The Influence of Public Health and Safety Matters on the Invention of the City

Towns are and were ever associated with trade and power [ R1 ] . Although towns every bit good as worlds have to develop. They were formed and shaped by Numberss of assorted factors. This essay would demo how have public wellness and safety affairs in the yesteryear influenced the innovation of the metropolis?

One of the really first and obvious that come to mind are rigorous British fire ordinances, clearly and justly linked by most to the Great Fire of London. In its history London as a metropolis had great sums of fires in its history. One of first terrible recorded fires of London happened in 1135. It put down most of the metropolis between St Paul ‘s and St Clement Danes in Westminster every bit good as celebrated London Bridge. “Little admiration London suffered from fires: lodging and commercial premises existed together ; a Norman jurisprudence banned house fires after dark, but was likely ignored ; edifices were mostly made of wood and thatch ; and no organized fire brigade existed.” ( The 12th of July 1212 AD, Great Fire of London 1212, n.d. ) . It took good over 70 old ages and another immense fire, on 12th July 1212. This fire and figure of 3000 deceases, still appears in the Guinness Book of Records, even though possibly overdone. Those fires caused people to see about edifice regulations. In consequence ‘legislations’ every bit good as methods to stay them were introduced. Crude and really first signifier of fire protection was something every bit simple as censoring thatched roofs in full London. By its first city manager Henry Fitzailwin. He besides signed a papers stating: “Complaints about edifice nuisances could be brought by one neighbor against another. The city manager and aldermen settled such instances in a tribunal called the Assize of Nuisance” . Opinions were advised by appointed Masons and carpenters. ( History of Building Regulations in the British Isles, 2014 )

Other British metropoliss started follow London’s lead. The existent turning point in constructing history was fire of 1666. [ R2 ] F anger known as the Great Fire of London started in the bakeshop on Pudding Lane and really shortly started distributing west making beyond Roman metropolis walls. On 4th September wind way changed, it headed and about reached the Tower of London. During the firefighting procedure “King Charles II personally helped contend the fire. He lifted pails of H2O and threw money to honor people who stayed to contend the flames.” ( Museum of London – Frequently asked inquiries, n.d. ) Quenching the fire is considered to hold been successful due two factors: the strong east air currents died down, and the Tower of London fort used gunpowder to make fireguards, and halt further spread eastward. ( Great Fire of London – Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia, n.d. ) . It’s believed that as a effect of this fire 80 % of capital was burned to the land. Inevitably catastrophe of this graduated table couldn’t go on once more. Therefore London Rebuilding Act of 1667 was introduced. [ R3 ]

This papers created foundations of city/master planning every bit good as some other countries of modern edifice ordinances. Was the really first to stipulate how metropolis planning was to be regulated ( i.e. Certain streets need to be broad depending on strength and intent of usage ) . It was depicting what affairs and how they should be resolved by Judgess. Besides stipulating thickness and location of walls, including party walls. It introduced the thought of the committee planing cityscape every bit good as committee to O.K. location and form, every bit good as stuffs used in new edifices. All edifices from that point onwards were to be built of brick or rock. It besides regulated minor issues like precipitation direction, maximal overhangs, which antecedently were doing already narrow streets even narrower and tighter. That was debut to the thought of more pleasant metropoliss, even though done for practical grounds. Some more wellness and safety regulations were issued. [ R4 ]

Even though this jurisprudence was highly precise for that clip. It was written by local authorities of London and was to be obeyed merely during reconstructing of the metropolis. As consequence of that British Isles were left without public jurisprudence. In 1898 Ebenezer Howard initiated “The Garden City Movement” . Garden metropoliss were designed and intended to be self-contained, self-sufficing communities. Separated and surrounded by paths of unfastened, green countries. Taking inspiration and seeking to do a Utopian dream of Sir Thomas More come truth. Howard’s idealise garden metropolis was utilizing clear districting system. Keeping residential and industrial development countries separate, allowed “smokeless” thought of the metropolis to develop. They would be populated by 32000 people on around 6000 estates ( 2400 hour angle ) . Planned in concentric circles, when to the full populated another garden metropolis would develop nearby. Several of these would be clustered ‘orbiting’ around the cardinal metropolis ( populated by 50000 people ) .

