Performance Apprisal Management-Assignment Q 1: How do goals , objectives and competencies help in an effective Performance Management System ? Performance Management System : Performance management System are set up to provide feedback to employees on how effectively they are performing in their jobs. Such programs normally include a set of goals or objectives the employee must accomplish within the review period as well as the standards or criteria for determining whether the defined goals have been accomplished.
Effective performance management include the following features: * Linking individual goals to the corporate and work unit business plans and goals; * Focusing on results, behaviors (competencies) as well as process improvement; * Regular reviews and updating of performance plans to address changing demands; * Training for both managers and employees on how to effectively give and receive feedback, including providing feedback to employees who experience challenges in performing to the standards required in their jobs / roles; * Training for managers on how to provide performance evaluations that are valid, fair and unbiased.
Performance management is about achieving results in a manner that is consistent with organizational expectations. Integrating competencies within the performance management process supports the provision of feedback to employees not only on “what” they have accomplished like performance goals, but also “how” the work was performed, using competencies for providing feedback. Assessing competencies as a part of performance management is an important means of assisting employees in understanding performance expectations and enhancing competencies.
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Multi-source feedback, while not an HR application per se, is a method that is often used in performance management to assess and provide employees with feedback on “how” they performed their work . GOAL : # The aim is to focus people on doing the right things in order to achieve a shared understanding of performance requirements throughout the organization. # Integration is achieved by ensuring that everyone is aware of corporate, functional and team goals and that the objectives they agree for themselves are consistent with those goals and will contribute in specified ways to their achievement.
How do GOALs help in an effective Performance Management System : Corporate strategic goals provide the starting point for business and departmental goals, followed by agreement on performance and development, leading to the drawing up of plans between individuals and managers, with continuous monitoring and feedback supported by formal reviews. If we define the relation between the performance Management System and goals of the organizations then we get- # A performance management system is "the process through which companies ensure that employees are working towards organizational goals. # It includes more than just a performance appraisal. The performance management system is also composed of "strategic plans, manager accountability, pay, promotion, training/development, and discipline. " Most organizations have some type of formal or informal performance reviews, but a performance management system attempts to provide the overarching structure for planning and analysis of activities for each individual, in the context of the organizational whole. Through continual assessment, the system ensures that successes are recognized and problems are addressed early.
Better planning at the beginning of the year, including setting realistic goals for each employee, ensures measurable positive successes for the library and its staff, aligned with the larger organizational goals. When an organization has not developed a performance management system, lack of clarity in setting and developing staff goals, lack of alignment between organizational goals and employee goals, lack of communication on priorities , all can be avoided through the effective implementation of a performance management system. Everyone in the organization is clearly aware about the common organizational goals and objectives.
Once the goals are clearly defined, everyone works for the growth of the organization. OBJECTIVE : # Something which has to be accomplished. # They define what organizations, functions, departments, teams and individuals are expected to achieve. How do OBJECTIVEs helps an effective Performance Management System : Objectives are performance standards. They are used when it is not possible to set time-based targets, or when there is a continuing objective which does not change significantly from one review period to the next and is a standing feature of the job.
These should be spelled out in quantitative terms if possible, for example, speed of response to requests or meeting defined standards of accuracy. Objectives describe something to be accomplished by individuals, departments and organisations over a period of time. They can be expressed as targets to be met such as sales and tasks to be completed by specified dates. They can be work-related, referring to the results to be attained, or personal, taking the form of developmental objectives for individuals. Objectives need to be defined and agreed.
They will relate to the overall purpose of the job and define performance areas - all the aspects of the job that contribute to achieving its overall purpose. If we define the relation between the performance Management System and objectives of the organizations then we get- A structured and documented process encourages objective evaluation and fair treatment # Business objectives need to be linked to team and individual accountabilities. To measure the Performance Management system objectives are define as Individual output measures. like- * Achievement of objectives Achievement against agreed standards of performance, which might be descriptions of excellent, good, satisfactory or poor performance. * Behavior, measuring the extent to which individuals exhibit behaviors associated with performance such as respect for others, trust etc. * Specific instances of performance for example commendations for specific pieces of work. COMPETENCE : # Refers to the behavioral requirements of a role to carry out the work satisfactorily. # What people bring to work in the form of different types and levels of behavior. Examples can be: job and professional knowledge, communication, teamwork, productivity, management etc. Practicing good performance management requires proficiency in certain competencies. Competencies are observable, measurable patterns of skills, knowledge, abilities, behaviors, and other characteristics that an individual needs to perform work roles or occupational functions successfully. Every organization has some competencies around which their business operations revolve. An efficient and effective employee performance measurement solution ensures that the competencies are managed well.
