places, like schools, restaurants, and parks because it's not used to hunt or it's not a self-defense tool in public place.

In short, gun control is necessary to make America safer place for all people. Without gun control laws, a gun can get in the wrong people' hands. Also, without background checks and medical checks, any mental illness person can get a gun easily. In general, having a gun where most people can get it is still unsafe for everyone. Even though many people believe that gun ownership would be for the benefit of the people, I do not think that is the best solution to protect people from dangerous.

The measures that the President seek to impose on American gun ownership right will have negative political impacts in the Democratic Party, as the President's determination to introduce reforms in the possession of the gun, which is a constitutional right and rooted in American culture, to bypass Congress with the Republic majority and the refusal of those reforms by issuing executive orders to enhance the chances of winning the Republican candidate in the upcoming elections.

Therefore, they exploited the issue to win the votes of those opposed to such reforms, and who wants to continue to enjoy the American citizen's Constitutional right to gun ownership, which puts the Democratic candidate most likely to win the party card in the next election, Hillary Clinton in trouble for supporting the administration's efforts to impose some restrictions on the right to bear arms, especially, with not a small figure of refusal of the Democrats to impose restrictions on the right of gun ownership. As we can see, the attempts to limit access to these guns is one of the proposals that candidates lose votes. The midst of a presidential race led the Democratic candidates, who endorsing gun control, cost them votes, like what happened with Hillary Clinton, who lost the election, and that showed how Americans cling to guns.

However, people will not be safe in public places, such as worshipping at church, movie theater, and conducting their daily business when dangerous people get guns, even people in campus or school would be all vulnerable. Overall, People have to realize that gun control laws have significant impactto reduce gun violence and gun related-deaths in America, and people, whatever call themselves pro-gun or anti-gun violence haveto pass the laws that can save more people's live. Some of the solutions that would help to reduce gun violence are fixing background checks and treat mental illness conditions or improve the mental health care system.

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