Child abuse or neglect is an important issue because it can severely harm the child till he or she grows up. It can cause one’s life to be damaged or cause one to not know how to interact with people and this can make the person miserable. If a child is not treated right from the beginning, it sets off to drastically affect the child’s life. Previous research has shown aspects in which child abuse affects adolescents by causing depression, disability, substance abuse, suicidal behavior, causes individuals to become violent as well.
The purpose of this study is to learn more about how badly child abuse or Neglect could affect or damage ones life. From there, ways and means that will help reduce child abuse or neglect will be derived and one will be able to see how these ways will be a key contributuion to the issue of child abuse or neglect. Therefore the research question for this study is “ What are the Negative Effects of child abuse or neglect on Children and adolescents?” Hypothesis: Some abuse might result in causing death while other abuses have a significant effect on the lives of the children. Certain effects of child abuse are, developmental delays, attention deficits, poorer social skills, and less emotional stability, physical aggression and antisocial behavior and many more.
Article 1: In the study “The Role of Child Abuse and Neglect In The Sensitization to Stressful Life Events in Adolescent Depression”, The researches used in conducting this study shows that stress plays a huge role in depression and the role of stress and depression changes anytime depression reoccurs, therefore, stress sensitization may be useful in understanding a disorders etiology and the pathology of depression on requirements, for example, research people who have experienced a major depression one will be consuming in as much stress as they consumed when they had their first depression.
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Hypothesis: It was predicted that amount depressed adults those with a history of child abuse or neglect will be associated with a lower level of event threat prior to the beginning symptoms, particularly among those on a recurrent episode of depression.
Methods: A total of 103 adolescents from a midsize community in Ontario, Canada were used as participants in this study. 98% of the participants were white and 2% of them were Hipic or Asian. Adolescents in the non-depressed group where we recruited from local high schools and they had to be free of any current or past psychiatric diagnosis while adolescents in the depressed group had to meet the DSM-4 criteria for non-bipolar mood disorder which has been concurrent for less than 2 years. Informed consent was signed by either the participant or legal guardian of some participants who were under 18. The participants were provided by diagnostics interview and questionnaire in the beginning. They had a second session in one to two weeks later and they were asked about life events and childhood history. Participants were paid $20 and treatment was provided to participants in the depressed group who were not receiving Mental Health Services.
Data analysis: They contacted two factorial analysis of covariance to test the hypothesis
Results/findings/conclusion: They found that it is possible that maltreatment is related to the sensitization of life events through the difficulties such that when a person goes through a first major depression the stress from the previous abuse affects how much effects that depression will have on the person. So if a non-victim of child neglect goes through depression he or she will find it much easier to deal with it that a person who has been through child neglect.
Article 2: “Abuse or neglect as cause for disability”. There is no hypothesis for this article as it explores the effect of child abuse. it is coupled with evidence or examples of pervasive disability and how it affects victims of child abuse or neglect. It also explores the effects of child physical abuse as well as child neglect. This article generally provides information that can be used as evidence to prove the effect of child neglect. It shows how child neglect negatively affects intellectual development and social functioning. Toward the end, the treatment which provides ways that one can be able to use to treat himself or herself in order to feel better can be found. In the conclusion, it mentions how the contribution of child maltreatment to disability is expensive and damaging, it also mentions that some aspects of child neglect contribute to childhood disability and abusive events. It mentions how the prevention of child abuse and neglect will help reduce the number of cases that occur.
Article 3:Childhood Neglect, Internalizing Symptoms and Adolescent Substance Use: Does The Neighbourhood Context Matter?
Hypothesis: The deeper the child neglect that happens in early childhood, the more likely it is to affect adolescents by making them have internalizing symptoms as compared to the level of intensity of child neglect in late childhood. They also predicted that internalizing symptomatology would mediate the relationship between the severity of early childhood neglect and substance abuse in late-adolescence depending on how disorganized one's neighbourhood is. Their last prediction is that higher neighbourhood disorganization would predict the association between internalizing symptoms and substance abuse.