Supervisors must manage employee performance well in order for agencies to accomplish their missions and achieve their goals. Consequently, performance management is one the most important parts of a supervisor's or team leader's job. Developing skills in performance management is a wise investment for agencies—an investment that will help them achieve their strategic goals. Performance Management Processes and Related Competencies-Managing employee performance includes: * planning work and setting expectations, * monitoring and measuring performance, developing the capacity to perform, * periodically rating performance in a summary fashion, and * recognizing and rewarding good performance. How do COMPETENCIEs helps an effective Performance Management System : Performance management competencies that all supervisors (and team leaders) should develop and demonstrate include: * Communicating. Establishing and maintaining effective communications with each employee not only requires good oral and written communication skills, but it also includes the ability to establish good working relationships.
To communicate effectively with employees, supervisors must establish an environment that promotes an open door atmosphere, the sharing of ideas, and employee involvement in decision making processes. * * Setting Goals. Setting long- and short-term goals with employees gives focus to employee efforts. When goal setting is done correctly, employees strive to accomplish those goals and feel confident in achieving them. When goal setting is done poorly, work does not progress as desired.
Knowing how to set goals effectively is an important part of performance management. To do this well, supervisors need to be able to clarify expectations and to set realistic standards and targets. * * Measuring Employee Performance. Credible measures of performance that employees understand and accept are critical for achieving high level performance. Measuring employee accomplishments, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, provides the information that supervisors and employees need in order to monitor performance. * * Giving Feedback.
Feedback should inform, enlighten, and suggest improvements to employees regarding their performance. Supervisors should describe specific work related behavior or results they have observed as close to the event as possible. * * Coaching and Developing. Using their coaching skills, supervisors evaluate and address the developmental needs of their employees and help them select diverse experiences to gain necessary skills. Supervisors and employees create development plans that might include training, new assignments, job enrichment, self-study, or work details. * Recognizing. Effectively recognizing employees is another performance management competency. Being able to genuinely acknowledge a job well done is critical for strengthening employees' commitment to do their best. Supervisors should be skilled at using formal awards programs as well as using informal recognition techniques, including personal thank and voicing verbal appreciation in staff meetings. Developing Competencies- Agencies will benefit in many ways if they invest in developing performance management competencies in their supervisors and team leaders.
These competencies should form the basis for their training and development to ensure that the Federal Government can carry out its mission in the 21st century. (You will note that most of these competencies are reflected in OPM's Executive Core Qualifications for the Senior Executive Service. ) Because good supervision and leadership require effective performance management, we will focus this series of articles on the performance management competencies we have outlined here. The next article in this series will highlight communication skills.
Q 2:Identify at least 3 general or core competencies for each (3) levels of management. Explain each competencies in details . There are lots of competencies. The 3 general or core competencies for each (3) levels of management are given bellow - Core Competencies of top-level management : Top-level managers make decisions affecting the entirety of the firm. Top managers do not direct the day-to-day activities of the firm; rather, they set goals for the organization and direct the company to achieve them.
Top managers are ultimately responsible for the performance of the organization, and often, these managers have very visible jobs. (1) Intellectual Competencies : Planning and causal thinking :refer to implications, consequence, alternatives or if-then relationship analyzes causal relationships. It makes strategies and plan steps to reach a goal. Diagnostic Information seeking : Pushes for concrete information in an ambiguous situation seeks information from multiple sources to clarify a situation which uses question to identify the specific of a problem or other situations.
