Importance and Development of Heritage Tourism in City of Bath (U.K)
This document of dissertation is focused on accessing and analyzing impacts of heritage tourism on inhabitants of an historic city. It gives a brief note on importance of Historic tourism which is otherwise called as heritage tourism. The report initially gives a brief description about the tourism industry and its types.
or any similar topic only for you
Latter further intensifying the area of focus, it describes the importance of heritage tourism in tourism industry. It explains about the economical and environmental benefits of heritage tourism industry. Few points about potential of heritage tourism in Great Britain were also discussed. Adequate focus is given to broadly classify the industry variables and in what way they shall affect the local resident’s socio-economic life.
Considering the theory of sustainable tourism a primary data samples are collected from local residents of a historic location. This survey is subjective to understand what factors are being responsible for affecting the local residents. After collecting data these factors are classified with respective to the sustainable tourism and are allocated with priority levels that would need attention very immediately.
These factors which are recognized to be a cause of negative impact on local residents are individually studied in reality and analyzed for designing a implementation level strategy which does govern according to sustainable tourism. Practical implementations that are being carried out and strategic concepts that are designed to bring out idealistic environment in the industry are simultaneously discussed. This gives clear picture of reality.
The United Kingdom is a united sovereign state, where tourism plays a very imperative division in the economic life of the state. Tourism is one of the most important and counted industry among few top industries in the world. Ever since the start of globalization tourism has kept leaping to heights, despite of many setbacks by factors like terrorist attacks. This industry has become most competitive and dynamic industry in rapid growing countries. Likewise U.K does also occupy large grounds on tourism. A report published by team tourism group in 2006 state that the average approximate spent by visitor in U. K. was ? 80 billion. This includes both national and international visitors. In particular the revenue generated by international visitors accounted for about 20% which is approximately ?16 billion.
Here the study is to understand the attitude or the opinion of the residents on the Bath city about the city being a heritage tourist place.
As per the sources of Heritage Lottery fund publishing, heritage tourism industry in U. K. contributes ?20 billion to U. K. economy.(18) This success also states that heritage is a major motivation behind the tourism expenditure of both overseas and domestic visitors. This industry supports an estimated employment opportunity of 195,000 full time equivalent jobs. The historic monuments which are well preserved in U. K. are fixed assets and are identifiable because of their past history and national, regional or religious significance. . Uk is highly rated as a nation brand in view of 6 major measures for tourism which are people, culture, heritage, exports, governance, investments and immigration. Research consistently projects that history, heritage and culture which includes cultural heritage as key strengths. Heritage tourism is a successful way and means for encouraging local people to spend more money on local areas. A successful implementation of heritage tourism can pave way to sustainable development.
Motivation for the Study: 1.1
Many industries of different scale are widely built purposely following globalization which involves huge inputs in different means. But whereas tourism industry is the only means that has potential of generating huge revenues not requiring major inputs following globalization.(1) Tourism is means of being global extent. It is one of the most important reliable industries that many developing countries are dependent on for their stable economy. It serves as the major purpose for several different segments of industries like logistics and Air travel.
Importance of heritage tourism in U.K.
United Kingdom is one such countries of the world that has been capable of retaining its cultural heritage over since long period of time from 18th centuries. Despite of rapid development in the social life style Britain has always been capable to restoring its cultural and historic integrity. This asset of Britain was capable of generating revenue of ?20 billion/annum approximately (3). This potential made heritage tourism to be one of the key areas to attract my focus.
Problems caused in tourism industry
Though tourism has a major play as huge revenue generating industry it certainly does have few drawbacks which is a setback for itself. Despite of several implementations being carried out to develop tourism on broad scale, in reality this is leading to evolvement of problems associated with social, cultural, economical well being of public residing at tourist place. Some most commonly associated problems that were recorded on study are (4)
1) Economic Problems.
2) Environmental Problems.
3) National Security Problems.
4) Unemployment Problems.
5) Traditional Problems.
These factors which are negative effects of tourism should also be concerned in order to bring out a strategically implementable solution that shall enhance the industry much further and above all it shall ensure the safety and convenience of both tourists as well as the local people residing in historic places. All of these observations have become my primary reasons to choose this particular topic of investigating on problems of tourism.
On the basis of our literature and primary research, we believe that through the development of the heritage tourism industry is there any negative impact on the residents of the city. And will it harm to be the sustainable tourist place in United Kingdom. Sustainability of beach tourism is a facilitator for the growth of the Indian tourism industry as it:
Attracts high spending tourists
Kindle enabling industries
Stimulates residential tourism
Promotes sustainability of Indian tourism
Will relocate the Indian tourism industry
Research Objectives 1.3
The main focus of this dissertation will be to evaluate the feeling of the local people of Bath about the arrival of tourists, it is concerned to identify the major problems faced by the people due to tourism and to rationalize the changes of growth along with the sustainable development.
Objective of the Research:
1) To bring out an understanding how historic tourism is important.
2) To understand U. K. tourism and it’s potential.
3) To understand the most significant places by means of factors governing them.
4) To finalize a place that is highly prone to be susceptible to have impact of tourism.
5) Impacts of tourism on local areas of historic places.
6) How local residents are affected and how do they feel about tourists
7) To understand and analyze the structure of sustainable tourism.
8) To understand relevance of sustainable tourism to historic places.
9) Economic importance of sustainable tourism.
10) Implementation of Sustainable tourism on local areas of historic tourist places.
11) To design measures that could be taken to enhance the situations better for mutual comfort of both tourists as well as local residents.
12) Predicted outcomes of measures and new strategies designed.
Scope of Study: 1.4
The study relates to the analysis about tourists visiting the city ofBathand ideas about local people living in and around the historic city ofBath. As discussed earlier, The City of Bath was chosen because it is one of the cities that had highest visitor population and more over is one of the places that have been capable of retaining the cultural and historical integrity of different traditions and several buildings. The study concentrates on the sustainable development of the city and the opinion about the people residing in Bath city and the problems faced by them due to the tourism.
Limitation of the Study: 1.5
The study precincts to the understanding of the opinion or the feeling of the people of bath city in concern to tourism, and the problems faced by them being in that city. The study is limited to some major problems faced by the residing public for being residing in the heritage tourist place, as it is in relation to social, cultural and of economical well being of the residents of Bath city. With respect to tourism industry, the country’s government plays a chief role and their offerings and power or of any other private organizations have not been analysed in detail.
Methodology of the Study: 1.6
The overall research consist analysis about tourists visiting the city of Bath and ideas about local people living in and around the historic city ofBath. As discussed earlier, The City of Bath was chosen because it is one of the cities that had highest visitor population and more over is one of the places that have been capable of retaining the cultural and historical integrity of different traditions and several buildings. The research methodology is implemented by means of a Statistical survey method. This method collects data from few samples and the overall majority is found out for each factor that is supposed to be investigated. The implementation of survey is done by means of either of the methods
1) Online survey.
2) In personal Survey.
Online survey is done by subscribing to few web service providers who render facilities to conduct and organize online research and survey. These vendors also provide tools to validate each samples report to get finalize an output differentiated category wise. In personal survey is carried by preparing paper based questionnaire forms and approaching each individual or sample in person and requesting them to fill in the questionnaire form. Other alternative methods can be implemented by distributing the survey questionnaire forms at the counter of each tourist location so that each visitor can be given a form when he or she purchases the tickets. Tools like Quantitative content analysis can be implemented to obtain the final outcome of the survey.
Collection of Data:
The primary source of data for this report is taken by an individual survey method. The data collected is conclusive statistics that is generated from ranking of parameters done by both tourist and local residents of bath city.
Several documentary data was reviewed in order to understand and examine about sustainability frame work. Few research statistics data was taken from survey reports which are conducted previously by standard organizations. The entire data which is necessary to support the survey and back ground reading was taken from sources of books, journals, statistical survey reports from standard organizations, Author’s referencing, Online web forms, magazines and various publication from tourist consultancies and organizations, marketing and promotional web sites. In point of making the process portable all of the mentioned sources are electronic based sources collected from World Wide Web.
Scheme of Chapterisation: 1.7
The study of “sustainable tourism in marina beach” consist of ten chapters
The first chapter deals with the introduction of the tourism, the motivation of the study, hypothesis, research objectives, scope of the study, limitation of the study, methodology, collection of data and the scheme of Chapterisation.
The second chapter deals with the background of the heritage tourism, its significance, the distribution of the heritage places and the overview of bath city
The third chapter deals with the background information of the study, repositioning strategies, the Porter’s generic strategies and Poon’s framework.
The fourth chapter deals with the sustainability of tourism, history and culture of bath, the attractions ofBath.
The fifth chapter narrates about the importance of heritage tourism, key issues of sustainability and its impact of the heritage tourism on the society or community.
The sixth chapter focuses on the sustainable tourism development.
The seventh chapter chooses to be the case study on the heritage tourism ofBathcity.
The eighth chapter tells us about Sustainable Tourism of theBathcity and its findings.
The ninth chapter describes the conclusion of the study.
Finally the tenth chapter on the recommendation of improvements and conclusion
Background information about United Kingdom Heritage Tourism
The primary types of tourism in U. K. are
1) Domestic Tourism
2) Inbound Tourism
3) Outbound Tourism
Domestic tourism is also called internal tourism. In this particular type of tourism visitors are residents of within country. As per data domestic tourism had remained broadly static with respective to number of trips made. Total number or trips have become shorter comparatively where as the overall spend has increased. In UK most of the domestic tourism is captured by four zones London, South East, South west and Scotland. This accounted for 61% of spend in uk. Relatively domestic tourism has increased in importance in the last decade. (53)
In bound tourism UK ranks 6th in the world tourism with respective of international tourist arrivals. Top 10 countries account for 60% of inbound spend. Of these U. S. A occupies significant margin in inbound tourism which is followed by Germany and France. In last decade most of the inbound tourism came from very limited countries counting from Europe,America. Whereas looking forward towards 2011 it is expected that most inbound trips will be from mature economic countries like India,Poland in terms of new visits.
