Grapes of Wrath
Krystal Giffen The Grapes of Wrath Part 1: Literary Analysis 1. A. “…‘What’s this call, this sperit? ’ An’ I says, ‘It’s love…” (page 23, Chapter 4).
This quote is an example of an metaphor. The use of this metaphor was to show the reader why the preacher doesn’t preach anymore. The effect the metaphor had on the reader was, for them to see how the preacher really viewed ‘the sperit’. B. “One cat’ takes and shoves ten families out. Cat’s all over hell now…” (pg. 8, Chapter 2). This quote is an example of symbolism. The truck driver uses the animal cat to describe the people who tractor out croppers from their crops and homes.
The effect of using a cat to describe someone was negative. The cat description made the reader view the person who tractors out croppers as evil, cunning and thoughtless. C. “… The Bank -or the Company-needs-wants-insists-must have -as though the Bank or the Company were a monster, with thought and feeling which had ensnared them. ” (pg. 31, Chapter 5). This quote is an example of an epic simile. The use of his simile is to show the reader that the Bank or Company that takes the land acts as a monster, being mean and cold. D. “Can you live without the willow tree? Well, no, you can’t.
The willow tree is you. The pain of that mattress there – that dreadful pain – that’s you. ” (pg. 89, Chapter 9). This quote is an example of a metaphor. The use of this metaphor is to relate all of the families belongings to them, that the belongings are indeed part of them. The effect of this metaphor is to show the reader how much the families belongings actually meant to them. E. “Damn it,’ he said, ‘a pick is a nice tool (umph), if you don’ fight it (umph). You an’ the pick (umph) workin’ together (umph)’ (pg. 298, Chapter 22). This quote is an example of Epizeuxis.
The use and effect of this epizeuxis is to show emphasis on how heavy the pick was and how hard it was to work back then. The epizeuxis helps the reader image Tom working in the hot sun with the heavy pick, working for just twenty-five cents an hour. 2. A. “You know the land is poor. You’ve scrabbled at it long enough, God knows. The squatting tenant men nodded and wondered and drew figures in the dust, and yes, they knew, God knows… The owner men went on leading to their point: You know the land’s getting poorer… If they could only rotate the crops they might pump blood back into the land.
Well, it’s too late… A man can hold land if he can just eat and pay taxes; he can do that. Yes, he can do that until his crops fail one day and he has to borrow money from the bank… a bank or a company can’t do that, because those creatures don’t breathe air, don’t eat side-meat. They breather profits; they eat the interest on money… Can’t we just hang on? Maybe the next year will be a good year. God knows how much cotton next year… Next year, maybe… We can’t depend on it. The bank-the monster has to have profits all the time. It can’t wait. It’’ die.
No, taxes go on… The tenant system won;t work anymore… You’ll have to get off the land. The plow’ll go through the dooryard” (pg. 33, Chapter 5). The significance of this passage is that it shows how the Banks would take the land from the croppers and how the croppers were crushed. This passage relates to the work as a whole because it shows the reader how the migration to the west started, how hundreds of families would get evicted from their land and forced to move elsewhere. B. “ ‘Who’s in here? ’ Ma asked. ‘What is it you want, mister? ’ ‘What you think I want?
I want to know who’s in here. ’ ‘Why, they’s jus’ us three in here. Ma an’ Granma an’ my girl. ’ ‘Where’s your men? ’ ‘Why they went down to clean up. We was drivin’ all night. ’ ‘Where’d you come from? ’ ‘Right near Sallisaw, Oklahoma. ’ ‘Well, you can’t stay here. ’ ‘We aim to get out tonight an’ cross the desert, mister. ’ ‘Well you better. If you’re here tomorra this time I’ll run you in. We don’t want none of you settlin’ down here. ’… ‘Mister,’ she said, ‘ you got a tin button an’ a gun. Where I come from, you keep your voice down. ’ She advanced on him with the skillet.
