AN Evaluation OF SECURITY CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DESIGN OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS IN ABUJA ;
The primary intent of edifices is to supply residents with contributing, safe, comfy, healthy and secured indoor environment to transport out different sorts of activities runing from work, survey, leisure, concern and household life to societal interactions. ( Olagide and Bello 2007 ) .
Benjamin and Lawrence, 2007 noted that in order to accomplish this intent, edifices are designed, planned, constructed and managed based on standard specifications established by government’s professionals and experts who are supposed to hold equal cognition of user’s demands and outlooks, among others. ( Webster, 1966 ) , province that security is the province of feeling of being free from fright and danger or the riddance of menaces. Security is one of the basic demands of humanity. Human security is about screening persons and communities from any signifier of force or insecurity. Human security sought to foreground new concerns about planetary security and needs to turn to a menace to human life. ( Ogboi and Eze, 2013 ) .
Harmonizing to ( Gilbert et al. ( 2003 ) as cited by Benjamin and Lawrence [ 2007 ] Terrorist onslaughts as a menace to edifices are a menace that most design codifications have non addressed in the yesteryear, and which have clearly become more of import. ( Benjamin and Lawrence, 2007 ) opines that particularly for certain types of edifices. These has become an issue that cause fright, anxiousness and concern in the heads of the populace. As edifice codifications are bing for the benefit and protection of the populace and belongingss, it seems sensible that codifications should be taken into history the perceptual experiences and frights of the general populace when planing for all jeopardies, including terrorist menaces.
Prince philips, ( 2010 ) states that the security breach by the terrorist group at the force central office and the united states office in Abuja in 2011 had thrown up assorted security issues and brought about frights in the head of populaces.
Aziza, ( 2011 ) , noted that public edifices in Nigeria today seems to hold been the focal point of terrorist onslaught. Building security and safety took on new intending on September 11, 2001. Unprecedented terrorist actions that twenty-four hours at the universe trade centre in New York City and the Pentagon in Washington. DC, made edifice proprietors and users think as they had ne’er thought before about secure and safe, they are-or aren’t-in the edifices they use every twenty-four hours. ( Anderson, 2008, as was cited by Muhammad, and Asmau S, [ 2012 ] . Architects, applied scientists, security and engineering advisers define the architect’s function in the relationship between security and edifice design.
Aziza, ( 2011 ) . Noted that constructing security considerations is non merely about put ining the latest electronic cogwheel and package bundle. Nor is it merely a consideration for constructing types with extremely specific tenancy considerations. Increasingly, edifices of all kinds are campaigners for the sort of careful security planning that proceeds hand-in-hand with the architectural design procedure. To guarantee an appropriate and cost-efficient degree of security, designers need to introduce themselves with the scope of security factors that affect the design.
Safety, menaces to edifices are addressed by constructing codifications. By Torahs, designers and other interior decorators must conform to plan and building criterions applicable to the legal power in which a undertaking is located. Mandated demands in edifice codifications are intended to protect the wellness and safety of edifice residents, firemans, and exigency forces, and to keep the structural unity of edifices in the event of fire and other inauspicious status. Although safety menaces relate to security menaces, constructing codifications do non incorporate security demands. Safety menaces, which are unwilled, consequence from natural phenomena ( e.g. Lighting inundations, hurricanes and twisters ) or through human carelessness and ignorance ( e.g. Improper usage, accidents, equipment failure, and system defects ) . Security menaces are knowing and originate in human actions. Angry persons, vandals, felons, and terrorists can transport out knowing menaces. However, heather menaces are knowing or unwilled, they may hold similar results, runing from nuisances to catastrophes of the major graduated table ( got from security and planning in the design ) .
Nimma, ( 2007 ) . Stressed that with the recent rush in panic onslaughts comes the demand to reconsider edifice design considerations to safeguard lives and belongings and minimise hazard and chance of onslaught. The easiness at which security was beaten at the United Nations edifice in Abuja raise new inquiries as to the rightness of the full composite in position of its position. Granted the edifice exhibited resilient structural unity in defying impact, it ought to be more hard to hedge security. ( Fatima, 2004 ) opines that the bombardment of Lois Edet house-Nigeria’s constabulary central office was besides an indicant that today’s design security considerations are clearly unequal. The undermentioned anti-terror constructing design considerations are recommended for composites that can be marks for panic onslaughts. There is the demand to procure edifices in Nigeria.
Since the September 11, 2011 panic onslaughts in the United States, the demand to forestall or react to Acts of the Apostless of panic has radically transformed the policing and security landscape of states. This is frequently marked by the passage of new statute law, creative activity of new security bureaus or sections, furthering inter-agency intelligence sharing and engineering proviso of new resources, development of engineerings, and intensification of bilateral and multi-lateral cooperation on policing and security. In many legal powers, nevertheless, these steps have been taken at the disbursal of cultivating the people and communities in affected parts whose support and partnerships are important in geting actionable intelligence against terrorist menaces and reacting efficaciously to the threat. Nigeria is unluckily no exclusion.