United Kingdom ranks 3rd as the largest generator of international tourism expenditure. Most of the trips which are out bound from UK are to Mediterranean countries and European countries. In recent years of decade a significant rise in outbound tourism is seen to Australia and New Zealand. The growth in outbound trips is twice the growth of inbound trips with a ratios of 53% of trips and the average spend is of 59%.
U. K. is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for its rich heritage that has been preserved since decades and has earned huge reputation which attracts many tourists from different parts of the world. Heritage can often be referred to as anything that has been transmitted from the past. Especially like 
Original Culture and natural material
A built Environment
The archaeological resource
The natural heritage.
The awareness of heritage is sustained by multicultural society has been capable of maintaining significance or quality. This significance or quality is preserved for appreciation of current by future generations. U. K. is once such major contributor to the countries tourism industry. 
Central role of heritage:
Heritage acts as an important motivator for tourism within the U. K. by means of natural or cultural heritage. Eg. When we consider snowy mountains, it is an intrinsic part of snowboarding trip to cairngorms. When clubs are considered club scene from Manchester that have existed from very long periods attract weekend tourist mainly from London. This is a representation of cultural heritage. 
Economic Significance of heritage tourism:
As per the sources of Heritage Lottery fund publishing, heritage tourism industry in U. K. contributes ?20 billion to U. K. economy.(18) This success also states that heritage is a major motivation behind the tourism expenditure of both overseas and domestic visitors. This industry supports an estimated employment opportunity of 195,000 full time equivalent jobs. The historic monuments which are well preserved in U. K. are fixed assets and are identifiable because of their past history and national, regional or religious significance. . UK is highly rated as a nation brand in view of 6 major measures for tourism which are people, culture, heritage, exports, governance, investments and immigration. Research consistently projects that history, heritage and culture which includes cultural heritage as key strengths. Heritage tourism is a successful way and means for encouraging local people to spend more money on local areas. A successful implementation of heritage tourism can pave way to sustainable development.
NUMBER OF VISITOR ATTRACTIONS IN THE U. K.(Source: Heritage & Tourism locum Destination Review 2:2000)
ATTRACTION CATEGORYENGLANDSCOTLANDWALESN. IRELANDTOTAL
HISTORIC HOUSES AND MONUMENTS448101388595
CATHEDRALS & CHURCHES1851144204
MUSEUMS & GALLERIES563107399718
% OF ATRACTIONS761563
Distribution of heritage tourist places:
From the previous study it is quite transparent that the total potential volume of tourism is measured in terms of the number of arrivals to particular place and the total spend. These factors help to distinguish the regional share of UK tourism spend. Thought there are few discrepancies in allocating the absolute regional share of tourism spend statistics project that North Ireland and North east account for only 1% and 2% respectively. Where as London has 27% share. Among all regions, four regions London, South West, South East and Scotland contribute to 61% of spend by visitors in UK. The figure below shows the regional distribution of tourism.  It is quite evident that London, south east and south west of U. K. are the primary areas that are prone to most tourist attraction.
Courtesy: U. K State of Tourism Final Report.
REGIONAL SHARE (2006)
(SOURCES: UK STATE OF TOURISM FINAL REPORT 2008, TEAM TOURISM)PLACETRIPS (% OF U. K. TOTAL)SPEND (% OF U. K. TOTAL)DOMESTICINBOUNDTOTALDOMESTICINBOUNDTOTALLONDON94817114927SOUTH WEST141314121011SOUTH EAST1671418512EAST OFENGLAND868656WEST MIDLANDS756535EAST MIDLANDS736524YORKSHIRE847735NORTH WEST118101169NORTH EAST323322WALES837825SCOTLAND1081013911NORTHERN IRELAND212211
Overview about most popular historic towns in U. K.
A survey conducted by North West development agency commissioned to ask 35,000 people to rank among 1000 places as their preferred category for tourism. This study concluded places with many number of historic buildings and which is capable of preserving heritage on top rank. The York was ranked as first and bath as second close to oxford. The figure below describes the popularity indication reported through survey conducted.
Source: Research for theNorth Westvisitor Research program 2009 -10
(Locum Consulting and Arkenford Ltd)
Selection of Location for Implementing Research & Analysis:
With respective to the study made from above it is understood that the primary factors that decide the potential of a historic tourist place by
1) Number of tourists visiting a historic place. (Inbound visits of a place)
2) Popularity rank of a historic place.
Looking for both factors said above we summarize the area of implementation of research. Londonstays the top priority of the regional share list with domestic share of 9% and inbound share of 48% of trips made in U. K. It has total spend value of 27% in total of both domestic and inbound. South west is 2nd on the list with trips share of 14% in domestic and 13% in inbound where as its total spends percentage is 11 in total.
On the other hand when we compare statistics of total number of historic buildings found in one placeYorkstands on top of the list with 1050 listed buildings and bath stands next in second place with 850 building. With respective to these two statistics it can be concluded that South west which is standing second on number of visits and revenue generation and Bath which located in south west having second most number of listed historic sites to be best place to pursue research on finding the impact of heritage tourism. Bath is not only well noted for its historic sites but is also well renowned for its roman structure of natural bath pools built on natural hot glaciers that exists even till date.
Overview about City of Bath:
City of bath is located in ceremonial county of Somersetin South west of England. It is 97 miles from west of London and 13 miles away from south east of Bristol. In the year of 1889 it was made the county borough. It later became part of Avon when Avon was created in 1974 and it became completely independent in the year of 1996 when Avon was abolished and became the unitary authority of Bath and North east Somerset. Bath was recognized as part of world heritage in the year of 1987 by UNESCO. It is predominantly known for its blend of roman architecture. Most of the historic structures in bath show archaeological evidence of Celtic, roman and Saxon. The City has a wide variety of theatres, sporting venues, historic museums and cultural venues. Site of roman baths which are built on natural glaciers are the predominant attraction in bath. Tourism is one of the principle industries of Bath. It records with more than one million staying and 3.8 millions of day visitors.
Tourism is defined as a practice or act of travelling to places of particular interest either for recreational, promotional, business or entertainment purposes (Merriam Webster Dictionary). Tourists are the people who travel to a place or stay at a place away from their normal environment of living. (U. N. W. T. O united world tourism barometer; U. N. W. T. O World Tourism). Tourism is regarded as the most efficient means of contributing to national income despite of its minimal number of inputs and investments (The importance of tourism; W. T. O reports 2009). Tourism industry has become one of the most popular activities for global leisure. The overall international tourists grew about 1.9% in the year of 2008 compared to the year of 2007, which is very drought and dry situation for world business call Credit Crunch or World Recession. This indicates the scale of potential levels for tourism industry (The importance of tourism; W. T. O reports 2005). A net revenue of $944 billion US dollars is generated through international tourism in the year 2008 ( UNWTO World Tourism Barometer January 2010; World Tourism Organization. January 2010). It is estimated that there shall be an average growth of about 4% every year in the world.
Among the various industries in the world, tourism is one of the largest industries. The tourism industry has become one of the huge income generation areas in developed and developing countries. And though it is producing huge income from the industry, there is also has its impact on the local communities and its environment if the things are not properly managed. Today tourism is growing in an unbelievable extent. There are various factors which have lead to the growth in the increase in tourism activities. The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) have found that tourism and other travel concerned activities have contributed of about 12% of the world’s Gross domestic product in the year 2010. The ecotourism is one thing we need to more concentrate about. According to World Trade Organization has pinioned to make the entire tourism and travelling more sustainable, though attaining this objective is not an easy task, and it is even risky of maintaining Ecotourism. It is in need to be enforced of acclimatize the natural and cultural activities and the resources conservation in most of the nations. The Heritage ecotourism is an evident in the form of nature preserves and ecology programs.
According to David Lowenthal 1996, “the history explores and explains pasts grown even more opaque over time; heritage clarifies pasts so as to infuse them with present purposes….But heritage, no less than history, is essential to knowing and acting. Its many faults are inseparable from heritage’s essential role in husbanding community, identity, continuity, indeed history itself.” (The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History,London&New York). The paper hunts for to analyze the mobilization approach, organizational structure and the process of adaption in the case of heritage tourism. This is to resolve the level headed heritage tourism mission which optimizes the economic benefit on a sustainable manner. Some of the major negotiations and the spat of various instigators on examining and analyzing the heritage tourism and its significance are discussed beneath to append quintessence for the study.
Repositioning Strategies: 3.1
This segment will weigh up an assortment of tourism stratagem mould which demonstrates the recompense of discriminating United Kingdom tourism product against developing sustainable heritage tourism in Bath city. Budding of sustainable tourism market in United Kingdom is an integral step towards the creation of a more differentiated tourism industry. Heritage tourism has got the prospective power to develop the economic vivacity of copious society. The models are to save and improve the alertness, admiration and even the maintenance of the United Kingdom’s corporal and insubstantial heritage. The subsequent models demonstrate about the tourism strategies.
Porter’s three generic strategies 3.2
At fore most the model of Porter has been considered; that it advocates that spirited policy “It is the search for a favourable competitive position in an industry” (Porter 1985). Competitiveness in an exacting field which concentrates on the sustainability of extensive term efficiency. The author Porter has demonstrated that competitive pro be able to be documented all the way through the selection of a basic strategy that best frenzy the industries aggressive atmosphere. Differentiation, cost leadership and market focus are the basic strategies of Porter. The first two that is differentiation and cost leadership are applicable to the whole industry but if is considered to be doing in particular segment analysis then its good and optimal to go for focus through differentiation or through cost leadership.