Conceptualizations and synthetic thinking :Understand about how different parts , needs or functions of the organization fit together. Identities partners and interprets a series of event. Identities the most important issues in a complex situation. Uses unusual analogies to understand and explain the essence of a situation. Leadership skill– role-playing, decision simulation and job rotation are the training methods used to nourish leadership skill in employees, as the top management will be able to pick up this skill through working on different roles and models. 2) Influence Competencies : Concern for Influence (The need for power) : which refers to persuade people, anticipate the impact of actions on the people. Directive influence (Personalized power )-face up to people directly when problems occur. Collaborative Influence (socialized power)-Operate effectively with groups to influence outcomes and get operations. Builds “ownership” of controversy decisions among key sub-ordinates by involving them in decision making . Symbolic Influence : Personal example for an intended impact uses symbols of group identity. (3) Others :
Self Confidence-refer self as prime mover, leader or organizations or the organizations mentions being stimulated by crisis and other difficult problems. Self as the most capable person for getting the job done. # Core Competencies of Middle-level management : Middle managers can motivate and assist first-line managers to achieve business objectives. They may also communicate upward, by offering suggestions and feedback to top managers. Because they are more involved in the day-to-day workings of a company, they may provide valuable information to top managers to help improve the organization's bottom line.
Some core competencies of middle level managers are given bellow : (1) Thinking about the organization : Strategic Vision-evaluate the internal and external business environment to develop a long-term vision and strategy for the unit/organization. Analysis and Problem-Solving -effectively examine events, issues, and problems, and generate optimal solutions in a timely manner. Business and Financial Penetration -demonstrate a good understanding of company’s business model and markets as well as good commercial and financial acumen.
Ability characteristics– job rotation, job enrichment, decision simulation, practical training and teaching training . Motivational characteristics– the help of sensitive training, brain-storming, and case studies. (2) Deliver Result : Manages Execution -ensure achievement of business goals aligned with the operational roadmap and standards through managing execution of business plan Customer Focus- foster a customer-focused environment delivering exceptional service and anticipating future customer needs.
Leads for Performance -demonstrate and foster a sense of urgency and strong commitment to achieving goals. Drives Change and Innovation- champion new ideas and initiatives and create an environment that supports change and innovation. (3) Energize People : (Strengthen) Communication- communicate with impact, and create an environment in which people communicate honestly and openly Engages and Inspires -inspire commitment and energy and a desire to excel and bring one’s best contribution to the organizational mission and goals.
Develops Human Capital- ensure or contribute to the availability and development of the talent needed to meet current and future organization goals Interpersonal skill or Cultivates Relationships and Networks-develop and leverage effective network and relationships with others inside and outside of the organization. to use role-playing method to foster interpersonal skill in employees. Also, job-rotation and group discussion are often used on this dimension. Fosters Teamwork and Cooperation- promote a sense of collaboration and work effectively across the organization to achieve goals.
Conceptual skill– to use on-the-job training to develop conceptual skill in employees. Conversely, decision simulation and role-playing are also instrumental in developing conceptual skill in middle-level managers. # Core competencies of first –level manager or, first –line manager :(Supervisor) First-line managers are responsible for the daily management of line workers—the employees who actually produce the product or offer the service. Although first-level managers typically do not set goals for the organization, they have a very strong influence on the company.
These are the managers that most employees interact with on a daily basis. There are many competencies of the managers which are given bellow : ( 1) Act as a role model : Adapts and Learns-work effectively in the face of ambiguity, shifting priorities, and rapid change while actively developing one’s skills and capabilities. Continuous learning - Builds Trust and Confidence- consistently act and communicate in ways that model organization’s values and demonstrate fairness, objectivity, integrity, responsibility and transparency. 2) Personality characteristics– to use role-playing, sensitiveness training and case studies to forward employees’ focus on this element. Honesty and Integrity –truthfulness, honor rest two level managers. (3) Flexibility : flexible for their working time as well as the ready for outside of the schedule time. Flexibility is the ability to adapt to and work with a variety of situations, individuals and groups. It is about being able to think on your feet, and not being disconcerted or stopped by the unexpected. Communication- Quality result orientation- Team work- These are also very important core competencies of first level management .
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