Slip of the Tongue in Singing English Songs: a Psycholinguistic Analysis
INTRODUCTION Since slip of the tongue is the naturals condition that everyone find during his communication experience, people finally give many definition toward this phenomenon. In Cambridge Advaced Learner’s Dictionary slip of the tongue define as a condition when someone says something that they did not intend to say which is means the slip of the tongue is not intentional and it can not represent the true feelings of a person. On the other hand the opposite definition coming out from Sigmund Freud which is explain slip of the tongue as a meaningful and interpreted utterances.
The utterances coming out as the representation of the restrained or repressed intention of the speaker. Both definitions have their own strength and approval but here, the concern of the research just limited on the reason or factors that cause slip of the tongue and the relation between rhythm/music genre to human ability in producing words under psycholinguistics analysis perspective. One condition that everybody have to understand is the research take a special condition. If slip of the tongue usually happen in normal conversation in this case slip of the tongue will observed in the sing activities.
The reason for this condition is related to the concern of the research which will find the relation between rhythm/ musik genre to human ability in producing words. So, the researcher find five different songs in different genre to be analyzed and in collecting data, observational method and recorcing technique used while in analyzing the data researcher used articulatory identity method and presenting the result using informal and formal method. METHODS The data taken from five english songs which is sing by adult and the object that researcher need to find is the slips of the tongue by adult in singing those songs.
In order to find the object of the research firstly the researcher have to find the songs that included into the criteria that explained in the background of the research. In this case, the researcher have to make a questionnaire to collect some information about the genre and the popular singer and songs that known by the participant. Then after collecting those information the researcher have to decide five songs that included into the chategories by collecting the most similar answer by the participants. After collecting five songs as the tools of the bservation,the researcher need to record the songs that is sing by the participants so, if we relate it to Sudaryanto’s book (1988) the method used by researcher in collecting the data is observation and the technique used is recording. Nevertheless in devining the tools of the data researcher need to use questionnaire as the technique. This research included into descriptive qualitative research because the data were collected in the form of utterances that produce by the second singer (adult) and the representation of the research is in the form of words.
Due to this research purpose are to find the kinds and factors of slip of the tongue that cause slip of the tongue by adult as the second singer while singing a song so, the reseacher will use descriptive research because it designed to obtained information concerning the current status of the phenomenon and directed toward determind the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the research in the label of qualitative methode (Ary 1972:259) Differ from quantitative research, this research will concern on the complex and larger concentration.
The researcher of qualitative research have to give a meaning for the phenomenon holisticaly and need to play arole in the whole process (Sudarwan, 2002). The research it self will approve the phenomenon with the perspective of the researcher so, there should be a methode used to analyze the data taken. Lately many expert use triangulation method to analyze the data. This methode is a study aplication that used multimethodic for analyze the similar phenomenon, (Denzin,1989 in Sudarwan, 2002).
According to Denzin and Kimchi there are five types of triangulation : theoretical triangulation, triangulation data, metodological triangulation,investigator triangulation and triangulation analysis (Sudarwan,2002:38). Then this research will focus only theoretical triangulation which is means that the researcher will combine some theory from the different aspects of linguistics such as psycholinguistics, phonology, morphology and syntactic perspective to analyzing the data.
After analyzing the data, researcher present the result of analysis by using the informal and formal method. Informal method is a way of presenting the findings by using a verbal statement (natural laguage) while a formal method is a way of presenting the analysis by using signs and symbols (artificial language). THEORY In linguistics, language production is the production of spoken or written language. It describes all of the stages between a concept and translating the concept into linguistic form. Levelt, 1989) As Fromkin and Ratner (1998) argued when we produced an utterance there is a correspondence between our thought and wishes which convey the message but when the storage space of the brain is finite we may never produce a number of the infinete sentence. From those explanation we know that we must construct sentences from smaller parts or units before we are able to say them. The main issues then concern on the processes by which units come to be selected and then combined in a particular order. (Gleason and Ratner 1998) The production of spoken language involves three major levels of processing.
The first is conceptualization. The speaker must decide the message to be conveyed. It is also called the preverbal message or the message level of representation. This stage is often represented by a thought bubble. It means that this level connects the intention to speak and the concepts to be verbally expressed. (Levelt 1989) On the other hand, Jaeger (2005:8) proposed this stage which also includes not only general and specific world knowledge but also the speakers’ knowledge about the linguistics pragmatic conventions of their speech community.