Porter’s first generic strategy is differentiation. This differentiation strategy includes of improving the number of customers and their value by allowing the premium to be included in the price of the product or service. There are various government policies revealed to increase the number of customers as of tourists and also in relation to helping the residents by managing the tourists, the tourism in United Kingdom can also be increased by providing the tour offers in special attractive fare or it can be unique in price premium. The United Kingdom has got the having best history and culture it is also in need of sustainability of the heritage tourism but for any country, the sustainability is very much in need to protect the tourism industry in meaningful manner for both overseas people and also for the resident. It can be used as a diagram of an industry-wide differentiation strategy to make up the tourist place somewhat unique. But along with these some of the inherited or followed up values need to be added to give more quality. Porter has demonstrated that when there exists the competition in the prices of tourism and if it becomes cost effective then there he has mentioned that favouritism alleviate struggle since price struggle is ferocious when merchandise are perceived to be close up substitutes. As of by making or bringing out differentiation in the United Kingdom tourism there will be in the prices of the tourism among the competitors, and even reduces the cut off prices.
To enjoin the United Kingdom tourism to achieve a good sustainable growth for more duration, the industry need to face many important situations it may be as of the price competition, or quality competition and even there will be market up gradation and revolution as of to attract the tourists who are the customers here in the industry to accept the offers of the industry to have the sustainable growth in the industry for over a long period of time.
One of the important things is of in case to accomplish the growth in the industry in a sustainable manner the industry need to face many important challenges in the market to attract customers. This can be achieved by the method of diversification process in the tourism industry. The requirement for a Heritage Tourism Strategy has by no means been additional apparent.
The above said concept can be achieved by the process of diversification in the tourism product of theUnited Kingdomby providing the best quality. And we know that the quality can be achieved by bri8nging out development in the process of providing services, the facilities as of spa, infrastructure, the placement of seaports and airports in the city. The convenience facility provided for the tourists and it also add values as of by adding ancillary products and services along with the particular in need things. There is need to develop the ecotourism in a manner to be eco friendly. It needs to be helpful and leading to the sustainable growth of the tourism sector especially the heritage tourism of the country.
By applying the strategy of cost leadership it helps to earn higher profits in the way of charging the same price as the competitors or even below than the competitors within the tourism industry. The cost leadership strategy can also acts as an obstacle for further new entrants in to the industry, which may harm the sustainable growth of the heritage tourism in the country. It also helps to increase the number of tourists and also the increase in profits. The strategy even also helps to gain in the business the leadership by entering the market with the reduced prices of the offering services to the customers and it helps to attract the customers and reduce the cost. It increases the economies of scale.
This is one of the strategy which leads to attract the customers by means of providing the differentiated products with the premium features included. It will be less price elastic as of compared to the competitors products and services. In this strategy average amount of profits will be earned.
And the other strategy is of including any one of the cost leadership process or the differentiation strategy as of need to concentrate on one particular and in need to serve the specific needs. There are two kinds; first one is to focus on to achieve the lower costs as of more than the competitors. It focuses on the unique tourism product as of either the cost related factors or differentiation factors. It would be best effective move towards sustainability of the heritage tourism in United Kingdom.
Poon has postulated that for the travel and tourisms has given four principles to develop competitive strategies.
Tourism and Sustainability
To develop the sustainable tourism has become the most important factor of any place. Sustainable tourism is one which tries to restrict the causes to the surroundings or the environment, does not affect the culture of the place and increase the economy of the country. Sustainable tourism is to be established with the objective of improving the good experience in the mean time of the tourism both for the local people and also for the visitors. There will not be any particular increase or decrease in the growth of the profit that can be made from the tourism, as of in making the profit activities from the tours and travels, there may be some specific places which will be visited only in certain seasons and even the economy will be high during those seasons.
To have the sustainable growth of the tourism there need to be eco friendly that is said to be ecotourism; it is actually totally concentrating on the wild life and the culture of the community of the region. But one more factor is that such communities may not be able go for any other sources of income, they may totally depend on the tourist activities as their mean source of income in the cultured countries. But still sustainable tourism is not such an easy task as we say but it is an optimistic objective and it is in need to achieve the ecotourism. This kind is in total concentrating on the protection of the wild life, environment and the heritage cultures brought up. Due to the visit of extensive tourists the environment will be disturbed to the maximum extent so it will be difficult to achieve the sustainability, so it will be complicated to get benefit out of such improvements. It is such an attempt to develop all kinds of tourism whether it is nature based or city based or of heritage.
Ecotourism can be called as a type of tourism that spotlights completely on natural world, environment, or “from abroad” cultures.
Heritage is something that has been transferred from past including especially the original culture, the built in environment, tangible and intangible heritage, the archeological resource and even the natural heritage. That ‘heritage’ is professed by means of our multicultural humanity as include a eminence or consequence that formulate it significance safeguard for its be in possession of sake and for the
Pleasure of modern and outlook generations. The UK’s inheritance as such is a most important supplier to the country’s tourism industry. All over again, ‘tourism’ requirements some essential.
A tourist visit is more often than not defined as a journey away from the traveler’s standard put of dwelling eternal at least a day or an all night. In attendance can be a lot of motive or inspiration for the visit. These are by and large categorized as:
• Industry purpose;
• Local holiday complete (A packaged trip);
• Visiting friends and relatives;
• Higher Study;
• Other purposes (including checkup visits, pilgrimages, etc).
These are some of the main reasons of visit. It is understood that the business purpose visited person does these categories are the ‘main purpose of visit’. There is nothing to preclude a Business visitor spending part of a visit indulging in heritage-related activities, so all categories are relevant to the heritage. A day visit is defined as a trip away from the place of normal residence for a minimum of three hours, excluding regular trips such as to one’s place of work. Extended shopping expeditions count as day visits – especially where shopping is a leisure activity rather than just a means of acquiring necessary goods. As with tourist visits, day visits may have multiple motivations.
The terms “Heritage” and “civilization” have turn out to be identical and elastic. In the background of the art for instance, the use of the word “culture” relates to a society’s the past, attitude, principles, civilization and picture as apparent in an artistic format. Society will often hold in your arms original and natural heritage, depending ahead the outlook of the advocate. For the principle of this Strategy, the following operational definitions are engaged:
• Heritage Tourism:
Sustainable tourism goings-on with the purpose of are, or can be, associated to material or intangible heritage.
• Physical Heritage:
Counting but not imperfect to build organization and surrounds; enlightening landscapes; momentous sites, neighborhood and confines; carcass, archaeological and marine sites; sites connected with mining, business, scientific and agricultural heritage; sites of significant proceedings and memorial; collection that house or cooperatively uphold objects of legacy significance (eg general Trust attractions, museums, go round, shadow and festivals) and fashioned setting (eg botanic and communal precincts).
The History & culture of bath
The city of bath is one of the most renowned city in the world. It is famously knows for its Roman structures. Some of them are Hadrian’s Wall in the north of theEngland, Roman built baths spa’s. The city is built around the hot spring waters with variety of roman and medieval structures. The historic footsteps of bath start from past dating back 8000BC which was then treated as shrine for many years. This belief started when the banished celtic prince was cured of leprosy after taking bath in the pools ofhot springsand was declared as heir prince again. He latter built a shrine and dedicated it to the goddess Aquae sulis.
This was soon recognized by roman’s latter after 800 years and they built theBathhouse in 43AD. This latter expanded in to series of bath spas at many places where ever a natural spring was found. These were dedicated to the roman goddess Minerva latter on.
Latter after many hundreds of generations the roman baths turned out in to ruins on lack of maintenance and builders. This was again invaded by Saxons Gloucester and cirencester in 6th century along with roman settlers of bath. In 973 AD a mint was built in bath by the first king ofEngland king Edgar. Latter on bath passed in to hands of English.
Since the ruling of bath passed in to many hands of civilizationsBathdoes have a blend of mixed cultures. It consists of Roman, Celtic, Saxon and medieval culture as well. In recent yearsBathbecame the leading focus for fashion life inEngland. Several theaters were established in bath. Currently bath has 5 most renowned theater which are globally recognized and several filming companies and directors have been visitingBathever since then. The city organizes an international music festival every year which is very long tradition sourcing about 20 concerts. Apart from this bath organizes several other festivals likeBathfringe festival,Bathbeer festival in an interval of every two and half years.
Geography & Location:
Bath is located in south west of England. It lies to the outskirts of Somerset County. Its geographical location is 97 miles from west of London and 13 miles from south east of Bristol. Bath is at the south side of the Avon valley on the edges of Cotswolds. Bath was formed range of limestone hills on lansdown plateau at an altitude of 238 meters. The steep hills of bath give it a beautiful look as the buildings of residence appears to climb up the hill. The flood streams of the river Avonrun amid of the city center. This flood streams have kept damaging the city building at some parts till a massive construction works to control the flood streams were built in the year 1970.
The natural Geo thermal springs from the mendip hill covers as showers over the limestone sediments and percolates to a depth of about 2700 to 4300 meters. Here the geothermal energy which is generated due to high pressure and temperatures below the earth’s crust raises the water temperature to 40 to 90 degrees. The high pressure that is created by heated water pushes the water to surface through small fissures. These formed in to natural hot spring spas of bath.
Attractions of Bath:
One of the current day attractions that still exist are the Roman baths. These are still preserved and many development programs are being done to take care of these heritage assets. The roman bath complex has the sacred spring, the roman temple, the roman bath house, Findings and remains of the roman bath.
The sacred Spring:
The sacred spring is the hot waters naturally occurring from earth, this is the heart of the roman bath complex. This natural action which happens due to lime sediments present in the hill of Mendip. The spring water comes out at a temperature of 46 degrees. This was treated to be a gift from god in ancient roman ruling. Several objects and remains like large collection of coins were found on the bed which was thrown in to the bath as offerings. People who are considered cursed used to write on sheet of lead and roll them up and throw in to the spring.
