Exam 2

There are three sure fire ways to decide upon a speech topic
A speech demonstrating a common procedure like how to make coffee wastes listener’s time
Curiosity is a speaker characteristic generally related to good public speaking
Audiences like to listen to speakers who are enthusiastic about their topics.
It’s considered cheating to use research for one class as speech material for another.
The millennium generation is also known as the I-generation (the Internet-generation).
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Although listeners at a sports banquet may differ in age, sex, religious affiliation, and ethnicity, their mutual interest in the sport is probably more salient than their other characteristics.
A politician who gives the same speech in Denver, Miami, Boston, and Seattle is wise, because the culture in the U.S. is so similar throughout
Creating a questionnaire to assess their beliefs and attitudes toward a topic is a good way to assess the audience’s psychological approach to a topic.
Most of our beliefs are based on study or investigation of a subject
Attitudes are our tendencies to like or dislike something
The best scale for dealing with value questions ranges from strongly agree, agree, neutral or no opinion, disagree, strongly disagree
The time of day you give your speech really has no bearing on how you give your speech
When you do a computer search for a book, you can search for the title, the author, or the topic
Wikipedia is a new style encyclopedia that features community-generated knowledge. You can add or correct entries you find there
The Congressional Digest is a government publication that contains summaries of actual speeches given on the floor of Congress
The “elite media” are expensive newspapers and magazines used predominately by wealthy, influential business and government leaders.
Using note cards can help you avoid cut-and-paste plagiarism
You use source cards to record bibliographic information.
Using a photocopier to record research findings is as effective as using note cards for some people.
When you use a mind map to record your ideas, it is important to keep the entire map on a single page.
False – MAYBE.
Mind maps are discussed on page 121 and the answer is very unclear, however it says “there is no single right way to make a mind map” and “if space is limited, make source cards or list your references on a separate piece of paper”
Our cultural values affect what evidence we accept or reject
Global warming supporters and detractors can come to widely different conclusions, based on the evidence they choose to accept
A major test of factual information is that it be verified by more than one observer.
A definition that is generally accepted by most members of a society is considered a fact
“Recycling is the most important issue facing our community today” is an example of a fact.
The details give facts; the choice of words make these facts easy to visualize.
In general, statistics involve your audience and are very intesting to most.
The most common organizational pattern is the chronological pattern
False; it doesn’t say anywhere in the text that it’s the most common
The chronological pattern is especially good for organizing biographical speeches
The topical pattern is best for explaining a cycle, such as the sleep cycle
False; chronological organization would make sense according to p. 131
When your main ideas show a right-to-left or top-to-bottom direction, you are using a wave pattern.
A speaker from a culture that believes it is futile to fight fate will probably choose a problem-solution organizational pattern (LOL)
The cause-effect pattern is sometimes contained within the problem-solution pattern
Because you are advocating a specific solution, the problem-solution pattern is only used to organize persuasive speeches.
False; it works for informational speeches as well
After you’ve gathered your materials, you must search for the one way to organize your speech.
Sometimes your transition to the conclusion can be nonverbal instead of verbal.
Referring to the introduction provides psychological closure for listeners.
To end your speech memorably, you can use similar material that you used to gain attention in the introduction
Reviewing your main ideas satisfies the, “tell them what you’ve told them” axiom
Using words like next or additionally signals the speaker you are coming to the end of your speech.
False; book says this is true of the phrases “in conclusion” and “finally.”
Ending a speech with “that’s it” provides psychological closure for your audience.
Many of the strategies used in the introduction can be used in the conclusion.
To evaluate a conclusion, ask yourself how well the speech signals the end of the speech, reviews main ideas, provides psychological closure, and ends memorably
A heading provides a brief overview of your entire speech.
A content outline is a synonym for a script, written out in outline form
Outlines should include a heading that identifies your purpose and central idea.
True – I think. It’s discussed on p. 184 but there’s not really an answer
In content outlines, use an A. for your first point, an a. for your first subpoint, and an (a) for the subpoint that follows.
You should highlight information you want to emphasize on your content outline, and refer to it as you speak.
False; book does not say to refer to CONTENT OUTLINE while speaking, it says to refer to NOTE CARDS
Your speaking outline should be a key word outline
The pharmacy student in introduction of the chapter found that the process of creating an outline