He loosened the gun in the holster. ‘Go ahead,’ said Ma. ‘Scarin women/ I’m thankful the men folks ain’t here. They’d tear ya to pieces. In my country you watch your tongue. ’ The man took two steps backward. ‘Well, you ain’t in your country now. You’re in California, an’ we don’t want you goddamn Okies settlin’ down. ’ … ‘Yeah, Okies! An’ if you’re here when I come tomorra, I’ll run ya in” (pg. 215, Chapter 18). The significance of this passage is it shows how life changed so much once the Joads moved west, they were in someone else’s territory now.
This passage shows how the Joads would have to change the way they acted since they moved to California. This passage relates to the work as a whole because it shows the reader how difficult and cruel it was to move to the West back during the dust bowl. People weren’t treated equally because of were they came from and how poor they were. C. “They had no more the stomach-tearing lust for the rich acre and a shining blade to plow it, for seed and a windmill beating its wings in the air. They arose in the dark no more to hear the sleepy birds’ first chittering, and the morning wind dear acres.
These things were lost, nd crops were rechoned in dollars, and land was valued by principal plus interest, and crops were bought and sold before they were planted. Then crop failure, drought, and flood were no longer little deaths within life, but simple losses of money. And all their love was thinned with money, and all their fierceness dribbled away in interest until they were no longer farmers at all, but little shopkeepers of crops, little manufacturers who must sell before they can make. Then those farmers who were not good shopkeepers lost their land to good shopkeepers.
No matter how clever, how loving a man might be with earth and growing things, he could not survive if he were not also a good shopkeeper. And as time went on, the business men had the farms, and the farms grew larger, but there were fewer of them” (pg. 231-232, Chapter 19). The significance of this passage is it shows the reader how the land used to be owned by people, farmers, who loved the land and cared for the land but it turned into a business over the years. Farming wasn’t about the feel or love anymore, it was all about money.
This passage relates to the work as a whole because the whole book is about how money can affect people, how ownership can turn into something terrible and turn people against each other. D. “She sat down and opened the box. Inside were letters, clippings, photographs, a pair of earrings a little gold signet ring and a watch chain braided of hair and tipped with gold swivels… For a long time she held the box, looking over it, and her fingers disturbed the letters and then lined them up again… And at last she made up her mind… She took a letter from an envelope and dropped the trinkets in the envelope.
She folded the envelope and put it in her dress pocket… She lifted the stove lid and laid the box gently among the coals. Quickly the heat browned the paper… She replaced the stove lid and instantly the fire sighed up and breather over the box” (pg. 108, Chapter 10). The significance of this passage is it shows the reader how it’s so hard for the Joad’s to just give up all their belongings and leave. This relates to the story as a whole because it show’s how during the dust bowl you had to give up a lot if you wanted to survive. E. “I know, Ma. I’m a-tryin’.
But them deputies- Did you ever see a deputy that didn’ have a fat ass? An’ they waggle their ass an’ flop their gun aroun’. Ma,’ he said, ‘if it was the law they was workin’ with, why, we could take it. But it ain’t the law. They’re a-workin’ away at our spirits. They’re a-tryin’ to make us cringe an’ crawl like a whipped bitch. They tryin’ to break us. Why, Jesus Christ, Ma, they comes a time when the on’y way a fella can keep his decency is by takin’ a sock at a cop. They’re workin’ on our decency” (pg. 278-279, Chapter 20). The significance of this passage is it shows how even the law was corrupt do to greediness.
The deputies were corrupt so they could eat, feed their family and feel powerful. This passage relates to the work as a whole because it shows how people change once hunger and stable living comes into play. The people who have nothing are honest and look out for each other while people who have something do everything in their power to keep it, even if that means corrupting what’s right. Part 2: Plot, Setting, Themes and Vocabulary 3. Tom Joad- A young man, the favorite child of the Joad family. Tom went to jail for killing a man at a bar fight, but he got put on parole after 4 years in prison for his good record.
He doesn’t regret what he did, he even says he’d do it again if he had to. Tom is the one who guides his family throughout the book, acting as the protector of the family. 4. Tom’s purpose in the story was to lead the Joad family to California and to make sure he could do everything in his well-being to make living possible for him and his family. Tom is a dynamic character, he changes when there are different people around. He knows when he needs to keeps pushing or when he needs to stop. 5. Tom is related to the majority of the other characters.