The Roman Bath House:
The pool which is converted in to place of bath house is enclosed in a large hall which now turned in to ruins except for the walk way and the huge columns around the bath. The pool is lined with lead all around that contains the spring. Part of walk around used to have benches for the roman’s to relax which do currently not exist.
Left: The Roman Bath Spa, Right: The head of Romano- Celtic Gorgon’s Head in museum
Source: Roman Bath Discovered Barry Conifer
The Roman Findings:
The huge collection that was found on bed of spring included coins, valuables gift items etc these were placed in the museum. Several other large artifacts which were collected from the bath complex were also displayed in this museum. The artefacts included altar corner stones, jewellery, fragments of roman priest’s heads, Plates, bowels and dishes. The art and structure of these items simply boast about the blend of roman art and craft.
The Pump House:
A pump house was built in 18th century slightly above the roman baths which is part of the bath complex. The pump house and the assembly rooms became the centers of bath society in beau nashs time. People were permitted to purchase a glass of water to drink and to prepare tea. Although most of the people did not liked the taste due to high content of minerals they still afforded to purchase believing the legend of holiness.
The New Modern Thermae Bath Spa:
The ancient bath house was closed in the year of 1979 on an account of death of a girl who had swimming in roman bath. On research it was found that the girl was infected with amoebic meningitis caused by a species of amoeba called Naegleria Fowlerii. This was revealed when the waters of bath was tested. This led to a permanent close of bath. But on the demand of the city to have functioning of the Roman Bath funds were raised from the millennium fund. New Baths were opened in the year of august 2006 after postponement from year of 2002 and 2003 with a cost of ?45 million a staggering raise in cost from initial projected cost of ?13 millions.
This new modernBathis called “Thermae Bath Spa”. These are housed and surrounded by modern glass building with a range of facilities and most importantly still having natural thermal waters. The new Thermae included The Royal Bath, Hot and cross baths, spa visitor centers. It won several awards for its design. It was listed and awarded the Best Spa 2007 award after a survey was conducted by the daily telegraph. This was also given a Silver award for the Best tourism Experience – 2007.
Initially a church was constructed very close to the roman bath house in mid of 8th century which was demolished by the invasion of Normans. A big church replacing the earlier was built by Normans in 1090. Since the church is very large enough maintenance had become difficult to upkeep the church. Latter during dissolution of monasteries lead, iron and glass were removed and left to ruins.
The current abbey was built on the land area of these two churches after a national fund being raised by Queen Elizabeth- I. Bits and pieces of construction is still going on till date. During this process the organ has been restored and beautiful bath stone was cleaned which is worshiped since Roman period. This church is officially now called as The AbbeychurchofSaint Peter. This is also commonly called as Bath Abbey. The interior of the church is filled with light coming from 52 windows that occupies about 80% of space of the wall area. This yielded the name “The Lantern of the West”. The blazed glasses lying on one side of the church illustrates about story of Jesus Christ.
This church has been listed as a Grade 1listed building and turned out to be an active place of worship and now turned out to be a huge tourist spot.
Bathhouses many number of museum of varied collections. Each of baths museums display a particular genre of items as listed below.
The American museum in Britain: This museum displays decorative arts, furniture, paintings, glass work, textiles, folk art etc belonging to period of 17th century to 19th century. This museum is famous for display of American patch work and quilts.
Bath Postal museum: This museum displays huge collection and history of postal services inBritain. It houses several videos, pictures, visual display models and audio tapes about the postal department ofBritain.
Beckford’s Tower: this is a neoclassical tower built by William Beckford and by architect Henry Edmund in 1827. It stands 120 feet high that helps to have view of the surroundings of the country side. It is just like a watch tower and is very quiet place for study.
The Building of Bath Museum: This displays how town grew from 18th century. It also displays tools, pattern books and architectural fragments.
The fashion Museum: it is located in the assembly room of bath house. It displays collections of both men and women from 18th century to the present day.
Herschel Museum of astronomy: this museum is devoted to William Herschel and his family who are called family of astronomers. William Herschel is the one who discovered planet Uranus in 1781. All work done by family is demonstrated in it.
The Holburne Museum of Art: this museum is located in classic Georgian Townhouse that belongs to sir William holburn. This displays Sir Williams collection of silver, paintings and several other art and decorative. Late after sir Williams more number of art collections dating from roman period to 1900 was added to this museum.
The Museum of bath at work: this museum was founded by J.B. Bowler a Victorian brass founder, engineer and mineral water manufacturer. This museum displays various settings with different machines and some of them with working machinery. Additionally this museum displays work done on bath, a 2000 years of earning, living and mining bath stone.
The museum of East Asian Art: this museum display collectables of ceramic works, jades, bronzes any many craft works carried from chinaJapan,Korea, and south east Asia.
The Royal Crescent: The royal crescent is one of the most fabulous buildings ofBritain. It is marked as Grade 1 building and it is also registered under scheme of developments for 200 year age buildings list. Royal Crescent is currently a residential road of 30 houses. It was built during the period of 1767 and 1774. The royal crescent was designed by the architect John Wood the younger. It is one of the greatest standing buildings of Georgian architecture found inEngland. The royal crescent is symbolism of massiveness which was particular interest for both John Wood the elder and John wood the younger. The residential flats of royal crescent served several notable people for more than 200 years; most predominant and distinguished of them was Frederick Duke the Duke of York who lived in 1 and 16. It is then the crescent foundation was given the adjective ‘The Royal’.
The design done by wood appears to be a great curve of 30 houses of three storeys with similar columns on a ground. Each of these columns is 30 inches wide in diameter and 47 feet in height. The houses were designed and built by different architects hired by purchaser of each facade.
TheRoyal Crescentnow has a hotel and museum with some of the residential flats converted in to office flats. Though many changes were made to the interiors of the crescent building the outer look remained the same as it was initially built. The front ofRoyal Crescentis ‘Ha-Ha’ a trench with the inners vertical and faced with stone. This gives an effect that the fence was sunken.
The Royal Crescent with it is stone engravings and architecture has gained a lot of attraction by several notified people and tourist across. The center garden of crescent is a place for launch of hot air balloons. This added much to its attraction. The royal crescent was chosen as famous venue for many film making and shootings. Some of the movies that were extensively taken at the royal crescent are Catch us if you can (1965), the wrong box (1966), Oliver (1968), who will buy sequence etc.
Sources: The Royal Crescent Society
The King Circus:
The Circus was designed by John wood the elder an architect who is also a son of bath builder. The very first start of construction of Circus added an attractive commentary. When Wood was in his teens he had a passion and vision for bath along with his modern architectural ideas. He came back fromLondonwhile working as an architect to transform his native place. The architecture of bath was primarily inspired from the roman architecture. The whole design of the circus exactly is like a mirror image of the massive colosseum. The tiers of columns exactly depicted the colosseum. He was also fascinated by prehistoric stone circles. But implementing in reality the massive structure of colosseum was reduced to fit in the place of bath. The parapet walls of the circus are designed with acorns which resembled the ancient wonder creations of Druids.
The circus is a circular rim of terrace with houses on top and surrounded by large town houses around. In mid of the circular rim of terrace it was divided in to three segments called facades. It exactly looks like a three lines intersecting in mid of the circle with its other ends forming the triangle around the circle. These straight lines are the Main entrances for the circus. The three are divided such that in whichever way a visitor may enter the circus he sees a Classic facade in front of him. Finally the circus remained only as a vision of John Wood the elder’s vision except for laying out the foundation stone till it started. It was his son John Woods the younger who took over the design and completed its construction in the year of 1768.
In construction of the circus three orders of style were used the Greek, Roman and Corinthian were used one above the other in each facade. The inner set of the circus is decorated with triglyphs and 525 pictorial emblems. These emblems include serpents, nautical symbols, devices representing the arts and sciences and various Masonic symbols.
The Circus, Sources: The circus English heritage
Pulteney Bridge is one of the most significant among four bridges having shops in the world. This bridge lies across the river Avon from bath to bathwick. This bridge is named after frances Pultney of bathwick estate. Initially the bridge started with a plan for a new small town latter when adam started designing the bridge these elegant structures lined with shops came in to design and then latter in to life. The bridge latter took many forms of design when it was renovated for extension and latter for floods. The fancy beautiful look of bridge came out when the shopkeepers extended their shops by cantilevering. Gradually the beauty of bridge became of national fame and was considered as national monument. It is one of the best known for its Georgian architecture.
The Pulteney Bridge, Sources: The English heritage.
Importance of Heritage Tourism
The heritage tourism section corresponds to one of the uppermost give up tourism collection, to the front of both customary accumulation market and other location tourism spectators such as arts. Heritage tourists pay out 38% additional per day, and stay 34% longer than customary tourists and expend 20% more and stay 22% longer than fine art oriented tourists.
• As an effect, far above the ground yields and growing numbers produce Employment as of about 10 new jobs for each among the 1000 tourists, and this course even stimulates the selling activities. And the study says that the heritage tourists purchases is more compared to other nature visitors and this in turn leads increase the tax amount and also improves the property values.
• Management venture curriculum has extensively leveraged supplementary endowment starting administration, confidential and humanitarian sources. (E.g. 20 percent return to a state’s financial system for every dollar the situation invests)
• Heritage sightseeing stimulates both profundity and wideness in tourism, creates new-fangled market for local and borough arts and craft, make longer visiting the attraction time of year, and support revision of existing products (i.e. somewhere to live; tours).
• Tradition and momentous visiting the hold is globally gorgeous to management because it has confirmed a capability to make a payment to the reconstruction of provincial and municipal urban areas.