a. was a waste of her time except for her most detailed speeches.
b. was the major reason she didn’t want to take the course.
c. helped her learn skills she could transfer to other courses. (183)
d. was most useful when she used a traditional organizational pattern.

Helped her learn skills she could transfer to other courses.
2. When you create your content outline, first
a. identify your organizational pattern and major ideas.
b. write out your introduction.
c. write out the first point with all its supporting material.
d. make a bibliography of all your references.
e. write out a script of your speech.
identify your organizational pattern and major ideas.
____________ is NOT an essential part of an outline’s heading according to the text.
a. The speaker’s name.
b. The finalized central idea
c. The specific purpose statement
d. A title
e. A general purpose statement
The speaker’s name.
Making one point (causes) about equally weighted with the second point (effects) is an example of the principle of coordination
Content outlines should have all these elements EXCEPT
a. an introduction, body, and conclusion.
b. alternating numbers and letters.
c. single sentence main points.
d. major ideas written out in phrases.
e. written out transition statements.
Written out transition statements.
Which outlining principle means to use a consistent pattern to vary numbers and letters?

a. coordination.
b. subordination.
c. alternation.
d. parallel points.

Antoine’s speech, “How to Make a Peanut Butter Sandwich,” presented familiar, predictable information. What principle for choosing a topic or purpose should he have considered?

a. Choose cognitive goals when you want your audience to believe something.
b. Narrow the topic to a manageable size.
c. Take a novel approach.
d. Relate the topic to listener concerns.
e. Incorporate humor as one way to maintain attention.

Take a novel approach
Which of the following students needs help in topic selection?

Eliyahu decides to give the same speech on “Cooking Israeli Food” he gave his anthropology class.
a. Oren speaks about his summer internship at the state capitol.
b. Coral decides that no one needs to hear a speech about baking chocolate chip cookies.
c. Tito goes to a newsstand and skims magazines such as Time.
d. Yocheved carefully considers how her international topic can relate to her fellow students.

Eliyahu decides to give the same speech on “Cooking Israeli Food” he gave his anthropology class. (He can use the topic but must adapt the material.)
Which is NOT a factor to consider regarding international topics?

a. Audiences generally relate to these topics readily.
b. Look into topics from your own heritage and experiences.
c. These topics are increasingly important in a shrinking world.
d. The U.S. media regularly covers international subjects.
e. The topics might be linked to fundamental values.

Audiences generally relate to these topics readily.

MAYBE. Answer wasn’t clearly stated in book. It made it sound like audiences DON’T always relate to these topics readily

4. One study on cultural topics showed that

a. requiring just one diversity issue speech significantly increased students’ ability to take diverse perspectives.
b. students who chose a topic related to their ethnicity greatly increased in empathy.
c. students who did extensive research in diverse sources increased in empathy.
d. in order to increase in empathy, students need to discuss diversity issues more than once during the term.

in order to increase in empathy, students need to discuss diversity issues more than once during the term.
The next step after topic selection is

a. narrowing the topic to a manageable size.
b. deciding on a general purpose.
c. analyzing the audience.
d. deciding on the desired audience response.
e. tentatively formulating a central idea.