Toms relationship with Casy is that they met when Tom was searching for his family, and they helped each other out because they knew what each other was going through. Tom and Floyd are very similar in that they want they same thing, they want to do good for their family. Tom was the once who suggested that Ivy and Sairy Wilson travel with the Joads. Muley Graves- A former neighbor of the Joads. Helped Tom find his family when he first got out of jail. Muley got evicted from his house just like the Joads but he could’t leave the land, his family left him for California. 4.
Muley’s function in the story was to help Tom find his family when he got out of jail and went back home. Muley was a static character who just showed his anger towards the bankers and Willy. 5. Muley was the Joad’s neighbor back in Oklahoma, and used to go to church where Casy was the preacher. Ma Joad- Ma Joad is the mother of the Joad family, she’s the one who is trying to keep the family together throughout the whole book. She takes on all her motherly duties without the blink of an eye. She is tough and won’t get pushed around easily but doesn’t know when not to speak up when she is getting pushed around. . Ma’s purpose in the story was to hold the family together and be strong when no one else could. She helped the family stay together though all the tough times. Ma was a dynamic character who changes a lot throughout the story. She was very quiet at the being of the story but once the story progressed she got more vocal and outspoken. 5. Ma is the mother of all the Joad family. She used to bring the Joad’s to the church that Casy used to preach at. The Wilson’s helped Ma out by sharing the food they had with the whole Joad family.
Pa Joad- The tenant farmer who got evicted from his farm, the father of the Joad family and married to Ma Joad. Once he got evicted he focused on getting the family to California. Once they got to California Pa wasn’t able to find work and became weaker than Ma and became desperate. 4. Pa’s purpose was to help the family get to California and find work once they got there. Since Pa didn’t find work, he helped Ma out. Pa is a static character who doesn’t change much during the book. 5. Pa is the father of the Joad father and went to the church that Cast used to preacher at.
Pa helped any way he could with the Wilson’s car when it was broken-down. Jim Casy- Jim was a former preacher until he gave it up because he got to thinking that ‘the sperit’ he believed in so much was just love, and the other spirit wasn’t in him anymore. He goes along with the Joad family to California but before he could find a job he got arrested to protect Tom during a fight between laborers and a deputy from the California police. During the trip to California he helps the Joad family out a lot by praying for both Granma and Granpa Joad when they passed. 4.
Casy’s purpose in the story was to the Joad family by praying when it needed to be done like at Granma and Granpa Joad’s deaths. Casy was a dynamic character because at the beginning of the story he was alone because he didn’t want to preach anymore but as the story moved on he preached when he had to and he also saved Tom and Floyd by giving himself in. 5. Jim Casy used to the preacher that the Joad family used to go to, he baptized Tom when he was younger. Casy helped Floyd out by giving himself up instead of letting Tom and Floyd take the blame. Casy was the preacher of Muley’s family too.
Noah Joad- The first born of the Joad family. He was deformed at birth because Pa panicked during the delivery and tried to pull him out. He felt that he wasn’t as loved as the other Joad children so he left the family at a stream near the California border, saying he was better off there. 4. Noah’s purpose in the story was to help the family get to California. Noah could be both a dynamic or a static character because throughout the whole story he didn’t change much but at the river he took a bold step and left the family. 5. Noah was the oldest son of the Joad family, who used to go see Casy preach.
Noah never met Floyd and Muley used to be his neighbor. Rose of Sharon (Rosasharn)- the oldest daughter in the Joad family who is married to Connie. She journeys to California with Connie and the Joad family while being pregnant. The couple imagines how life will be once they get to California but once reality hits Connie abandons her during their first stop in California, and her baby is born dead. 4. Rose of Sharon’s purpose in the book was to be strong when so many bad things happen in life all at once. Rose of Sharon showed how you had to be mature and strong even though live was tough.