• Contrasting many tourism stuffs, remarkable and inheritance tourism can broaden profitable benefits transversely superior environmental vicinity through themed pursue and motivating routes, rather than fixed in single locations.
• In attendance is a predisposition for heritage tourists to stay and spend on somewhere to stay provided within villages, towns and cities, unlike nature-based tourists who take a trip with larger levels of independence.
• Heritage tourism assets are sustainable from side to side restoration or adaptation processes, usually at noticeably a smaller amount disbursement than compulsory for completely new facilities (i.e. theme parks, galleries, and museums), and keep hold of greater legitimacy.
Significance of activities in decision to come to Britain on a leisure visit:
Visiting ‘heritage’ sites/castles/monuments/churches/etc 37%
Exploring historic/interesting towns/cities 29%
Visiting artistic/heritage exhibits 29%
Attending performing arts, etc (theatre/cinema/opera/ballet)18%
Visiting gardens 16%
Pleasure motoring 4%
Source: Overseas Visitor Survey 1996
There are major four key issues for the purpose sustainability of the heritage tourism:
According to Locum’s analysis has provided four key issues in front of heritage tourism development: access and inclusion, sustainability, competitiveness is called as catalysis.
Access has become one of the very important issues until the central government has some concentration on the tourism sector. The access refers to all the concepts as of in the manner of broader, more enjoyable and all in detail in all concerns of the heritage factors. Including both natural and even the cultural heritage. The accessibility for all the concerned people even including the disabled people will be the great thing. And even in the manner to help the handicapped ones in the service and helpful for other culture background people helpful to understand the language and culture in deep and in detail.
• Inclusion have common characteristics with access as of providing due attention to social cluster that strength not normally advantage from a tradition program, not slightest minority cultural groups.
• Teaching refers and includes the schools and colleges plus all additional characteristic of prescribed learning. Learning and enduring knowledge refer
to all portion of relaxed education and education for oneself, at all ages. Information and communications technology is of growing
significance in providing wider, deeper and wealthier right of entry to many
portion of the heritage and permit it to be seen in wider and
supplementary wide-ranging contexts.
Sustainable tourism can be achieved by including both the natural as well as the heritage tourism and we need to concentrate on the possible negative impacts that may affect by the tourism activities for the local residents or the visitors. It is not such an easy task as we say. According to International
Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS) has given up in detail the seven principles for the process of sustainable tourism, especially the heritage tourism in the country. And in deed need to be considering both in the long term as well as in the short term and in the case of economic development and by the case of environmental conservation.
According to him the two principles are as follows:
Two of the principles read:
•There is needed to be managing the proper relationship between the tourism and the environment to get the sustainability access for the long term. The relationship between tourism and the environment must be in need to be maintained for the long duration, without allowing the environment to get harmed.
• In any location, agreement must be required sandwiched between the needs of
The visitor, the position and the congregation community. These principles Conceptualized sustainability in tourism in terms of balance stuck between visiting the attractions and the natural environment, harmony between tenant and guest. Such philosophies are priceless, but target managers need a more tactically and commercially focused come within reach of to the difficulty of sustainability, as shown in the diagram:
• Regeneration: ‘heritage’ be imaginary to not be painstaking in loneliness, but
in the larger social and economic context.
• Conservation: fortification of the supply against dreadful conditions, worsening and injure.
• Manufactured goods regeneration and augmentation, in the case of much tradition based magnetism, to make certain that (at a least amount) they stay behind nice-looking and easy to get to, and if at all probable that admission (of all variety) recover over time. The notion apply not barely to sole Hold, but in adding together to wider target such as country parks and town midpoint.
• Take-home pay torrent are needed to cover the long-lasting costs of Management and renewal to give surety the long-term future of the
• Manifold use of a heritage resource and/or its associated facilities help in cooperation to bind the supply into a support network and to Generate supplementary returns streams.
• Reproduction visits – expectant by manifold uses and brawny product Restitution – are essential to numerous tradition objectives. Smooth destinations that reach maximum capacity on many days can benefit beginning additional replicate stopover at non-peak times.
1. Financial contributions.
2. Alternate employment.
3. Increasing the environmental awareness.
4. Improving environmental planning and management
Negative impact of tourism occurs when the level of visitors’ use is greater than the environmental ability to cope with the situation within the acceptable limits of change.
Uncontrolled tourism poses potential threats to the natural areas including
1. Depletion of resources
2. Pressure on land and resources
3. Land degradation (owing to natural world trails and other facilities to the tourists)
Tourism development can put pressure on natural resources when it increases consumption in areas where resources are already scarce.
The tourism industry generally overuses water resources for hotels, swimming pools, golf courses and personal use of water by tourists. This can result in water shortages and degradation of water supplies, as well as generating a greater volume of waste water. In drier regions like the Mediterranean, the issue of water scarcity is of particular concern. Because of the hot climate and the tendency of tourists to consume more water when on holiday than they do at home, the amount used can run up to 440 litres a day. This is almost double what the inhabitants of an average Spanish city use.
Beach tourism maintenance can also deplete fresh water resources. In recent years beach tourism has increased in popularity and the number of resorts has also grown rapidly. Beach Tourism requires an enormous amount of water every day and this also is a source of natural sources depletion. If the water comes from wells, over-pumping can cause saline intrusion into groundwater.
Tourism can create great pressure on local resources like energy, food, and other raw materials that may already be in short supply. Greater extraction and transport of these resources exacerbates the physical impacts associated with their exploitation. Because of the seasonal character of the industry, many destinations have ten times more inhabitants in the high season as in the low season. A high demand is placed upon these resources to meet the high expectations tourists often have (proper heating, hot water, etc.)
Important land resources include fertile soil, forests, wetlands and wildlife. Increased construction of tourism facilities has increased the pressure on these resources and on scenic landscapes. Direct impact on natural resources in the provision of tourist facilities can be caused by the use of land for accommodation and other infrastructure provision, and the use of building materials. Forests often suffer negative impacts of tourism in the form of deforestation caused by fuel wood collection and land clearing.
Tourism can cause the same forms of pollution as any other industry:
Solid waste and littering
Releases of sewage
Oil and chemicals
Even architectural/visual pollution
Air pollution and noise
Transport by air, road, and rail is continuously increasing in response to the rising number of tourists and their greater mobility. Tourism now accounts for more than 60% of air travel.
One study estimated that a single transatlantic return flight emits almost half the CO2 emissions produced by all other sources (lighting, heating, car use, etc.) consumed by an average person yearly. Air pollution from tourist transportation has impacts on the global level, especially from CO2 emissions related to transportation energy use. And it can contribute to severe local air pollution., cars, buses, (+ snowmobiles and jet skis) In addition to causing annoyance, stress, and even hearing loss for humans, it causes distress to wildlife and can cause animals to alter their natural activity patterns.
Solid waste and littering
In areas with high concentrations of tourist activities and appealing natural attractions, waste disposal is a serious problem and improper disposal can be a major despoiler of the natural environment – rivers, scenic areas, and roadsides. For example, cruise ships in theCaribbeanare estimated to produce more than 70,000 tons of waste each year. Solid waste and littering can degrade the physical appearance of the water and shoreline and cause the death of marine animals. In mountain areas, trekking tourists generate a great deal of waste. Tourists on expedition leave behind their garbage, oxygen cylinders and even camping equipment. Such practices degrade the environment with all the detritus typical of the developed world, in remote areas that have few garbage collection or disposal facilities.
Construction of hotels, recreation and other facilities often leads to increased sewage pollution. Wastewater has polluted seas and lakes surrounding tourist attractions, damaging the flora and fauna. Sewage runoff causes serious damage to coral reefs because it stimulates the growth of algae, which cover the filter-feeding corals, hindering their ability to survive. Sewage pollution threatens the health of humans and animals.
Often tourism fails to integrate its structures with the natural features and indigenous architectural of the destination. Large, dominating resorts of disparate design can look out of place in any natural environment and may clash with the indigenous structural design. A lack of land-use planning and building regulations in many destinations has facilitated sprawling developments along coastlines, valleys and scenic routes. The sprawl includes tourism facilities themselves and supporting infrastructure such as roads, employee housing, parking, service areas, and waste disposal.
Sustainable tourism development
Sustainable tourism development should be seen as an adaptive paradigm which is part of the parental concepts of development and sustainable development. As a result sustainable tourism development should aim at contributing to the objectives of sustainable development and development. The concept of sustainable development has become a ‘buzzword’ within the international development community (Ahn et al., 2002). The concept developed as a result of a global concern over the degradation of the world’s natural resource base due to economic development. Sustainable development aims at maintaining a balance between environmental quality and economic development. Sustainable development is defined by the World Commission on Environment WCED (1987: 43) as ‘development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.’ The basic principle of sustainable development is inter generational equity: development is sustainable only to the extent that needs, today, can be fulfilled without prejudice to those of future generations (WCED, 1987). This means that the present generation should leave for the next generation a stock of quality-of-life assets no less than those we have inherited (Pearce et al., 1989). Sustainable development promotes development that maintains environmental quality and increased productivity. This suggests a development approach that takes into consideration environmental impacts instead of being controlled purely by market forces.
In relation to tourism development, the meaning of sustainable development has been broadened into a concept that implies long-term viability of good quality natural and human resources (Ahn et al., 2002; Bramwell & Lane, 1993). Sustainable development includes the improvement in the quality of life for host communities, visitor satisfaction, and conservative use of natural and social resources (Ahn et al., 2002; Hunter & Green, 1995; WTO, 1996). Sustainable development is therefore an important concept as far as tourism development is concerned. This is because tourism places additional pressures on the environmental resources upon which it is based and can compromise the future prospects of the local population, and indeed, the expectations of the tourists themselves (Cater, 1991). Tourism as an economic activity is often in danger of destroying the resource base upon which it depends. Plog (1974) states that tourism ‘contains the seeds of its own destruction. Tourism can kill tourism, destroying the environmental attractions which visitors come to a location to experience. Sustainable nature-based tourism should be planned so that both present and future generations should benefit from the same environmental resources.