Narrowing the topic to a manageable size.
A mind map is especially useful for
a. topic selection.
b. narrowing a topic.
c. identifying a purpose.
d. eliminating taboo or sensitive topics.
e. pointing toward a logical thesis statement.
Narrowing a topic.
Considering the audience at every stage of speechmaking and discovering ways that you can most effectively communicate with this particular group is called
a. audience analysis.
b. audience motivations.
c. evaluating salience.
d. demographic analysis.
Audience analysis.
A young woman approaches people walking through the mall and attempts to sell a new nail project. This is a(n) ______ audience.
a. random
b. passive
c. selected
d. concerted
e. hostile
An environmental activist who is addressing a group of builders and developers is most likely facing a(n) ___________ audience.

a. passive
b. concerted
c. hostile
d. absent
e. organized


MAYBE. This specific example isn’t in the book, and the examples in the book are much more extreme. Are builders and developers hostile toward environmental activists?

Students who are interested in obtaining advanced degrees in Communication Studies attend a meeting with graduate school representatives. They are a(n) _______ audience.

a. random audience
b. passive audience
c. motivated
d. hostile audience
e. unmotivated audience

Thinking of your audience according to cultural populations they represent is
a. sexist and racist.
b. perceiving their motivations.
c. demographic analysis.
d. ethnicity.
e. psychological profiling.
Demographic analysis
Janelle is aware of her Native American heritage when she goes to hear a speech about Zuni jewelry makers; then, her ethnicity is more ______ than when she attends her calculus lecture.
a. androgynous
b. salient
c. complex
d. ambiguous
1. When formulating a research plan, you should NOT ___

a. Analyze your topic.
b. Budget enough time to research.
c. Make use of the reference librarian.
d. Use library books for every topic you research.
e. Identify key terms for your topic.

Use library books for every topic you research.
Which of these suggestions is the best way to avoid drowning in data?
a. Do no more than four hours of research on the topic.
b. Use only library sources like books and newspapers.
c. Make critical evaluation a part of your plan from the very beginning.
d. Keep a running list of all the sources you search.
e. Use a variety of credible sources.
Make critical evaluation a part of your plan from the very beginning.
Which is NOT a primary source?

a. A diary written by a woman traveling in a covered wagon.
b. A book of poetry by e. e. cummings.
c. A newsreel showing a prison in Siberia.
d. The Empire State Building.
e. A movie review by Roger Ebert.

A movie review by Roger Ebert.
Secondary sources are __________
a. one step removed from the persons or events under study.
b. the materials you find in print.
c. not produced at the time the event took place.
d. just about the same value as primary sources.
e. always associated with interviewees.
One step removed from the persons or events under study.
Drawing from your personal experiences is _______(108)
a. not recommended in the text.
b. less believable than something from a book would be.
c. useful in demonstration or how-to speeches.
d. essential for every topic.
e. a secondary source.
A secondary source
Dr. Vered Braun has written and spoken extensively about the history of Israel. She would be a(n) _____ source for an interview.

a. lay and primary
b. primary and expert
c. expert and secondary
d. peer and secondary