Rose of Sharon was a dynamic character because at first she was love struck but then she started acting immature and babyish. But by the end of the book she matured and was a strong woman. 5. Rose of Sharon was the oldest daughter in the Joad family. She used to be preached by Jim Casy and was married the Connie. Ivy and Sairy Wilson were friends while they traveled together. Connie- He is Rose of Sharon’s husband who has unrealistic dreams with his wife. He dreams too much and soon abandons Rose of Sharon to go study tractors and to hopefully get paid 3 dollars and hour. His leaving surprises only Rose of Sharon. . Connie’s purpose in the story was to leave the Joad family to show how stress, depression and money can really move some people. Connie was also a dynamic character because he was ‘in love’ with Rose of Sharon for the whole story until they got to California and reality hit that getting a job was harder than they both thought. Connie left the Joad family in hopes that he would be able to make 3 dollars a day back in Oklahoma. 5. Connie was married to Rose of Sharon making him a brother in-law and son in-law of the Joad family. Casy was just an acquaintance of Connie. Connie never met Muley or Floyd.
Granma Joad- Granma loved having Casy around because she was a Christian. She too loved to torment Granpa Joad just like he did her. Once Granpa died she started to slowly die herself, she dies right after the Joad family reaches California. 4. Granma’s purpose in the story was to show even though she was dying the family never left her behind because she was family. Granma was static character because while Granpa was alive all they did was rise hell with each other but once he didn’t she got sick and didn’t talk or do much. 5. Granma Joad was the mother of Pa and the Granma of the Joad children.
She loved Casy because she was a devoted Christian and he was a preacher. Granma Joad appreciated the help of the Wilson’s during Granpa’s death. Granma never met Floyd. Granpa Joad- He was the one who ran the Indian’s off of the land to make the Joad farm possible, is now old and feeble. He loves to torment his wife and family. He is connected to the land and didn’t want to leave it for California, but Tom drugged him to get him to come. On their first stop along the journey Granpa dies of a stroke, most likely a heat stroke. 4. Granpa’s purpose in the story was to show his love for the land was stronger that anything else.
Once he left the land he got sick and died. Granpa was a dynamic character because during the whole story he would just rise hell for the whole family but then once he was about to die he broke down and started crying. 5. Granpa Joad was the father of Pa and the Granpa of the Joad children. Granpa like Casy because he would pray for his wife. Granpa Joad never really met the Wilson’s but they helped him out tremendously by giving him a tent to die in. Granpa never met Floyd and was the neighbor of Muley. Al Joad- 16-year old son of the Joad family. His main interest is in girls and cars.
He was responsible for the whole family on the long voyage to California because the car was his responsibility. If something happened to the car it would have been his fault, resulting in the suffering of his family. He looks up to Tom throughout the book, but soon becomes his own man. He falls in love with Agnes Wainwright while working and stays with her instead of leaving with his family. 4. Al’s purpose in the story was to help keep the car running on their journey to California. Al made sure the car kept running all the way to California and made sure it never broke down.
Al was a dynamic character because he was some what immature at the beginning of the story but he ended up acting very mature by the end of the story. He was idolized Tom, but soon grew up to be his own man. 5. Al was the middle son of the Joad family. He helped Floyd fix his car before they had to flee the Hooverville. Al helped the Wilson’s by fixing their car too. Casy made sure Al wasn’t around when he got arrested so their wouldn’t be any connection to Tom. Ivy and Sairy Wilson- The Joads met the Wilson’s on their first night stop on their journey to California.
Both of the Wilson’s were sweet and nice, they lent their tent to the Joad’s so that Granpa Joad would have a comfortable place to die. To return the favor Al and Tom fixed their broken-down car, and then they two families decided to travel to California together. During the journey their car break down again and Al and Tom fix it again but before they can move on the Wilson’s said they couldn’t move on because of Sairy’s health. 4. The Wilson’s purpose in the story was to help the Joad family by sharing their food and their car with them. The Wilson’s showed the reader that even during these tough times people could still be nice.