Sustainable tourism development embodies the interdependence between environmental, social and economic issues (Mybrugh & Saayman, 1999). This means that sustainable tourism should be considered as part of a planning process that integrates tourism with other economic development initiatives in attempting to achieve sustainability. The destruction of tourism resources for short-term gain will deny the benefits to be gained from the mobilisation of the same resources in future (Cater, 1991). Cater notes that both hosts and guests will lose or have no benefits when tourism has destroyed resources that tourists come to see. Host populations will lose in that they will be faced with environmental degradation which will affect their immediate prospects and will also be denied the tourism development potential that the environment offered for the future Cater (1991). Future generations of tourists will be denied the opportunity of experiencing environments very different to those of home (Cater, 1991). Cater (1991), quotes that sustainable tourism should meet the three prime requirements, namely: the needs of host populations in terms of improved standards of living both in the short and long term: the demands of the growing number of tourists; and, that tourism should safeguard the environment. Tosun (2001) acknowledges these prime requirements by stating that sustainable tourism development should achieve the following: contribute to the satisfaction of basic and felt needs in local tourist, destination; reduce inequality and absolute poverty in local tourist destinations; promote self-esteem in local people; accelerate national, regional and local economic growth which is shared fairly across the social spectrum; and, should promote all the mentioned objectives or requirements or objectives renders the industry unsustainable.
World Tourism Organisation and Sustainable tourism – eliminating poverty 6.1
World Tourism Organisation has a mandate from the United Nations to promote and develop tourism on behalf of its 138 government tourist board members and 350 affiliate members (tourism associations, airlines, and hotel groups): it has not explicit interest in reflecting critically on tourism. As noted by Gosling et al. (2004: 145), ‘The WTO currently seeks to establish a positive image of tourism by promoting the industry’s vast job and income generating potential, and by emphasising its pro-environmental and pro poor effects’. Thus the green agenda and the pro-poor agenda have led to new initiatives with the World Tourism Organisation in recent years such as ST-EP but their main motivation is still to promote economic growth through tourism (Regina, 2007).The World Tourism Organisation has identified seven different ways of addressing poverty through tourism which it suggests can be applied in almost every country:
Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises.
Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor.
Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy).
Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor – for example micro, small and medium sized enterprises (MSMEs), or community based enterprises (formal economy).
Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor.
Voluntary giving / support by tourism enterprises and tourists.
Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality, directly or through support to other sectors.
The World Tourism Organisation also refers to how tourism can be used in the ‘war on poverty’ (WTO, 2005). This is interesting language which obviously reflects the ‘war on terror’ waged by the United States government on certain Middle Eastern countries. The two ‘wars are not unrelated (WTO, 2005). Democratic governance and security are seen as key components of a neo liberal poverty agenda. Thus is part the interest of organisations like the World Tourism Organisation in using tourism for poverty alleviation is motivated by the 11th September 2001 terrorist attacks in the United States, which some analysts interpreted as evidence that ‘endemic poverty underlies instability in many parts of the world’ .Specifically, pro-poor initiatives are attempt to overcome some of the inequalities which are seen since 9/11 as contributing to global insecurity
There is some ‘R word’ which is basically dedicated to suitability of tourism that plays a major part in sustainable tourism
These R’s means the complete meaning in sustainability and a successful sustainable tourism follows these R factors. These are said to be the ten R’s criteria for environmental good practice in tourism business operations.
Bath is one of the marvellous centres for the purpose of spa work even from the period of the Romans. It is one of the popular historic places from the time of 17th to 18 centuries in the world. It is one of the towns which have been covered by the wall and it has got the narrow streets. It has become one of the heritage place from about 18th century and it is said to be as classical place. The designers of bath were very much influenced by the designers of the Romans and Greeks. Bath is considered to be the little lines of the heritage monumental London in those times itself as of about 18th century. It was in no better state than any other English towns. It was one of the developing recognition of the spa resort that has developed and has got great recognition and has even gone the historic places. And at present bath has the population of more than 85000. And the city has go the biggest employers as of in relation to the health Authority, the ministry of defence and the bath and North east Somerset council.
The study is to take the research steps in relation to the residents of the city and their positive and negative opinions or the perceptions in relation to the tourism activities in the Bath city. Now the study is going to concern about the relationship between the positive and the negative opinions of the residents and the specific policies for the tourism activities.
To understand the perceptions of the activities of tourism of the residents opinion to the residents. The use of the statistical techniques to evaluate the perception data of the residents of the residents. Evaluating the perception of the residents is very complex task. The studies of the local or regional basis would look like the opportunities so as to demonstrate the perceptions of the residents of the city. The study is in relation to provide the clear picture of the methodology by the means of reliability and feasibility of the information accessed about the residents of the city. The statistical analysis is in need to analyse the perception of the local residents of the city in relation to the heritage tourism of the Bath city. The statistical techniques help to evaluate the opinions of the residents clearly. Beyond the economy and the activities of tourism, in the community residents play an important role and they also influence the gain or loss of economy and for the success or failure of the industry. The residents are also acting as one of the major factor affecting the tourism industry. Their participation in activities, their planning and development, their involvement in the tourism industry also influences a lot. They are the stakeholders of their heritage tourist place. They must get a proper balance of the costs and benefits of the tourism industry as of being the resident in such a heritage place. There is in need of the management strategies to say that their willingness to live or not to live in such a heritage tourist place. So as to analyse these attitudes of the residents statistical investigation analysis is in need.
The Georgian city of Bath, built on the cleansing properties of its spa waters, is not quite as healthy as it seems. The air around its main roads is among the most polluted in the UK.
Council monitoring stations across the city’s major road network reveal the stark truth: levels of pollution in the city are at a worrying high. The nitrogen dioxide released in car fumes – as well as cigarettes – is one of the most harmful air
Government guidelines put safe levels at 40 mg per cubic meter. But this is regularly exceeded around Georgian Bath and in some cases even reaching double the safe level. “We believe that these levels of pollution represent a serious long-term threat to the health of residents,” says Patrick Rotheram of the Federation of Bath Residents’ Associations. “The limit of 40 mg is exceeded all over the city. Bath has a particular problem of geography – it’s surrounded by hills and a lot of traffic comes through,” he continues.
Various surveys over the years have highlighted Bath’s problems. One, in 2004, likened 24-hours on the notorious traffic-hotspot London Roadto smoking 20 cigarettes. Another put Bath in second place in the UK for most polluted city.
“You do notice the exhaust fumes,” says Tony Farrelly, a resident who goes everywhere by bicycle.
“But you do not expect a town likeBathto be that polluted, especially when you get to the edges and you can smell the beautiful fresh air.”
Pressuring the government
Bath City Council has now decided to designate all of its main roads as Air Quality Management Areas. It will not improve the air overnight, but could bring the city the money it needs to find alternative routes for through traffic. “There will not be immediate changes,” says Councilor Charles Gerrish. “Because of the immense cost of coming up with a solution the sort of money required isn’t available from the council in isolation.”Therefore we need to use this as a way to add weight to the bids we have to central government,” he insists.
In the meantime though, residents and visitors alike will have to cope with levels of nitrogen dioxide well above the recommended safe guideline.
Meeting the standards
The government says all cities must comply with this guideline by 2010.
Here for the study, in the process of the quantitative methodological manner, the questionnaire in the form of random has been sent the mail of the questionnaire to the bath residents in random. By considering that the mail survey is one of the quick and also the low cost manner of collecting information from the residents of the Bath city. The limitation of choosing this mail survey method is that the candidate is not in present, there may be some chances of misrepresentation of any confusion may arise while understanding the question of the questionnaires. So a simple mail survey questions has been considered in the study to avoid the confusions for the respondents. The questionnaire has been designed to know about historic cities instrument and also in relation to the socio economic and the demographic characteristics were often significant. The Likert scale has also been applied as of agree, strongly agree, strongly disagree. Each and every part of the questionnaire has been designed for the tourism development.
While selecting the sample of the population the each and every challenges has been considered among the various populations across the various populations of the city.
Bath and North East Somerset is home to some of the most impressive Roman and Georgian architecture in Europe. Bath owes its existence to it shot springs. The remains of the Roman Baths fed by the springs are among the best preserved in the world and a major international tourist destination. Heritage Services is a business unit within the Council which operates at no cost to the local taxpayer. The Service has a staff of 104 full-time equivalent posts and returns a net surplus of ?3 million per annum to the Council. Through its rolling 5-year business plan, the Service maximises the commercial opportunities offered by the Council’s world-class heritage assets. The vision of Bath and North East Somerset Library Service is “to enrich and empower every individual and community throughout their lives by offering access to resources for information, learning and enjoyment”.
Libraries support lifelong learning for all ages from early years activity such as baby rhyme times, story times and Book start, to computer training for adults and a loan service to over 62 elderly people’s homes and over 300 housebound individuals. More than 4,700 children up to the age of 3 have received Bookstart Packs this year and 1,600 children in their first term at school received books distributed in co-operation with the School Improvement Service through the Book time scheme. Over 3,500 children and their carers have attended pre-school activities in libraries during the year. Additionally, in partnership with Children’s Services, library provision to under-fives and their families has been extended by creating mini-libraries in Children’s Centres in Twerton and atSt Martin’s Garden.
