?APTER I. INTRODUCTION
Discussion text is discuss about problem or issue with give two viewpoint from those issue and also give conclusions or recommendation from issue that was pointed.
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Discussion is not limited to controversial issues – although polarized views may make it easier to teach completing a for-and-against ‘skeleton’ to bring issues from another area of the curriculum into literacy learning) Expository text is a type of writing where the purpose is to inform, describe, explain, or define the author's subject to the reader Analytical exposition is one of classified type and to present arguments for supporting the issued thesis, analytical will end with a re-iterat Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way, and also hortatory will try to persuade the reader how should or not do concerning the writer’s idea.
B. Solving Problem
Remember that is large enough about the paper about discussion text and expository text, so that the writer limits to discuss this paper below:
- 1. What is definition of discussion text?
- 2. What this general structure of discussion texts?
- 3. What this Language feature of discussion texts?
- 4. What is definition of expository texts?
- 5. What is different between analytical exposition and hortatory exposition?
C. Propose of Discussion
- 1. We can explain about discussion text
- 2. We can define about structure of discussion text
- 3. We can define about expository text
- 4. We can differ between analytical exposition and hortatory exposition
DISCUSSION DISCUSSION TEXS AND EXPOSITORY TEXS A. DISCUSSION TEXS
1. Definition and purpose of discussion texts Discussion text is discuss about problem or issue with give two viewpoint from those issue and also give conclusions or recommendation from issue that was pointed. One important point to keep in mind for the author is to try to use words that clearly show what they are talking about rather than blatantly telling the reader what is being discussed. Discussion texts generally make use of formal and impersonal language to demonstrate objectivity.
They can sometimes combine other modes of communication (visual images, diagrams) with written text in order to present the range of viewpoints and the evidence for them. Discussion is not limited to controversial issues – although polarized views may make it easier to teach completing a for-and-against ‘skeleton’ to bring issues from another area of the curriculum into literacy learning). In contrast, critically evaluative responses to a text may lead to a discussion of subtleties within it. The purpose of this texts is to discussion presents differing opinion, viewpoint or perspectives on an issue, enabling the leader to explore different ideas before making an informed decision.
2. Structure of discussion texts. There are four parts of discussion texts, such as:
- a. A statement of position supplying necessary background information. In this case, a discussion begins with a brief introduction describing the situation. This Introduction recognizes that there are two foints of view.
- b. Arguments for an supporting evidence. In this case, the next view paragraphs elaborate the arguments for the issue, based on researching, surveying or interviewing people.
- c. Arguments against and supporting evidence. In this case, the next set of paragraphs describes the arguments against the issue, based on researching, surveying or interviewing people.
Each paragraph should be clearly structured with a topic sentence supported by details. The supporting material could be reported speech reflecting comments. Specialist who has responded to the issue, or supporting evidence from research or surveys. Thinking and action verbs are used to persuasively establish and evaluate each argument.
- d. A Recommendation or conclusions. In this case, the discussion ended by presenting a personal point of view before concluding. A recommendation or conclusions sometimes sums up both side of the argument if they are fairly balanced or can recommend one arguments over the other if the evidence is overwhelming.
3. Language feature of discussion texts. There some language features of discussion texts are often used but not always such as:
- a. Use of Simple present tense
- b. Use of Generic participants. Example: people; scientists; smokers
- c. Use of Logical connectives to link argument.Example: therefore, however
- d. Use of general nouns to make specific statement Example: Machines, cars and many other
- e. Use of Emotive language
- f. Use of relating verbs. Example: is,
- g. Use of thinking verbs that express a personal point of view. Example: consider, contemplate
- h. Use of conjunctions to link clauses. Example: but, and, while, when. And many others.
- i. Use of detailed noun group. Example:
- j. Use of varying degrees of certainty ( modality ) Example:
- k. Use of adverbs of manner. Example: honestly, badly and many others.
- l. Use of abstract and terminology.
- m. Use of saying verbs to quote.
