Allergic diseases have been identified to have a genetic link known as atopic where children born into these families will develop an allergic disease. An allergy occurs when the immune system mistakenly perceives that a substance is harmful to the body (Jackson, Marks, May, & Wilson, 2018).
These substances also known as allergens include dust, pollen, dust, or certain medications. HLA genes that are essential parts of the body's immune system are passed down from parents to their children may cause the production of IgE which are antibodies that protects the body from invaders and harmful substances (Jackson et al., 2018).
Reasons Why the Patient Is Presenting the Specific Symptoms
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Every time the body is exposed to the substance, the IgE antibodies detect it and signal the immune system to release histamine into the blood stream that causes allergy symptoms (Ortiz & Barnes, 2015).
Although there is no history of drug or food allergy, the patient reacts to amoxicillin drug through swelling of his tongue and lips and difficulty breathing. The release of chemicals such as histamine causes allergic reactions that affect the throat, lungs, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract (Ortiz & Barnes, 2015). Antibiotics have been indicated to cause allergic reactions by disrupting the gut microbiome.
The Physiologic Response to the Stimulus Presented In the Scenario and Why This Response Occurred
When antigen-presenting cells come into contact with the allergen which is antibiotics, the cells perceive this allergen as an invader. The cells absorb the allergen, process, and display it on the surface of the antigen-presenting cell which migrates to the T-cell (Ortiz & Barnes, 2015). This stimulates the B-cell to produce antibodies that are specific to the allergen.
The B-cells produce IgE antibodies that attach themselves to receptors on the surfaces of mast cells in the blood and mucous surfaces. These cells release inflammatory mediators that include histamine, kinins, or prostaglandins that lead to diverse symptoms (Ortiz & Barnes, 2015).
Cells That Are Involved In This Process
For the allergy to exist, antigen-presenting cells that are present in the mucosal surfaces of the body and the gastrointestinal tract detect the allergen (Bonnelykke, Sparks, Waage, & Milner, 2015). The immune response to an allergen depends on TH1 and TH2. The TH1 release mediators to help the body fight viruses, parasites, or bacteria. The TH2 cells help the immune system to recognize allergens that are perceived as invaders and mount a response against the invader (Bonnelykke et al., 2015).
How Gender affects Allergic Reactions
Men and women are different in diverse perspectives such as the foods they take, sexual hormones, and lifestyles. These influence how immune cells express hormonal receptors (Jensen-Jarolim, 2017). Research indicates women to suffer severe allergic reactions than men.
Gender differences play a role in allergy manifestation. Sex hormones influence the functioning of immune cells affecting the formation of allergies. IgE levels are higher in women compared to women which means that women overreact to allergens (Jensen-Jarolim, 2017).
- Bonnelykke, K., Sparks, R., Waage, J., & Milner, J. D. (2015). Genetics of allergy and allergic sensitization: common variants, rare mutations. Current opinion in immunology, 36, 115–126. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coi.2015.08.002
- Jackson, M., Marks, L., May, G., & Wilson, J. B. (2018). The genetic basis of disease. Essays in biochemistry, 62(5), 643–723. https://doi.org/10.1042/EBC20170053
- Jensen-Jarolim, E. (2017). Gender effects in allergology - Secondary publications and update. The World Allergy Organization journal, 10(1), 47. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40413-017-0178-8
- Ortiz, R. A., & Barnes, K. C. (2015). Genetics of allergic diseases. Immunology and allergy clinics of North America, 35(1), 19–44. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iac.2014.09.014
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