Therefore speakers must take account of what they called the “common ground”. The common ground between two people consists of their mutual beliefs, expectations, and knowledge. If someone overhears a conversation between two friends, it can be very hard to follow, because s/he has a lack common ground. The second level is formulation. Levelt (1989) stated that the speaker must convert their message into a linguistic form. The process of formulation is the creation of the linguistics form of the idea meant to be expressed.
This process also known as the processes of grammatical encoding, starting from lexical component selection which is activate the message and it includes semantic and syntactic properties. (Jaeger, 2005:8) Then, the last is articulation / execution. The speaker have to make a plan of the motor movements to convey the message. It also involves detailed phonetic and articulatory planning (Levelt, 1989). Errors in Articulator Program According to Clark and Clark (1977), there are types of errors occur with a number of different linguistics units.
In some cases, a single phoneme is added,deleted, or moved, but at other times, it may be sequence of phonemes, morphemic,affixes and root, whole words, or even phrases. As general rule, errors tend to occur at only one linguistics level per utterance. That is, when a person clearly says the wrong word, as in substitutions, the syntactic structure of the sentence, prosodicstructure, and phonological structure remain intact. According to Fromkin and Ratner (1998) such errors in production is called speech error. It regularly occurs in normal conversation. A speech error is a pattern that differs from some standard pattern.
Speech errors are common among children who have yet to refine their speech, and can frequently continue into adulthood. They sometimes lead to embarrassment and betrayal the speaker’s regional or ethnic origins. However, it is also common for them to enter the popular culture as a kind of linguistic “flavoring”. There are nine types of speech error: silent pauses, Filled pauses, repeats, false starts (unretraced), False starts (retraced), Interjections, Stutters, Slips of the tongue. Later on this research will not discuss all of the kind of the speech error but just focus on slip of the tongue.
According to Fromkin (in Clark, 1977) slips of the tongue have occurred when the speaker’s utterance differs in some way from the intended utterance. Jaeger (2005) defined slips of the tongue as one-time error in speech production planning; that is the speakers intends to utters a certain word, phrase, or sentence but in the middle of planning process the utterances came out of the mouth differ from the intended words which want to say. Freud argued that slip of the tongue is in which a mistake in speech reveals something of the nature of the speaker’s unconscious or semi-conscious desires.
He proposes that when somebody misspeak, it is an accidental expression of thoughts or feelings. Freud would argue that slips of the tongue were never accidents, that they always revealed some underlying unconscious or repressed need to impulse. In Freud’s mind, this verbal slip could not have been accidental or based on any explanation other than the indispensable condition of suppression he had proposed. Furthermore, this suppression of intent or impulse which they made in the cornerstone of all slips of the tongue could operate at three different levels.
On one level, the suppression could be conscious and deliberate on another suppression, it can be identified afterward by the person who made the slips but was not intended beforehand, and at the deepest level the person absolutely denies the suppression. For Freudians, it really does not matter what level the person made a slip of the tongue is operating at. For them in all cases, the slip is the results of the conflict between two forces-the underlying unacceptable need and the tendency to keep it hidden. According to Dell (as cited in Paulisse, 1999), slips of the tongue unintended,nonhabitual deviations from a speech plan.
Slips of the tongue happened in three levels Those are in sound errors, morpheme errors, and word errors. Sound errors are accidental interchanges of sounds between words such as “snow flurries” might become “flow snurries”. Morpheme errors are accidental interchanges of morphemes between words. For example “self-destruct instruction” might become “selfinstruct destruction”. Word errors are accidental transpositions of words. For example: “Writing a letter to my mother” might become “Writing a mother to my letter”. Major types of slips of the tongue according to Carol: . Shift In Shift one speech segment dissapears from it appropriate location and appears somewhere else. Example : That’s so she’ll be ready in case she decide to hits it (decides tohit it); get its (gets it); 2. Exchange In effect,double shift, in which two linguistic units exchange. Example : Fancy getting your model renosed (getting your nose remodeled); writing a mother to my letter (writing a letter to my mother); slicely thinned (thinly sliced); 3. Anticipation occur when a later segment takes the place of an earlier one. Example : Bake my bike (take my bike); eading list (reading list) sky is in the sky (sun is in the sky); 4. Perseveration Occur when a earlier segment replaces a later item. For instance He pulled a pantrum (tantrum); beef needle (beef noodle); 5. Addition A unit is added for example : I didn’t explain this clarefully enough (carefully enough); to strained it (to strain it); 6. Deletion A unit is deleted. For instance : same sate (same state); I’ll just get up and mutter intelligibly (unintelligibly); 7. Substitution A unit is changed into a different unit. Example : At low speeds it’s too light (heavy); 8. Blend
Blend occur when two speech units are combined. For instance : That child is looking to be spaddled (spanked/paddled). The thing that we have to considered here is slip of the tounge is a condition where the utterance is not utter correcty based on the idea of the speaker. In this case the proces of producing sounds was broken in the last phase ( articulation phase) where human produce the sound to speaking. So, based on the reality above in analysing the data we have to combining some linguistics brances and in this case the are psycholinguistic, phonology and morphology and also syntax. ANALYSIS
From the explanation above here are some data taken from the participant when they are singing English song. Table 1 TitleIf I Die Young If I Die Young Singer The band PerrySecond Singer (Indonesian) GenreRockRock Lyrics The sharp knife of a short life, well I’ve had, just enough time. (1a) The sharp knife of a short life, well I’ve have, just enough time. (1b) From the tabel above we can see that : I’ve had I’ve have had have /h? d//h? v/ Both of /d/ and /v/ in the table of phonetic symbols take place as fricatives, flat and voiced. Nevertheless “d” included as the sound in dental alveolar while “v” in the labio dental sounds.