The partnership has
increased annual usage of leisure centers and golf courses by 13%
improved overall levels of customer satisfaction across a range of targets, including cleanliness and customer service
improved accessibility by expanding the range of people entitled to concessionary prices
raised membership in concessionary categories from 15% to 51% over three years
Bath Festivals Ltd achieved the following
total attendance for the Bath International Music Festival and Bath Literature Festival was 35,849
more than 3,600 children and young people from over 24 schools inBathand North East Somerset participated in more than 70 festival events and activities
the organization attracted ?922,000 of additional investment, adding an additional ?2 to every ?1 of Council investment
Services provided by Bath Tourism Plus include
? co-ordinating a Tourist Information Centre and retail shop generating over ?160,000 of revenue
? organizing promotional events and co-ordinating public relations and media activity
providing a conference and venues booking service
Visitor survey data has shown the following
In its first full year of operation Thermae Bath Spa welcomed over 130,000 visitors
18% of visitors were local residents, and 20% of these made repeat visits
91% of visitors surveyed were very pleased with their Spa experience
the Spa facilities are used regularly by disabled visitors
There are no surprises about what draws people to Bath. The architecture and beauty of the city score highest mentioned by 34 percent of respondents; next comes the relaxed and romantic atmosphere (19 percent); followed by attractions such as the Roman Baths and sightseeing (8 percent). The choice of shopping, all weather activities and compactness of the city were other positive factors.
In the study it is the 24 item questionnaire with the 120 respondents of the city has been considered. By considering the two factor solution the results of the sample as of specified by the residents. The two factor solution have specified
Results indicate that the domains within sample data signified residents where the first factor of the Eigen value is 6.2 and where as the second factor is the 1.9.
Is tourist activity increased by years5763
Born in the city3387
Employed in the tourism industry4179
Do the benefits outweigh the negative consequences8931
Do the tourism improves the appearance of the city7149
Do the increase in tourist numbers improves the economy6456
Is there any increase in the recreational opportunities8436
Do you like your city to become more of a tourist destination3387
Is there any improvement in the quality of life4575
Does tourism provides good job for residents2298
Here the tourism businesses are very much influenced politically4179
Local government should restrict tourism4872
Local government should control tourism6555
There is negative effect on the environment8733
Increases the tax of council9129
Tourism leads to more litter on the streets1155
Need to pay more attractions9624
Increases the amount of crime7446
Increases unfairly the property prices9822
Quality of my outdoor recreation is good7743
Increases the traffic in the city1119
(1) Age of the residents:
AGENumber of Residents
56 & ABOVE12
(2) Length of residence in the city in years:
YEARSNumber of Residents
5 TO 1012
10 TO 2022
20 TO 3056
(3) Employed in the tourism industry:
(4) Benefits overweigh the negative consequences:
Results of the factor analysis:
Domain Bath Sample Item DescriptorFactor Loadings
POSITIVEBenefits outweigh negative consequences0.71
Tourism improves appearance of the city0.49
Increasing tourist numbers improves the economy0.70
Increase in recreational opportunities0.61
Need to become more of a tourist destination0.66
Improvement in the quality of life0.61
To attract more tourists0.63
Long term planning controls negative impacts0.40
Tourism provides good jobs for residents0.62
Tourism should play vital role in the future0.75
Support local tax for tourism0.29
Influence tourism decisions0.24
When i talk to fellow residents I am positive0.38
NEGATIVETourism businesses too influentially politically0.49
Local govt should restrict tourism0.62
Local govt should control tourism0.40
Negative effect on environment0.41
Increases the council tax0.45
Leads to more litter on the streets0.43
Should pay more attractions0.47
Unfairly increases property prices0.40
Quality of my outdoor recreation0.55
Increases the amount of crime0.64
Increases the traffic in the city.0.40
Mean scores for the tourism Impact Statements
Tourism impact statementsMean scores
POSITIVETourism improving the economy3.94
Benefits of tourism outweighs its negative impacts3.48
Play a vital role in the future3.56
Good jobs for residents3.46
Should not try to attract more tourists2.92
Improve the appearance of the city3.01
Increases recreational opportunities2.92
Should become more tourist destination2.84
Development increases the quality of life2.63
Fellow residents I am positive3.34
A local tax levy for tourism2.24
I can personally influence tourism decisions2.05
Mean for the scale3.19
NEGATIVETourism increases traffic4.27
Leads to more litter3.79
Development increases council tax3.17
Increases property prices3.10
Businesses are too influential politically3.28
Increases the amount of crime3.11
Negatively affects the environment3.23
Reduces quality of outdoor recreation2.84
Local govt should control tourism3.71
Local govt should restrict tourism3.01
Tourists should pay more for attractions3.51
Mean for scale3.35
Mean for all items3.35
The 1st hypothesis (Ho): no underlying dimensions will emerge
From the analysis of the resident responses to tourism development issues within theBath.
The 2nd null hypothesis (Ho): It is not possible to predict residents’ attitudes of tourism development according to their socio economic and the demographic characteristics, and the positive and the negative perceptions of the tourism.
A series of seven regression equations are computed as follows. The dependent variables are selected to assess the residents’ socio economic and the demographic characteristics. The work need to attract more number of tourists in the development of the tourism industry. The decisions in regard to the development of the city.
Independent variablesRegression 1Regression 2
BetaR sqrTPBetaR sqrTP
Length of residence0.020.360.050.81
Distance of residence from tourism0.051.10.071.5
Born in city0.030.62-0.01-0.08
Year round the residence0.07-0.011.70.060.11.1
Importance of tourism to occupation0.050.071.10-0.01-0.24
Employed in the tourism industry0.030.570.7700.030.040.520.03
The significance of the resident characteristics can be analysed that the positive and the negative attitudes of the residents of the city are predicted economic reliance is ( R sqr – 07;p<0.001) the positive scale offers the significant degree of the explanation (R sqr – 0.03; p < 0.001) . These results suggest that the as of the positive attitudes increase and negative ones decrease, they are increasingly in the supportive mode for the further more development of the bath city.
And the regression 2 is that the tourists are not interested to attract still more tourists. The r square being the 47% of these achieved the possible levels.
The positive attitude scale is of explanation of variance is of ( R Sqr = 0.41; p < 0.001) and negative attitudes scale explanation of variance ( R Sqr change = 0.06; p < 0.001). The independent variables accounted for the 65% of variance within equations. Economic reliance was significant. And the negative scale was insignificant. The equation accounted for 44% of variance. Resident characteristics were against insignificant, while economic reliance was significant.
Regression of the one item on resident attitude:
Independent variablesRegression 1
Length of residence-0.1-1.1
Distance of residence from tourism0.193.1
Born in city0.11.5
Year round the residence0.020.041.20.018
Importance of tourism to occupation0.090.05-0.880.123
Employed in the tourism industry-0.060.082.80.002
Those living away from the centre reporting a greater sense of the influence over the decision making activities are in the process. The positive and negative attitude dimensions appeared to be effective as of in the case of predicting support for tourism development. The regression equation has found that of the 40% of the variance. In bath the length of the residence was again the great contributor to the overall explanation to the variance. Finally the significant residents as it is the people perceived relevance of a significant contribution of the industry. The inclusion of the negative attitude scale is actually intended to act as the check on the data responses of the residents.
Regression of two items on resident attitude:
Independent variablesRegression 1Regression 2
BetaR sqrTPBetaR sqrTP
Length of residence-0.14-2.0-0.050.747
Distance of residence from tourism0.030.700.020.386
Born in city0.061.00.122.0
Year round the residence0.050.040.990.050.031.00.042
Importance of tourism to occupation0.122.10.20-0.1-1.8
Employed in the tourism industry0.060.111.00.000.030.080.540.00
Socio economic reliance and the positive and the negative attitudes of the residents of the city. residents are of positive attitudes and the ability to predict the negative attitudes of tourism in the bath. These results indicate that the potentiality for predicting the attitudes of the historic cities according to certain residential characteristics.
Impact of the heritage tourism;
the purpose of the research is just to evaluate the attitudes of the residents of the city to examine their attitudes in regard to the development of the historic city of Bath. The study is to examined and found that there is the rejection of the null hypothesis. It is the result of the two factors. By increase in the dimensions of the city and with the development of the tourism in the city and with the proper planning and understanding and by the comparative analysis leads to the place for various approaches.
The various group of variables which in concern related to the economic reliance proved consistently predictive with the support of the tourism development. These variable factors are in deed help to support the tourism development and the beneficial economically and it leads to the lower incomes and in the residents were more likely to support increased tourism, and in turn leads to the city becoming one of the favourite visiting place.
It can be stated with the confidence whether or not socio economic and demographic variables are significant indicators of distinct attitudes.
Bath leads to enablement of the rejection of the second null hypothesis by requesting for the some variables, so that the researchers can provide the conclusion of the perceived tourism of the city.
The purpose of the study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the residents of the Bath city, by the means of the socio economic impact understanding and by the process of fragmentation and by the help of the recommendations have been consolidated. The socio economic impacts are not just enough to make any of the strong conclusions to understand the attitude of the resident of the bath city in United Kingdom. And the study is in turn to push the tourism development. The study has found out the disseminate and even it helps to compete and balance the competing pressures. By the help of the statistical measures as of the regression analysis and the value of alpha and beta. And with the help of the developed questionnaire concentrated generally on the general issues of the city in relation to concern of the residents. The objective is to concentrate on the conduct of the future planning and management of the more particular and the reflective destinations of the country. Socio economic impact of the tourism is to achieve the satisfactory feeling for both the tourists and the local residents of the city.
Heritage tourism stimulates both depth and breadth in tourism, creates new markets for local and regional arts and crafts, extends tourism seasons, and encourages adaptation of existing products (ie. accommodation; tours).
• Heritage and historic tourism is globally attractive to governments because it has demonstrated an ability to contribute to the rejuvenation of regional and inner-city urban areas.