The Wilson’s were static characters always being helpful but knew because of Sairy’s health they would eventually have to stop. 5. The Wilson’s relationship with the Joad family was they helped each other out, they were friends. The Wilson’s liked Casy because before the Joad’s left the Wilson’s Casy prayed for Sairy even though he didn’t want to. The Wilson’s never met Muley or Floyd. Uncle John- Pa’s brother who is crazy, stringy and mean. John is filled with guilt and shame because years ago he didn’t get a doctor for his 4 month pregnant wife who complained of stomach pains and died the day after from a ruptured appendix.
He blames himself for her death and because of it his loneliness cuts him off from people and his appetite. 4. Uncle John’s purpose in the story was to help out in any way he could but to also show selfishness when he got depressed. Uncle John was a static character because throughout the whole story he just felt guilty and ashamed of what he did so long ago. 5. Uncle John was Pa’s brother and the Uncle of the Joad family. He talked to Casy about his sins a few times and appreciated the advice of Casy. Uncle John was the neighbor of Muley and never really met Floyd.
Ruthie Joad- The sencond and youngest Joad daughter who has almost a twin-like relationship with her younger brother Winfield. During the book they do almost everything together, they feed off of each other’s energy. 4. Ruthie’s purpose in the story was to help out Ma in any way she could and some what look after Winfield whenever they were together. Ruthie was a dynamic character because at the beginning of the story she acted fearless but during the story we found out she was only fearless with Winfield by her side. She also acted immaturely and didn’t think things through before she spoke. 5.
Ruthie was the youngest daughter of the Joad family and used to be preacher by Casy. The Wilson’s were companions of hers, Muley was her old neighbor and she never really met Floyd. Winfield Joad- He is the youngest Joad at the age of ten. He does everything with Ruthie. 4. Winfield’s purpose was to help Ma out in any way he could. Winfield was the youngest child in the story and had to grow up during these tough times making it hard to act like normal ten year-old. Winfield was a static character because he was just a child throughout the whole story. 5. Winfield was the youngest child of the Joad family.
He traveled with the Wilson’s and Casy but never talked out associated with them much. Muley used to be Winfield’s neighbor and he never really met Floyd. Floyd Knowles- A migrant worker who Tom meets at the first Hooverville. He gives Tom word on a job up north. His outspokenness gets him into an argument with a deputy where Casy gets arrested for him and Tom’s sake. 4. Floyd’s purpose in the book was to help the Joad’s find work and to work with Tom in making labor unions. Floyd was a dynamic character because he seemed go know when to stop talked when he first got introduced but once the deputy came into the story he was outspoken. . Floyd helped the Joad family out by giving them word on work up north. Casy gave himself in for Floyd and Tom. Floyd never met the Wilson’s or Muley. Part 3: Plot, Setting, Themes and Vocabulary 6. The central settings of the story were in Oklahoma and California. The significance of Oklahoma was that was where the whole story started. Oklahoma was were the Joad family grew up but they got evicted from their house. Oklahoma got changed while they were living there. Granpa Joad stole the land and then the land got stolen from him but the Bank Company.
Oklahoma was not there home anymore so they moved on to California. California was described as beautiful land with plenty of jobs available. But once they reached California they learned that the land was beautiful but the people who owned it were not. California was dirty land because of the people who ran it. California wasn’t what the Joad’s expected and they wanted to change that, and Tom eventually did. 7. The exposition of Grapes of Wrath is Tom gets paroled out of jail and goes to find his family. He finds out both his family and his Uncle got evicted from their homes so they travel to California for work.
The main conflict throughout the whole book is the drought of the Dust Bowl, which results in hundreds of families getting evicted from their homes and being forced to move west. The Joad family was one of those hundreds of families who had to move. The rising action in the story is the journey of the Joad family to California. Once in California the Joad family has a hard time finding work, and at the first Hooverville get into an argument with a local deputy, resulting in Casy getting arrested. The family lives at a government camp for a while but then move on to find work.
One night there was a strike at an orchard and Tom finds Casy there. Casy gets murdered by one of the policeman that was trying to stop the strike. In response, Tom kills the policeman in spite, which is the climax of the story. Tom becomes an outlaw and has to hide from the world to protect his family. In the end Tom ends up running, leaving the rest of his family to escape and be free, which is the resolution of the story. 8. The major themes presented in the work are Bad treatment of the migrant workers, also known as the Okies; the Survival of Kinship and Growth and Maturity.