Method: The Data for this experiment was obtained from the longitudinal studies on child abuse and neglect the consortium of studies. A total of 1354 youth and primary caretakers were selected, but they dropped people who were victims of both child neglect and additional maltreatment which is not a part of child neglect. they were then down to 965 youth after dropping those who did not meet their requirements for the experiment. They created 2 groups which are maltreated and non-maltreated groups. they began collecting data from when the children were age 4 and they collected data every 2 years until the children became 18 years of age. And the participant's legal guardians signed an informed consent form. at each data collection point, the primary caregiver was interviewed and the researcher also checked child protective services to look up any history of child neglect or abuse that might have occurred.
Data Analysis: models were created using a structural equation modelling framework and a confirmatory factor analysis was used to create a measurement model for substance abuse.
Results/conclusion: The results of the study supported the hypothesis, the only difference is that they found out that higher levels of internalizing symptoms were related to a higher frequency of substance use in less disordered neighbourhoods.
Article 5: “History of Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Suicidal Behavior at Hospital Admission” : Previous research has shown how Studies have been conducted on finding Ways and means in which suicidal behaviours and actions can be reduced. Some researches have focused on detecting risk factors that lead to the event of suicide but this study has chosen to focus on the relationship between child abuse or neglect and suicide. There is no hypotheses to this study by the purpose of the study investigate whether the history of childhood abuse or neglect at the time of admission of psychiatric patients was associated with suicide attempts on suicidal ideation.
Methods: The participants selected are victims of major patients of major psychiatric disorders who were admitted into a psychiatric unit from August 2006 to July 2007. The patients with mental retardation psychotic symptoms and neurological diseases were excluded from participating. A total of 125 patients met the criteria for the research but five of them did not participate in the study. The history of childhood trauma and other information were obtained at the end of the hospitalization. When the patients were clinically more stable and the information was more reliable before participation in the study the patients were given a verbal and written information about the study and they signed an informed consent form this study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
Data Analysis: According to the article, data were analyzed with SPSS, means, standard deviations, and frequencies were calculated.
Findings: They found out that patients with suicidal intentions had a short period of illness, they were more likely to be diagnosed with depression or schizophrenia. These patients had a very high score on the childhood trauma questionnaire in the areas of child abuse and neglect.
Article 6: “Does Child Abuse and Neglect Increase Risk for Perpetration of Violence Inside and Outside the Home”. Purpose: The purpose of this article is to find out how individuals with a backgroung of child neglect or abuse are involved in violence across three boards; either child abuse violence, criminal violence or inmate partner violence. The reason why this study decided to look at this aspect of research is that every other research prior to this was looking at individuals with background of child abuse violence being violent to other people only and not looking at it on a broad perspective of being violent in the other types of violence as well.
Method: Children between the ages of 0 to 11 years with a child abuse or neglect background were compared to children the same age with no child abuse or neglect background.
Findings: Individuals with child abuse or neglect background or more likely to be violent across all three types of violence while individuals with no child abuse or neglect background right not likely to be violent especially in all three types of violence. It goes on to mention that future research should focus on characteristics of children with child neglect background who are violent and look for the mechanisms that lead to these outcomes.
Article 7: “A Controlled Evaluation of Family Behavior Therapy in Concurrent Child Neglect and Drug Abuse”. This Study looks at the behavior of mothers who abuse drugs and involve in child abuse or neglect.
Article 8: “Wide-Ranging Cognitive Deficits in Adolescents Following Early Life Maltreatment”. This Study focuses on adolescents that were victims of child abuse or neglect and the effects that it has on the malfunctioning of their attention or cognitive malfunctioning. It goes deeper so say that child abuse or neglect has more damages on the malfunctioning of their cognition.
Article 9: “Unseen Wounds: The Contribution of Psychological Maltreatment to Child and Adolescent Mental Health and Risk Outcomes”. This study Focuses on the objective and projective effects of maltreatment on on an array of behavioral problems and disorders in the large National sample of Clinic referred children and Adolescent from the national child traumatic stress Network core data set.
Article 10: “Adolescents’ Experience of Parental Psychological Caregiving and Neglect: Construct Development”. This study That's a smart on what specifically is child neglect and the effects of emotional child neglect
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