Expert and secondary
A hypothetical example is _______
a. more persuasive.
b. unethical because it’s false.
c. often useful when dealing with sensitive issues.
d. brief, by definition.
e. the same as a narrative.
Often useful when dealing with sensitive issues.
Focus groups in Kenya named ________ as the most convincing type of support.
a. hypothetical examples
b. vivid descriptions
c. cultural proverbs
d. percentages
e. personal examples
Personal examples
Using unexpected testimony can be powerful in persuasive speeches because
a. the testimony is misleading.
b. listeners will reason that someone willing to go against his or her peers has probably thought through his or her own opinions carefully
c. listeners will be unfamiliar with these sources.
d. culturally accepted sources are more important than personally accepted sources.
e. they define identity and reflect people’s needs.
listeners will reason that someone willing to go against his peers has probably thought through his own opinions carefully
In the course of your research for a speech about the space program you find a quotation by a rocket scientist who worked on the first moon launch. Using his words in your speech is _____(137)
a. factual.
b. a composite example.
c. lay testimony.
d. paraphrasing.
e. expert testimony
Expert testimony
If you quote a teen gang member who states his opinions about gangs, what type of support are you using?
a. hypothetical example
b. narrative
c. literal analogy
d. peer testimony
e. expert testimony
Peer testimony
Quoting a well-known conservative who supports a well-known liberal position can be powerful evidence because
a. it agrees with the “conventional wisdom.”
b. it gives a voice to an opinion other conservatives probably share but are afraid to say.
c. listeners reason if she is willing to go against her party, she has probably thought through her opinion carefully.
d. people would probably not hear this opinion otherwise.
Listeners reason if she is willing to go against her party, she has probably thought through her opinion carefully.
Principles for organizing your speech are found in the canon of
a. invention.
b. disposition.
c. style.
d. memory.
e. delivery.
What is one “secret” for making a good business presentation?
a. Organized ideas are easier to understand.
b. Working hard on your presentation will guarantee success.
c. Taking a mental exit occasionally during your preparation relieves stress.
d. Audiences like “stream of consciousness” presentations.
Organized ideas are easier to understand
The first part of your speech to plan is the
a. introduction.
b. body.
c. conclusion.
d. connectives.
e. content outline.
Which is NOT a tip for organizing the main points of a speech?
a. Limit the number of points to seven.
b. Return to the tentative central idea and begin to flesh it out.
c. Arrange supporting data under the main points.
d. Put the points in order for maximum effectiveness.
e. Choose the pattern that best meets the topic, the purpose, and the situation.
Limit the number of points to seven.

The book says 2-5 points

To answer the listener question “Why should I listen to this speech?” you must
a. gain attention.
b. relate to your listeners.
c. introduce your topic.
d. establish personal credibility.
e. preview your main ideas.
Relate to your listeners
In her introduction to her speech about the prescription drug Ritalin, Maryssa tells her audience that she has a brother on Ritalin. She is
a. gaining attention.
b. relating to her listeners.
c. personalizing her topic.
d. establishing personal credibility.
e. previewing her main ideas.
Establishing personal credibility.
1. A good introduction answers all these listener questions EXCEPT ______
a. What’s this all about?
b. Why does this matter to me?
c. How long will this take?
d. Why listen to this speaker?
e. What are the main ideas of the speech?
How long will this take?
Which is NOT part of the introduction?
a. a statement of the central idea
b. establishing why you are competent to speak on the topic
c. drawing attention to the topic
d. showing the audience why they should listen to this topic
e. statistics to explain your main points
Statistics to explain your main points
3. Which is a participatory question?
a. When was the last time you had a relaxing day in the country?
b. Who is your favorite basketball player?
c. Who can tell me the name of the last president to die in office?
d. Do you ever wonder where your activity funds go?
e. What motivates you to get out and volunteer?
Who can tell me the name of the last president to die in office?
_______ is an especially good way to invite the audience to respond internally to your topic.
a. Asking a rhetorical question
b. Establishing your credibility
c. Telling a joke
d. Previewing your ideas
e. Beginning with a visual aid
Asking a rhetorical question
According to the text, these openings are especially effective for engaging the audience
a. rhetorical questions, statistics, and examples
b. an intriguing question, reference to a current event, an example
c. quoting your grandmother, using an example, telling a joke
d. statistics, jokes, current events
e. visual aids, descriptions, a statistic
This question doesn’t make any sense, because the book uses every single one of these examples.
Which opening statement is best for a classroom speech about cloning?
a. The purpose of my speech today is to tell you about the pros and cons of cloning.
b. Hi. My name is Sam, and my topic today is cloning.
c. Early in 1997, journalists flocked to England to see Dolly, a sheep who had been cloned there.
d. I came upon the most interesting topic in one of my science classes. It’s the topic of cloning, and I’d like to tell you about it today.
e. Hi. How’s everybody doing today?
Early in 1997, journalists flocked to England to see Dolly, a sheep who had been cloned there.