[ R5 ] “The Garden City Association set itself the ambitious undertaking of developing a first garden metropolis. Work on the chosen site at Letchworth began in 1903 and by 1914 it housed 9,000 inhabitants.” ( The birth of town be aftering – UK Parliament, n.d. ) Letchworth was really advanced and successful, it populated 33500 people. It was perchance impractical to utilize homocentric program, although rules were kept. Letchworth introduced traffic circle ( 1909 ) and was really first illustration of ‘green belt’ . This undertaking didn’t require empowering statute laws, although it was inspirational to “garden suburbs” . These were foremost introduced in Hampstead. Endorsed by Parliament in 1906, in what has been called “ Hampstead Garden Suburb Act [ R6 ] ” . This papers legislated that distance between the two houses on opposite sides of the route, were to be non less than 50 pess ( 15.24m ) apart. And that there should be no more than 8 houses per acre ( 4046.9m2) . [ R7 ]

‘Back-to-back’ houses, so popular in industrial Victorian developments. During the industrial revolution “great inflow of workers and their households into the quickly industrialized towns during the 1800 ‘s, this figure increased massively and the jobs of over-population became disastrous” ( Public Health – History of medical specialty, n.d. ) . This was revealed by the study of Liverpool ‘s first medical officer of wellness ( Dr Duncan ) . It stated that – tierce of the metropolis ‘s population lived on Earth floored basements of dorsum to endorse houses. ( The birth of town be aftering – UK Parliament, n.d. ) Without any airing and sanitation with every bit many as 16 people populating in one room, these were certainly non what those basements were designed for and what they could defy. They were made illegal in 1909 due to Housing and Town Planning Act, as there was concern that it could be the starting motor of the new concatenation reaction consequence of pestilence for illustration similar in consequence to London’s Great Fire. [ R8 ]

Letchworth and Hampstead was the chief inspiration for that 1909 Act. It besides took inspiration of garden metropolis motion rules. Not a surprise that the Garden City Association actively lobbied for it. This besides encouraged to utilize ‘Garden City’ rules. Leading the manner to the more gratifying urban environment and more flexibleness in footings of design. This act obligated local governments to utilize town planning, and control edifice criterions. Specified the occupation of local authoritiess on what they can and can’t do. The new jurisprudence formed the usher on how to be after metropoliss and how to construct safely. It besides specified land jurisprudence, how and where working category lodging should be built. Besides, sing wellness and safety of citizens and future occupants, which could be named as a signifier of sustainable design. [ R9 ]

As before mentioned planning jurisprudence has been altering and accommodating for past old ages. Even though fire ordinances in the UK are perchance one of the strictest in Europe. As statistics show there is a batch of betterment to be made. World of be aftering needs people like Ebenezer Howard, dreamer and dreamers that design, program and better urban and universe environment – in consequence devising universe more gratifying. In modern metropoliss chief perplexity are sustainability and public wellness. It’s non easy to diminish fleshiness and other so called civilisation diseases. The rate of these could be lowered by extinguishing factors that do or may do it. The chief 1s being: deficiency of physical activity, unnatural/unhealthy diet, polluted air and some more (Diseases of modern civilization — Frank Fenner Foundation, n.d. ) . These may and should be considered at design phase. To better physical activity. It’s necessary to increase the sum of public conveyance used, every bit good as addition sum of resort areas. Enhancing physical activity from early old ages, followed by pathwaies, Parkss or other green countries. Obviously there is really small interior decorator or designer can make about human diet. However, what could be done is to plan green markets into town flower stalk. These would do fresh, of course grown, healthy fruits/vegetables effortlessly accessible. Another in theory unaccessible country for urban contrivers is air pollution, as we can’t actively decrease pollution. Already Ebenezer Howard has suggested to utilize town districting to travel industrial enlargement out on the fringes of towns. In the long term this would diminish the sum of contaminated air in towns, by administering it more equally across unfastened countries, and most likely lower the urban island consequence.

All of those illustrations show how past events were set uping town planning. It proves that there is a set of ingredients and stimulations. They all consequence be aftering jurisprudence and planning methods. Urban environment is ever altering and it is difficult to plan it good. This is why there are groups of urban contrivers, designers, interior decorators and others working to better the design of towns. This has been altering for 100s, or even 1000s of old ages, and they would be. Changes are inevitable, what is now countryside in 10 old ages, or even less could be new suburbs. This should excite interior decorators and visionaries to better interior urban flower stalk, decide current and anticipate hereafter issues and turn to them today.

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Samuel Pepys Diary 1666 – Fire of London( n.d. ) . [ Online ] [ Accessed on 27th December 2014 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //

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The birth of town be aftering – United kingdom Parliament( n.d. ) . [ Online ] [ Accessed on 28th December 2014 ] hypertext transfer protocol: // .

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The Hampstead Garden Suburb Act 1906( n.d. ) . [ Online ] [ Accessed on 28th December 2014 ] hypertext transfer protocol: //