Freefall and Projectile Motion Introduction and Objectives This lab experiment was done to determine the characteristics of free fall and projectile motion in Physics. The motion in which a body is thrown or projected is called Projectile motion while free fall is any motion of a body where gravity is the only force acting upon it, at least initially. In this experiment, a photogate, a chopper, and a Universal Lab Interface were used to determine the free fall motion of the chopper as it was released.
A ball, carbon paper, and an L-shape projector were also used to determine the range of projectile motion of a ball being released from a horizontal yet slightly vertical slope. At the end of the experiment, one will know how velocity and time affect the acceleration of a free falling object and its projectile motion. Thoery Aristotle stated in his theory of motion that the fall of a heavy object toward the center of the earth is a natural motion because the object is just returning to its natural place.
He also stated that heavy objects fall faster than lighter ones because increase in the rate of motion is proportional to the weight of the object. Galileo’s theory states that the when a ball was rolled down an inclined plane at fixed angle? ; the ratio of the distance covered to the square of the corresponding time was always the same, but that when the angle of inclination is changed, the constant also changes but remains the same for the same angle. The constant d/t2 is also the constant for falling object (refers to the acceleration due to gravity).
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The experimental range used in the experiment is 45 cm, and the expression of the range of the projectile was found in terms of Vg and h. The horizontal distance traveled by the projectile for the total time of flight is given simply by R=vxt where t is the total time of flight and vx is the constant horizontal velocity. The time of flight was found using the equation for vertical motion, which is y=yi + viyt-1/2gt^2. After each experiment, the Logger Pro software determined the curve of the time vs velocity graph to determine which had a better Linear fit, either the Quadratic or the Linear curve. http://physicse-book8. blogspot. com/) Results and Discussion A. Free fall Motion Trial NumberAcceleration Value (m/s^2) 119. 32 219. 46 319. 57 419. 61 520. 58 Ave acceleration (m/s^2)19. 71 The quadratic curve proved to give a better fit because the points formed a curved line and are constantly increasing. The percentage error calculated . 56. This is because the heights from where the picket fence was dropper was different in every trial. B. Projectile Motion Highest Point TrialDistance (m)Velocity (m/s) 1. 455. 98 2. 461. 04 3. 435. 97 4. 435. 96 . 441. 01 Mid-Point TrialDistance (m)Velocity (m/s) 1. 365. 79 2. 36. 793 3. 365. 78 4. 368. 78 5. 358. 79 Conclusion This lab experiment proved helpful in understanding free fall. It was shown that under the influence of gravity, an object falls on its own with its velocity accelerating at a constant pace. It is said that when the only force acting on an object is the Earth’s gravitational force,it is in free fall. There cannot be any other force acting upon it, especially air resistance, which should either be absent or ignored by its minute size.
The force of gravity on an object is nearly constant when the object in free fall is near the earth’s surface. Because of this, the object accelerates downward at a constant rate. This acceleration is usually represented with the symbol g. In this experiment, a precise timer was connected to the computer and a Photogate was used to measure the acceleration due to gravity. “The Photogate has a beam of infrared light that travels from one side to the other. It can detect whenever this beam is blocked. ” A Picket Fence or a chopper, a piece of clear plastic with equally spread out black sections on it, was dropped. As the Picket Fence passes through the Photogate, the computer will measure the time from the leading edge of one bar blocking the beam until the leading edge of the next bar blocks the beam. ” This timing continues as all eight bars pass through the Photogate. From these measured times, the program will calculate the velocities and accelerations for this motion and graphs will be plotted. http://www. waukeshasouth. com/physics1/photo. html http://www. oppapers. com/essays/Picket-Fence-Free-Fall/567967
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