So, in this case a dental alveolar sound changed by a labio dental sound. Table 2 TitleMake Me StrongMake Me strong SingerSami YusufSecond Singer (Indonesian) GenreNasyidNasyid LyricsMy lord show me right from wrong Give me light make me strong I know the road is long make me strong (2a)My lord show me right from wrong Give me right make me strong I know the road is long make me strong (2b) Based on the data above the change is happen on sentence 2a Give me light replaced by the Give me right in the 2b sentence Give me light Give me right light right /lait//rait/
Both /l/ and /r/ are voiced liquids sounds in dental alveolar thing that make them differ is the position of producing the sounds /l/ take place in lateral and /r/ in the central. Table 3 TitleMy Heart Will Go OnMy Heart Will Go On SingerCeline DionSecond Singer (Indonesian) GenrePopPop LyricEverynight in my dreams (1) I see you, i feel you That is how I know you go on Far across the distance And spaces between (2) us You have come to show you go on (3a)Everynight in my times (1) I see you, i feel you That is how I know you go on Far across the distance And spaces minween (2) us
You have come to show you go on (3b) from the tabel we get that 3a. 1 becomes 3b. 1 and 3a. 2 changes into 3b. 2 for clearence let we see the explanation below. 3a. 1 Everynight in my dreams Everynight in my times 3b. 1 dreams times / driems/ /taims/ 3a. 2 And spaces between usAnd spaces minween us between minween /bi’twien//minwien/ /b/ is a billabial stop voiced sound meanwhile /m/ is billabial nasal voiced sound then /t/ is dental alveolar stop voiceless sound and /n/ is dental alveolar nassal voiced sound.
Both changes happen in the same place such as /b/ replace by /m/ which are take place in billabial but /b/ is stop but /m/ is nassal then the next /t/ replace by /n/ both are in dental alveolar but /t/ stop voiceless and /n/ nasal voiced. Table 4 TitleLove StoryLove Story SingerTaylor SwiftSecond Singer GenreCountryCountry LyricWe were both young when i first saw you I close my eyes and the flashback starts (1) I’m standing there on a balcony in summer air (2) See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns (3) See you make your way through the crowd
And say hello Little did i know (4) (4a)We were both young when i first saw you I close my eyes and the Flash starts (1) I’m standing there on a Galcony in summer air (2) See the lights, see the party, the ball gains (3) See you make your way through the crowd And say hello Little i know (4) (4b) In this song the researcher find 4 changes toward the song. They are : 4a. 1 replaced by 4b. 1 I close my eyes and the flashback starts I close my eyes and the Flash starts flashback flash /fl? sy’b? k//fl? sy/ 4a. 2 replaced by 4b. 2
I’m standing there on a balcony in summer air I’m standing there on a Galcony in summer air balcony galcony /b? lkenie/ /g? lkenie/ /b/ is a billabial stop voiced sound which is replaced by /g/ palatal stop voiced. 4a. 3 replaced by 4b. 3 See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns See the lights, see the party, the ball gains gowns gains /gawns//geins/ 4a. 4 replaced by 4b. 4 Little did i know Little i know After explaning the changes above, now the researcher try to clasified the problems into the kinds of slip of the tongue. 1. Deletion :
Deletion is a kind of slip of the tongue where one item are deleted in the data above we find it in the data number 4. (4a. 1 replaced by 4b. 1) “I close my eyes and the flashback starts become I close my eyes and the Flash starts” Here “flashback” become”flash” which is means “back” are deleted The next data is 4a. 4 that replaced by 4b. 4 “Little did i know become Little i know” . In this sentence ‘did’ are deleted 2. Substitution: I’ve had, just enough time become I’ve have, just enough time Everynight in my dreams become Everynight in my times
Give me light make me strong become Give me right make me strong And spaces between us become And spaces minween us I’m standing there on a balcony in summer air become I’m standing there on a Galcony in summer air See the lights, see the party, the ball gowns become See the lights, see the party, the ball gains These six data are included in substitution class because all of them get a consonant error or vowel eror such as 4a. 3 replaced by 4b. 3 “ow” replaced by “ai” gowns gains /gawns//geins/ Then other get a phological error such as 4a. 2 replaced by 4b. 2 /b/ replaced by /g/ balcony galcony b? lkenie/ /g? lkenie/ For the replaced of the sounds the pattern are not define yet because each people has their own problem in replacing the sound and it is need more data for defining the pattern of the replacing phonemes. Nevertheless the reason that influence the second singer get slip of the tongue could be analyse based on some theory from the expert. Before executing an utterance we have to make a plan in our brain first. A speaker builds up a general structure for the discourse, form a skeleton for the sentence to be uttered and select words to fit the skeleton constituent by constituent.