Bad treatment of the migrant workers in one of the major themes in the Grapes of Wrath because all of the Okies looking for work would be smaller wages and would have to live in Hoovervilles. The workers barely made it by because of how badly they were being treated and paid but the California police and land owners. An example of this would be how the first deputy treated Floyd and Tom because they were outspoken. The Survival of Kinship is also another major theme in the Grapes of Wrath because Ma tries to keep the family together no matter what. During the Dust Bowl all you could count on was your family, no one else.
Family is the only thing the Okies really had left, so they would do anything in there power to stay together. An example of keeping the family together would be when Tom had to knock Uncle John out to have him move up north with the rest of the family. Growth and Maturity was also a major theme in the Grapes of Wrath. Every character grew and matured during the story, showing the reader that the only why they would be able to keep living would be to grow up and become mature. An example would be how Rose of Sharon matured after her baby was a still born. 9.
Emulsion- a mixture of mutually insoluble liquids in which one is dispersed in droplets throughout the other; a light-sensitive coating on photographic film or paper. “Now the dust was evenly mixed with the air, an emulsion of dust and air” (pg. 3, Chapter 1). Insinuation- to imply in a subtle, indirect, or artful way “His voice had the same quality of secrecy and insinuation his eyes had” (pg. 8, Chapter 2). Judiciously- having, exercising, or characterized by sound judgement “The driver squinted judiciously ahead and built up the speed of the truck a little” (pg. 8, Chapter 2). Auger- a tool for boring … and sometimes they drove big earth augers into the ground for soil tests” (pg. 31, Chapter 5). Beseech- to beg urgently “He did not know or own or trust or beseech the land” (pg. 35, Chapter 5). Leanto- A shed with a single-pitch roof attached to the side of a building; A shelter made from planks or branches raised in the front on poles. “Joad paused at the entrance to the tool-shed leanto, an no tools were there…” (pg. 40, Chapter 6). Petulant- Unreasonably irritable or ill tempered; peevish. “… the mouth held tight and small, the little eyes half scowling, half petulant” (pg. 45, Chapter 5).
Peddler- One who peddles for a living, a hawker; also called “packman”. “She aimed to go for that peddler with the ax…” (pg. 48, Chapter 5). Boils- A painful swelling of the skin and subcutaneous tissue with a hard pus-filled center, caused by bacterial infection, usually occurring at a hair follicle. “Look out for boils on that jackrabbit” (pg. 50, Chapter 5). Blazoned- To paint or depict (a coat of arms) with accurate heraldic detail; to adorn or embellish with or as if with blazons; to announce publicly; proclaim loudly and widely “… the garages with blazoned signs…” (pg. 61, Chapter 5). Jalopy- An old, dilapidated car. Get ‘em out in a jalopy…” (pg. 61, Chapter 6). Heifer- A young cow, especially one that has not yet given birth to a calf. “Well, one day he takes a heifer over to Graves’ bull” (pg. 70, Chapter 7). Meerchaum- A claylike material consisting of hydrated magnesium silicate; A tobacco pipe with the bowl made from this. “Over old Tom’s unwhiskered cheek bones the skin was as brown as meerschaum…” (pg. 71, Chapter 8). Citadel- A fortress, typically on high ground, protecting or dominating a city. “She seemed to know, to accept, to welcome her position, the citadel of the family…” (pg. 74, Chapter 8).
Jabbering- talk rapidly and excitedly but with little sense; fast, excited talk that makes little sense. “All over the State, jabbering in the Hoovervilles” (pg. 237, Chapter 19). 10. A). Why were the deputies corrupting the law and treating the Okies unfairly? B). What the importance of keeping the family together even though Tom killed another man and was on the run from the law? C). Did Rose of Sharon do any real sin that would result in her having a still born baby? D). Was it right of Casy to give himself up for Tom, just so he could get in trouble with the law again? E). What was the outcome of the Dust Bowl?