- n. Use of quote and reported speech. Example: Mr white, when interviewed said……
- o. Use of factual adjective
- p. Use of adjective expressing an opinion Example: horrifying advantage
- q. Use of comparative adjective Example: significant, more significant, most significant From the language features above it’s easy for us to make or understand about discussion texts.
4. Here some examples of discussion texts Convenience or Care? When something issued by someone, we say it has been consumed.
We as consumers use many things, both natural and processed. We consume more of the Earth’s resources than other animals do and, as a result, we cause problems for the environment. Like all animals, we need clean air and water, food and shelter for survival. Unlike other animals, however, we have certain “want”. These are items that are not necessary for our survival, but that we want because they make our lives easier or more enjoyable. Environments claims that a great deal of waste is created by both the production and the consumption of these items or product. Disposable products, such a pens, take away food containers, plates, shavers and cutlery, are made using the Earth’s resources.
When these products are thrown away, the resources are lost. Another example of waste is the unnecessary packaging on many products. The material is often not recycled and used again. Throwing thing away also increases pollution. The amount of disposable plastic litter that ends up in waterways is a serious problem. When this waste reaches the oceans, it can kill marine life. Industrialist counters these arguments with their own point of view. They claim that consumer’s expect to be able to purchase food which is attractively presented, prepackaged to extent its life and easy to store. In a busy society, convenience is a priority. Products which make life easier, era in demand.
Industrialist argues that they cater to this perceived need. Packaging is also big business and provides jobs for many people who might otherwise be unemployed and a burden to society. Environmentalist declares that for thousands of year, people survived perfectly well with re-usable products. However, people of the twenty-first century have become used to wing in a ‘thrown-away’ society. It is up to each one of us to dispose of waste products carefully, recycle as much as possible and to reduce the stress on our environment. Think when buying pre-packaged goods and consider whether the same products can be bought without the extra wrappings. Let’s make the best of what we have.
5. EXPOSITORY TEXT
Expository text is a type of writing where the purpose is to inform, describe, explain, or define the author's subject to the reader. Expository text is meant to deposit information and is the most frequently used type of writing by students in elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities. A well-written exposition remains focused on its topic and lists events in chronological order.
There are two kinds of expository texts, such as: 1. Analytical Exposition Text
A. Definitions Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer’s idea about phenomenon surrounding.
Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important matter or to persuade the reader or listener that something is the case. Analytical exposition is one of classified type and to present arguments for supporting the issued thesis, analytical will end with a re-iteration. And also will try to influence the reader by presenting some argument to prove that the writer’ idea is important.
B. General structure of Analytical Exposition This places the writer’s position on the essay. From the generic structure, what make big different is
- a)Thesis is introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position, it’s mean that pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. Writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic.
- b)Argument 1 is explaining the argument to support the writer’s position, it’s presenting arguments in analytical exposition text is as important as giving conflict plot in narrative text. The series of argument will strengthen the thesis stated before.
- c)Argument 2 is explaining the other arguments the writer’s position.
- d)Reiteration is restating the writer’s position, the end paragraph actually is restating the thesis. It’s something like conclusive paragraph from the previous arguments.
C. Significant Lexica grammatical Features
- a)Use of simple present tense
- b)Use of relational processes
- c)Use of internal conjunction to state argument
- d)Reasoning through causal conjunction or nominalization.
D. Example of analytical exposition Is smoking well for us?
Before we are going to smoke, it is better to look at the fact. About 50 thousands people die every year in Britain as direct result of smoking. This is seven times as many die in road accidents. Nearly a quarter of smokers die because of diseases caused by smoking. Ninety percent of lung cancers are caused by smoking. If we smoke five cigarettes a day, we are six times more likely to die of lung cancer than a non smoker. If we smoke twenty cigarettes a day, the risk is nineteen greater.
Ninety five percent of people who suffer of bronchitis are people who are smoking. Smoking are two and half times more likely to die of heart disease than non smokers. Additionally, children of smoker are more likely to develop bronchitis and pneumonia. In one hour in smoky room, non smoker breathes as substance causing cancer as if he had smoked fifteen cigarettes. Smoking is really good for tobacco companies because they do make much money from smoking habit. Smoking however is not good for every body else. From the example above, we can determine that in this pre-conclusive paragraph states the writer’s point of view about the topic discussed. The writer has show himself in clear position of the discussed topic.