In speaking, people take already formulated plan and execute them but not all goes well in every speech. In practice, they have fundamental problems. First, they have formulated their plans fully before they begin their execution. For this reason, they often speak fast and start to make variety of speech error. Second, in final preparation for execution, they must build an “articulator program”, a plan in working memory that tells the articulator muscles what to do them (Clark and Clark 1977) Clark also says that the planning takes time and more time on some occasions than others.
The more difficult the planning, the more time it should take and the more likely speech itself will be disrupted. Then, when slip of the tongue occurs here are some factors that influence it; 1. Cognitive Difficulty The first factor of planning difficulty is called cognitive difficulty. Taylor in Clark and Clark (1977), conducts a study in which people were asked to produce as quickly as possible a sentence on topic like “car, animal, pleasure, and dominance” some of these are concrete objects (car and animal) and others are abstract (pleasure and dominance).
It took people longer to produce the first word of the sentence from an abstract than from the concrete one. Furthermore, it took them longer to develop a sentence skeleton for an abstract topic. 2. Situational Anxiety Situational anxiety is the second factor of slips of the tongue. When we talk about topics that we are anxious about, we tend to produce more silent pauses and certain other speech errors. One possibility is that anxiety disturbs the planning and execution processes generally. If speakers become tense, their planning and execution become less efficient.
Another possibility is that what the speakers talk about is simply more difficult cognitively when s/he is anxious. It may be very difficult to verbalize the more time planning, groping, for just the right words. Under this alternative anxiety, pauses have the same source as the pauses of any other cognitively difficult talk (Clark and Clark 1977). The same cases also happen when people singing a song. When the song is familiar and interest the singer the process of production the words will easier than the one who does not.
Then the frequency of error will higher in in the singer who does not like the songs. 3. Social Factors The next factor that influences slips of the tongue is the social factors. Under the pressures of conversations, the speaker must take clearly whether they still have something to say or they are finished. On other hand, there are some factors that errors can occur. Those are low self confidence and the environment factor which in this case is family (Wirawan, Seputar Indonesia No. 135/1 Sunday 14th May 2006). Here, the pressure coming out from the music.
The music itself has a rhythm which is conducting the repetition of the sounds in the certain pattern or design. Then the next is the tempo of the music which is defines as the time or the speed of the song. Then the last one is the sound of the singer which influences the second singer to duplicate their pronunciations while singing. CONCLUSION Slip of the tongue define as a condition when someone says something that they did not intend to say which is means the slip of the tongue is not intentional and it cannot represent the true feelings of a person.
On the other hand the opposite definition coming out from Sigmund Freud which is explains slip of the tongue as a meaningful and interpreted utterances. The utterances coming out as the representation of the restrained or repressed intention of the speaker. Nevertheless in this research most of slip that occur usually coming out because the second singer feels very familiar with the sound and produce it without paying too much attention or the opposite reason is the song is not familiar so the singer trying very hard to understand the meaning and try to imitate the first singer and the result is s/he get a big pressure while singing.
For sure, those reasons are explained in the three factors that influence the occurrence of slip of the tongue: cognitive difficulty, situational anxiety, and the last one is social factors. Then the kind of error/slip of the tongue that is occurring mostly are deletion and substitution because the most reason for the slip of the tongue are the pressure and the interest toward the song. REFERENCES Chomsky, N 1975, Reflections of Language, New york: Pantheon books. Clark, H. I. And Clark, E. V. 1977. Psychology an Language.
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