The ADDIE model is a generic process that is usually used by instructional designers and training developers. It offers instructional designers with a definite structure that ensures efficient instructional products. ADDIE stands for its five phases: Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation.
These five phases are representations of a flexible and dynamic guideline for establishing effective training and support tools for performance. Each phase is represented by as a project output and a set of activities. More so, each phase ends in a review, which forms a go or a no-go point to determine whether to proceed to the next phase or not.
During the Analysis phase, the instructional problem is defined and the instructional goals are established. More so, this is the phase where the learner’s present skills and knowledge and the learning environment is identified. Some of the outputs and activities to be considered in the Analysis phase are as follows:
§ Clarify instructional problem and instructional objectives
§ Determine the audience and their characteristics
§ Identify the existing types of learning constraints
§ Identify the new behavioral outcome
§ Determine the delivery options
§ Determine the timeline to complete the project
In the Design phase, the complete design of the learning solution is determined. This phase addresses the training methods (administered online or detailed storyboards with training program and course content illustrations).
The Design phase considers the assessment tools, lesson planning, learning objectives, content, subject matter, media selection, and exercises. Therefore, this phase entails a systematic and specific approach. The following procedures are utilized in the Design phase:
§ Documentation of a project’s instructional, technical, and visual design strategy
§ Application of instructional strategies based on the intended behavioral outcomes by domain (affective, cognitive, and psychomotor)
§ Designing the use interface and experience
§ Prototyping the creation
§ Application of visual or graphic design
The Development Phase of the ADDIE model involves the creation and assembly of the content assets, which were blueprinted in the Design phase. Instructional designers and developers create storyboards, write the contents, and design the graphics in this phase. The following activities are conducted during the Development phase:
§ Acquisition and/or creation of required media
§ Determining apt interactions through creativity, innovation, and exploration
§ Planning of activities that allows the construction of a supportive social environment
The Implementation Phase involves the development of a training procedure for both learners and facilitators. The training of facilitators should encompass the course content, learning outcomes, delivery methodologies, and procedures for testing. On the other hand, learners should be trained on using new tools, which will be used in the learning process. The Implementation phase usually involves only two activities: execute and maintain the learning solution.
The last phase in the ADDIE model, which is the Evaluation phase, consists of two parts, the Formative and Summative evaluation. The Formative evaluation is present throughout the entire ADDIE process while the Summative evaluation involves tests that are designed for criterion-related referenced items. The Summative evaluation provides opportunities for feedback from learners.
The ADDIE Model is a repetitive instructional design process in which the outcomes of the formative evaluation of each phase may prompt an instructional designer to go back to any previous phase. The outcome of one phase determines the starting product of the next phase.
ADDIE Model and Instructional Planning
Instructional Planning asserts that instruction should be data driven. It is assumes that both learners and teachers should gain access to the expected results of a course. The purpose of Instructional Planning is to acknowledge quality and aid in the enhancement and improvement of a course.
Since an instructional plan presents individual instruction from teaching to learning, this is where the ADDIE model comes in; the ADDIE model provides a definite structure of the instructional plan.
As the instructional plan serves as a communication tool between learners and teachers, the ADDIE model provides a step by step process of the instructional plan. Each step in the instructional plan consists of outcomes from the ADDIE model that feed the next step in a specific sequence.