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Hubungan Tenaga Kerja

Individual project: Research current theories in employment relations I. Traditional perspectives on the employment relationship. Traditional perspectives are important because they express the different assumptions that other make about the nature of organization, the fundamental nature of the relationship between workers and employers, and the characteristics of the society within which work organization exist and function.

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The three views are most frequently referred to as the unitary, pluralist and Marxist perspectives.

The Marxist/ radical perspective is sometimes referred to as the Conflict Model. Each offers a particular perception of workplace relations and will therefore interpret such events as workplace conflict, the role of trade unions and job regulation very differently. 2. 1 the unitary perspective In Unitary perspective, the organization is perceived as an integrated and harmonious whole with the ideal of “one happy family”, where management and other members of the staff all share a common purpose, emphasizing mutual cooperation.

Furthermore, unitary has a paternalistic approach where it demands loyalty of all employees, being predominantly managerial in its emphasis and application. 2. 2. 1 management style management’s right to manage and make decision is seen as rational, legitimate and acceptable to all ( Salamon 1987) its mean there is only one source of power and authority. 2. 2. 2 roles of parties For the management have to provide good communication skill and also strong leadership skill. The employees roles should be loyal to organization and management. 2. 2. employment relations perspective The aggressive style of management (strong emphasis on HRM such commonality and organizational goal) that can promote the avoidance or marginalization of trade unions 2. 2. 4 weakness/critisms A narrow approach that neglects cause of conflict, fails to explain the prevalence of conflict within organization. Assumption that all management decisions are rational and will take care of employee needs.

Does not take account for uneven distribution of power among employees and employers in the decision making process. . 2. 5 a unitary perspective, which informs in human resource management (HRM) HRM also knew as modern form that approach by unitarism perspective to industrial relations characteristics, that is. The management of the employment relationship primary from the perspective of the employer. This can be refer in the main focus of HRM. Such as plan human resource requirement, recruit and hire employees, train and manage employee performance, reward employees and dismissal or retire employee. The two main forms within the HRM approach are known as: . Soft HRM is developmental humanism, 2. Hard HRM is instrumental integration of employees into company objective. This two perspective to HRM can also be seen as the best practice approach and contingency approach. 2. 2 the pluralism perspective In The pluralism perspective the manager approve foster freedom of expression and the development of groups, which establish their own norms and choose their own informal leaders. Organization Power is diffused among the main bargaining groups within the employment relationships (no-one dominates).

Because of the power and control arise in several areas of the organisation and loyalty is commanded by the leaders of the groups, which are often in competition with each other for resources. Pluralist perspective regards conflict as inevitable because employers and employees have conflicting interests; trade unions are seen as a legitimate counter to management authority. This is mean, represents good leadership, although sometimes it can be difficult to achieve the necessary balance, in which the interests of all stakeholders have to be taken into account.

The management style under pluralist perspective focuses on consensus building. However, according to Rensis Likert, when employees become involved in solving work-related problems and making decisions, they become involved in what they are doing and committed to the achievement of successful outcomes (Likert, 1961). 2. 3. 6 roles of parties Management will attempt to reconcile conflicting and keep the conflict within acceptable bound so that does not destroy the organization. Employees will accept mutual adjustment and will constantly push for their own goals . 3. 7 employment relations perspective The role of government was to develop and manage the framework and, through legislation, to ensure that conciliation or arbitration was available to the parties to achieve a binding consensus. 2. 3. 8 weakness/critisms The concept of pluralism is inextricably linked to the idea of democracy (Flanders 1965). The reality is that workplace is not a democracy. In Power context is not evenly diffused: it is typically weighted towards management in the workplace.

Pluralist thinking lends itself to the conclusion that there is a simple and straightforward set of processes that resolve conflict, and that conflict can be readily managed through rules, regulations and processes. 2. 3. 9 a pluralist perspective, leading to ‘ neo-institutional’ approaches. Neo-institutional approach emerged in an attempt to extend the pluralist thingking for the role of ‘rule making’ in the employment relationship. they have Two type of the rules : formal / informal rules, substantive/ procedural rules.

And this rules are made as a result of the forces and imperatives of capitalst social relations, in society and workeplace. And some others features. 2. 3 marximst perspective The radical or Marxist perspective sees industrial conflict as an aspect of class conflict. The solution to worker alienation and exploitation is the overthrow of the capitalist system. 2. 4. 10 general philosophy Inherent and irreconcilable conflict. 2. 4. 11 management style Management is focused upon extracting the maximum amount of labour from the workforce.

Under modern capitalism, this seen more sophisticated managerial applications such as TQM or HRM. 2. 4. 12 roles of parties Roles employees challenging management control in demand and obtain as much as they can. For employers to make extract as much as possible 2. 4. 13 employment relations perspective The Marxist perspectives argue that the balance of power between capital and labour promoted in the pluralist perspective is illusionary (Salamon 1987). In the context of power relations, a balance is achieved through the implicit knowledge that employers can withdraw their capital and employees cab withdraw their labour. . 4. 14 weakness/critisms Preoccupied with conflict: obscures any cooperation or shared goals between management and workers. Capital is not homogenous: competition among capitalists. The theory was formulated at a time when labour did not have a representative political view. 2. 4. 15 radical perspective, which enables a ‘labour process’ approach. Because management’s goals and labor’s goals are in the long term—opposed, it cannot also be assumed that management will be able to capture all of the potential labour. Management is obliged to seek increased effort.

Labour may not always agree, especially when the extra effort only goes to making increased profits for the employer. Because the employment relationship is open-ended, management needs some system of controlling and improving labour effort, and the relationship is constantly renegotiated. Braverman identified the first major method through which management sought to control labour, such as Productivity through deskilling labour. Braverman also argued that Taylorism and scientific management are strategies to maximise the conversion of potential into actual labour, by simplifying the work process and minimizing employee discretion.

Some researchers argued that Braverman oversimplified the complexity of management’s strategies. Friedman, for example, argued that management could either use ‘direct control’ as outlined by Braverman or it could use more sophisticated, commitment-based strategies.

IV. references books: * Teicher, J. , Holland, P. , and Gough. R (Eds. ), (2006). Employee Relations Management, 2nd Edition. French Forest, NSW: Prentice-Hall. * Nankervis, A. , Compton, R. , and Baird, M. (2008) Human Resource Management: strategies & precesses, South Melbourne : Cengage Learning Australia. Stone, R. J. (2008). Human Resource Management. (6th ed. ). Brisbane, Australia: John Wiley & Sons. * De Cieri, H. , Kramar, R. , Noe, R. A. , Hollenbeck, J. R. , Gerhart, B. & Wright, P. M. (2005). Human Resource Management in Australia (2nd ed. ). Australia: McGraw-Hill. * Dessler, G, (2004). Human Resource Management. (10th Ed. ), New Jersey: Prentice Hall. * Dessler, G. , Griffiths, J. & Lloyd-Walker, B. (2007). HRM. (3rd Ed. ), Australia: Pearson Education. * Sappey, R. , Burgess, J. , Lyons, M. & Buultjens, J. (2009). Industrial Relations in Australia Work and Workplaces (2nd ed. ). Australia: Pearson.

Online resource:

 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Human_resources

http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Unitarism,+Pluralism,+and+Human+Resource+Management+in+Germany-a057816024

http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Industrial_relations

http://www. brighthub. com/office/project-management/articles/77199. aspx