The job of insecurity is now a major tendency all over the Earth. Insecurity affects human life and being, the construct of insecurity has normally been ascribed different readings in association with the assorted ways which it affects persons. Security considerations remain its values for investing safety.
The frequence of terrorist onslaught on edifice constructions in Nigeria in the past few old ages had become really alarming and unreassuring. Many lives and belongingss have been lost in the prostration of edifices largely in Abuja. Many belongings proprietors have developed high blood force per unit area and some have been sent to an early grave. ( Ogboi and Eze, 2013 ) .
Beland ( 2005 ) , defines insecurity as “the province of fright or anxiousness stemming from a concrete or alleged deficiency of protection” . It refers to miss or inadequate freedom from danger. This definition reflects physical insecurity which is the most seeable signifier of insecurity, and it feeds into many other signifiers of insecurity such as economic security and societal security.
AIM AND OBJECTIVES
The primary purpose of this research is to rating of security considerations in the design of public edifice. The specific aims of this research is to execute the followers
- To place and measure assorted security considerations in care schemes adopted for public edifices ;
- To find the effectivity for security considerations in public edifices ;
- To measure the degree of security challenge in public edifices ;
- To measure and measure the relevancy of security consideration in public edifices in Abuja ;
- What are the considerations for following and care schemes for public edifices?
- How effectual is the security consideration in public edifices?
- What is the degree of security challenges in public edifices?
- What extend is the degree of security challenges in public edifices?
- What is the relevancy of security considerations in public edifices in Abuja?
The range of this research is focused on security considerations in the design of public edifices in Abuja.
The position of Abuja as the capital metropolis of Nigeria means the metropolis is traveling to maintain edifice physical constructions and spread outing in range and size. Abuja, Nigeria’s federal capital metropolis, is a fast developing one. Abuja has a sprawling and unprecedented population growing, far more than the official figures. This is mostly due to resulting urbanisation in the metropolis following the resettlement of the federal capital from Lagos, and to the economic chances that the metropolis seems to offer. This has put tremendous force per unit area on the city’s substructure, peculiarly lodging, every bit good as other services many authorities constitutions, embassies, international bureaus and several corporate pudding stones are headquartered in Abuja. The metropolis has seen the development of major Constructions of constructions and substructures to run into up with the demands of adjustment for office, residential and recreational infinites. The research is to concentrate on some major edifices, and will ineptly look into the security consideration of cardinal bank of Nigeria and National house of assembly which are both strategic edifices in Abuja Nigeria These are indispensable elements of our economic system and life, and are hence attractive marks to terrorist groups. This research will concentrate on the protective readyings of some public countries, and provides relevant information to professionals and others who are concerned with these issues. The research will measure the handiness, external construction, stuffs and internal safety.
Significance OF STUDY
This research intends to turn to and make full in some of the spreads that approaches to security of lives and belongingss in developing a agency of safeguarding residents and edifices particularly the causes of terrorist onslaught and demo how to keep effectual security policies.
Protecting the residents and contents of a edifice from the consequences in the consequences of a natural or human assault, the concluding end of physical security design is to minimise harm to a edifice and its systems so recovery may be possible. This is, of class, a challenging undertaking because the effects of temblors, windstorms, inundations, and detonations are hard to foretell.
Joseph.A, ( 2003 ) believed that the exposures of an bing edifice can be evaluated against a menace analysis for the construction. Methods for retrofitting the edifice to turn to these exposures are so examined. Technology has provided many stuffs and techniques that make it possible, though non ever economical, to protect bing edifices against utmost duress such as bomb harm.
The survey adopted a study research techniques, and is supported by Marshall and Rossman ( 1989 ) that aggregation of informations and analysis in a qualitative research is a coincident procedure. Random trying method was adopted for choosing the sample size utilizing a well-structured questionnaire, which was self-administered to the respondents. The secondary informations were sought through a careful hunt of different stuffs. The major beginning of information was obtained through literature study of books, studies of dailies and periodicals, authorities publications, conference documents and seminar studies among other. Descriptive analysis was employed to analyze the information gathered which was presented in a narrative. The rationalist position besides known as the scientific method is based on dependable and nonsubjective informations, mensurable experiments, trials, every bit good as statistical processs. It derives its strength from the impression that better apprehension of human experience can be gained through experiments and observations, positivist position to rating draws fundamentally on the method-based theory and focal points on developing Methodological model for verifying the internal cogency ( causality ) and external cogency ( generalisation ) of programmes, rating research is focused on the coevals of hypothesis, aggregation of quantitative informations, and utilizing the information to prove hypothesis and besides evolve theory as it is done in scientific experiments.
The chief instruments of informations aggregation were interviews, focal point group treatments, questionnaires, reappraisals, observations. Relevant secondary informations, and the rationalist orientation for the research. Most significantly hypotheses are developed through the treatment of the conceptual theoretical account and constructivist attack.