Paragraph 1 is the thesis of this analytical exposition text. It states the fact of the very fatal impact of the smoking habit. Clearly the writer wants to say that smoking is not a good habit. In the paragraph 2 and 3 are the detail arguments presented in a reporting fact to support that smoking is not good even for smokers themselves. Furthermore, people who don’t smoke but they are in smoky area have the bad effect too from the smoking habit. The last paragraph of this example of analytical exposition points again that smoking is not good for smokers and people around smokers. However smoking is very good for cigarette companies. 2. Expository Hortatory Exposition.
- a.Definition of hortatory exposition Hortatory exposition is a text which represent the attempt of writer to have the addressee do something or act in certain way, and also hortatory will try to persuade the reader how should or not do concerning the writer’s idea.
- b. General structure of hortatory exposition
There are three structure of Hortatory Exposition such as:
- a)Thesis is similar to tentative conclusion which needs to be proven by certain fact and argument. In the end it can be true or false.
- b)Arguments is the phase which thy to examine and support that the thesis stated above is true.
- c)Recommendation, this is what should or should not be done in the hortatory text.
This recommendation is differentiating from analytical exposition. c. Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition
- a)Focusing on the writer
- b)Using abstract noun are policy, advantage many other.
- c)Using action verb
- d)Using thinking verb
- e)Using modal adverb are certainly, surely and many other.
- f)Using temporal connective words are like important, valuable, and trustworthy and many others.
- g)Using passive voice
- h)Using simple present tense.
d. Example of Hortatory Exposition Why Should Wearing a Helmet When Motorcycling We often hear lots of stories from road regarding people talking spill on motorcycle when they are riding without using helmet. Mostly the riders badly end up in mess.
Wearing a fitted protective helmet offers many benefits which reduces the negative aspects of riding. First and the most important is that wearing the correct helmet can save a rider’s life, physical ability, family pain, and money. The recommended designs of motorcycle helmets can provide total protection. They not only protect riders from getting a worse road injured accident but also from flying bugs, such as rain, sleet, mud and other potential projectiles. Second, wearing a helmet can gives the raiders a matter of style. Helmets give the opportunity for rider to express the image they may want to project when riding on they way. This benefit may not be important to some people, but to other, it means a lot of and important.
By choosing the most appropriate helmet from all of the various styles, such as beanie, Shorty, German, and many others, wearing a helmet which can projecting an image is an inherent crucial part of motorcycling and help riders feel more confident when riding on the road. However, what most important is wearing helmet when riding is a matter of using it property. Bikers should use the helmets which are fixed to their head. It is really not good if they places simply the helmets on the head without setting them property. The bikers should fasten the helmet correctly to their head in order to get safe and comfort. From the example of above, we can understand that in the first paragraph is thesis. the importance of wearing helmet which is stated in the first paragraph”. The second paragraph is argumentative because of wearing helmet gives a total protection and giving a chance in imaging self form of argumentative. The last paragraph is form of recommendation, we can know from bikers should wear helmet property to get the benefit. ?
CAPTER III CONCLUTION
Discussion text is discuss about problem or issue with give two viewpoint from those issue and also give conclusions or recommendation from issue that was pointed. The purpose of this texts is to discussion presents differing opinion, viewpoint or perspectives on an issue, enabling the leader to explore different ideas before making an informed decision.
Expository text is a type of writing where the purpose is to inform, describe, explain, or define the author's subject to the reader. Expository text is meant to deposit information and is the most frequently used type of writing by students in elementary schools, middle schools, high schools, colleges and universities. Analytical exposition is one classified type as hortatory exposition in text genre. Both analytical exposition and hortatory exposition present arguments for supporting the issued thesis. What makes them different from one to each other is the last stage of the text, which the analytical exposition will end with a re-iteration. In the other hand, hortatory will close the essay with a recommendation.
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