• Unlike many tourism products, historic and heritage tourism can spread economic benefits across a greater geographical area through themed trails and driving routes, rather than concentrating in single locations.
• There is a propensity for heritage tourists to stay and spend on accommodation provided within villages, towns and cities, unlike nature-based tourists who travel with greater levels of self-sufficiency. Heritage and historic tourism is one of the most rapidly expanding tourism Segments in terms of visitor numbers globally.
• Growth is being driven largely, but not exclusively, by the powerful “baby boomer” demographic, an economic force representing considerable time availability, discretionary income and personal interests.
• Visitor attendances, globally and withinUnited Kingdomare consistently higher at historic places and heritage sites than at art galleries, museums, casinos, Arts events and Indigenous cultural activities.
The investigation is in need to come in contact with attitudes of the residents with the strategies of the policy makers in a way that which can be able provide a basis for policies more securely required in the needs of host. Resident attitudes are fully utilized in involving the residents in the consultation of the city tourism development.
The analysis shows that the problems in relation to the heritage tourism and its development in the developed countries resident is being analysed in the study. the tourism includes commercialization and also concentrates on commoditization and even by undermining the cultural authenticity, the problems faced by the local residents of theBathcity are neither adequate nor powerful. They are in the controversial position as of being the residents of such an heritage city. There exist many mobilized arguments in relation to the residence and tourism sustainability and the process of development. In real the local residents are generally in the embracing position of being in such a community and in such a society. The economic benefits are also not such bad extent, as the tourism is providing employment opportunities also for the residents of the city. These are not merely abstract, intellectual problems of legitimacy and authenticity. In actual situation the heritage tourism has lead to some problems like eclipsing of the heritage dimension of heritage tourism, homogenization of tourist products, and dying out of cultural producers, knowledge, and technologies.
These are not merely abstract, intellectual problems of legitimacy and authenticity. Their impact is practical, more culturally sustainable policies and Management are crucial for preventing negative consequences of heritage tourism in Bath city tourism from going into the decline phase of its lifecycle as quickly as other over-exploited heritage tourist destinations do.
International Journal Of Heritage Studies Vol.16 No. 6, November 2010, 449-463
“Case Study On The Effects Of Tourism On Culture And The Environment “ On “Jaisalmer ,Khajuraho And Goa By A. G. Krishna Menon (9 March 1999).
Journal “Activity 1: The Rise Of Tourism “, 8 November 2010.
“Heritage And Tourism “ By John Nurick.
Tourism Extension Need Assessment Extension Faculty Responses, July 2006.
“Tourism And The Poor: Analysing And Interpreting Tourism Statistics From A Poverty Perspective” By Dilys Roe, Caroline Ashley , Sheila Page And Dorothea Meyer , Ppt PartnershipLondon, March 2004.
“Sustainable Development And The Case Against Tourism” By Angela Tam.
Environmental Impacts Of Tourism , 8 November 2010(Gdrc.Org/Uem/Eco-Tour/Envi/Four.Html).
“Travel And Tourism” By Ann Rowe, John D. Smith And Fiona Borein,CambridgeUniversity.
“Economic Impact Of TheUkHeritage Tourism Economy “,OxfordEconomics ,February 2010.
“Modelling Tourism Impacts OnSmallIslandEconomies: Evidence FromCyprus,MaltaAndMauritius“
By M. Thea Sinclair , Adam Blake And Nishaal Gooroochurn
Environmental Impacts Of Tourism , 8 November 2010(Gdrc.Org/Uem/Eco-Tour/Envi/Four.Html).
Essay About Disadvantages Of Tourism, Allfreeessays.Com/Print/…/17906, 09 November 2010.
Essay About Disadvantages Of Tourism, Allfreeessays.Com/Print/…/17906, 09 November 2010.
“Recession Affects On Tourism”
“Knowledge Intensive Service Activities In The Tourism Industry InAustralia” A Report Prepared For The Oecd Kisa Project.
“Heritage Counts 2010England”
“Heritage Tourism Contributes ?20bn To Uk Economy” A Publish On “Culture Politick”,8 March 2010.
“Hlf Report Announces Heritage Tourism Has BoostedUkEconomy By ?20 Billion” By Culture 24 Staff, 05 March 2010.
“Host Perception Of Heritage Tourism Impact With Special Reference To The City OfJaipur” By Neha Kala
South Asian Journal Of Tourism And Heritage(2008), Vol.1, No.1.
“Tourism, Eighth Report Of Session 2007-08”, Volume 1,24 June 2008.( House Of Commons Culture, Media And Sport Committee ).
“Implementing The Heritage Protection Reforms: A Report On Local Authority And English Heritage Staff Resources”, May 2009.
“Implementing The Heritage Protection Reforms: A Report On Local Authority And English Heritage Staff Resources”, August 2010.
“Implications Of The Mab Program For Sustainable Tourism Practice”, A Case Study OfMorningtonPeninsulaAndWesternPortBiosphere Reserve By Megan Hanley , November ,2003.
“The Importance Of The Tourism”
“Trends, Statistics And Economic Importance Of Heritage Tourism” BySandara Necessary,U.S.Commercial Service, 14 November 2006.
“The Management Of Tourism” By Lesley Pender And Richard Sharpley Published 2005.
Article On Many Types If Tourism
“Preserving Cultural Heritage And Possible Impacts On Regional Development: Case OfIzmir”
Asst. Prof Dr. Edru Gunlu.
“Capturing The Public Value Of Heritage”, The Proceedings Of TheLondonConference ,26 January 2006.
“Recommnendations On Tourism Statistics”, Series M No.83, United Nations Department For Economic And Social Information And Policy Analysis Statistical Division And World Tourism Organization.
“First Choice Responsible Tourism Awards 2005”.
“SavingLondon20 Years Of Heritage At Risk In The Capital”, Baroness Andrews OBE.
“ICT Awareness in Small Enterprises in the Indian Tourism Branch” by Jasmina Badnjevic ,LenaPadukova, Sweden 2006.
“The Impact Of Tourism On Coastal Areas”, Gormsen, Erdmann, Geographical Institute,UniversityOfMianz D-55099Mainz, Germany.,1997.
“TOURISM AS A DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY IN RURAL AREAS ADJACENT TO THECROCKERRANGENATIONAL PARK,SABAH,MALAYSIA”, by Louise Gai Hjulmand, Uffe Nielsen, January 2003.
“TOTAL ECONOMIC IMPACTS FROM HERITAGE TOURISM”,
“UNWTO World Tourism Barometer”, volume 8-No.1, January 2010.
“Tourism Development: Outline of Advantages and Disadvantages”,
“The Scottish parliament, the Information Centre”, 21 August 2002.
“Tourism Operators Guidebook onCrownLand” by Aaron Heidt, Januray 2007.
“E3Travel and Tourism -Environment, Economics, Education: The Triple Bottom Line of Tourism”
“Travel and Tourism” , Ann Rowe, John D. Smith and Fiona Borein, 2002.
“Edexcel Level 2,BTEC First Certificate and Diploma in Travel and Tourism”, April 2006.
“Tourism 2023”, Illustrations by: Aaron Lee, Stevie Robinson, Jane Xu, Zarino Zappia.
“Msc International Tourism” ,UNIT HANDBOOK,UniversityofBedfordshire.
“Forms of Tourism”, UNSD/UNWTO Workshop, 20 July 2006.
“Implementing Sustainable Tourism in the USAID Context” BYArusha,Tanzania, February 2006.
“The Importance of Heritage to Tourism-understanding the competitive environment” by J John Lennon.
“Travel & Tourism EconomicImpact,INDIA2010” ,world travel & tourism council 9 February 2010.
“UKState ofTourism”, Final Report , April 2008.
“theUKTourist- Statistics 2009”,————————-
“HistoricTownsand Cities inEngland’s Northwest” Final Report, October 2005.
“Sustainable Tourism and Economic Instruments: the case of Hvar, Croatia” by Tim Taylor.
“Environmental Implications of the Tourism Industry” by Terry Davies, Sarah Cahill
Discussion, Paper 00-14,March 2000.
“ Tourism and Sustainable Development: Lessons from Recent World Bank Experience”
By Anil MARKANDYA.
“Air pollution envelopsBath” by Andrew Plant, BBC NEWS, 16 November 2010.
“ Southwest CASE Regional Insights”———————————————-
“ Tourism and Sustainable Development: Lessons from Recent World Bank Experience”
By Anil MARKANDYA.
“Tourism as a Development Strategy”, August 2006.
“Global Theory and Touristic Encounters” by Gavan Tetley vol 8, 2000.
“the sustainable cities index”, ranking the largest 20 British cities, November 2009.
For the Residents of BATH CITY
Sex & Age :
Place of Residence :
Is tourist activity increased by years : Yes/ No
What is the length of residence in the city in years :
Born in the city : Yes/ No
Employed in the tourism industry: Yes/ No
Do the benefits outweigh the negative consequences : Yes/ No
Do the tourism improves the appearance of the city : Yes/ No
Do the increase in tourist numbers improves the economy: Yes/ No
Is there any increase in the recreational opportunities : Yes/ No
Do you like your city to become more of a tourist destination: Yes/ No
Is there any improvement in the quality of life: Yes/ No
Does tourism provides good job for residents : Yes/ No
Here the tourism businesses are very much influenced politically: Yes/ No
Local government should restrict tourism: Yes/ No
Local government should control tourism: Yes/ No
There is negative effect on the environment : Yes/ No
Increases the tax of council: Yes/ No
Tourism leads to more litter on the streets ; Yes/ No
Need to pay more attractions : Yes/ No
Increases the amount of crime : Yes/ No
Increases unfairly the property prices : Yes/ No
Quality of my outdoor recreation is good: Yes/ No
Increases the traffic in the city: Yes/ No