Environmental Issues of Pakistan
Serious risks of irreversible damages are present due to air and water pollution, mismanagement of solid waste and destruction of fragile ecosystems. With an estimated 37 percent of its population living in cities, Pakistan is the highly urbanized country in South Asia. Its cities continue to grow, offering employment opportunities, but rapid urbanization has been accompanied by environmental problems such as pollution, waste management, congestion and the destruction of fragile ecosystems.
Urban air pollution remains one of the most significant environmental problems, facing the cities. We can look into every environment problem one by one and understand that how is it affecting the country and think of the ways in order to reduce the threats it causes to our society. Air Pollution Air is the most essential need of humans but really unfortunately air is more polluted than others all today in the country. Smokes coming out from factories, industries, homes and vehicles are causing of air pollution.
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I would say that one of the most alarming situation for Pakistan that with the passage of time manufacturing industries are increasing even in residential areas. The smokes of anufacturer industries are causing of air pollution because of its dangerous gases. These deadly gases are so much dangerous for human health. Chemical reactions can also be harmful for humans and as well as for nature such as when sulfuric acid mix with water that help to make clouds and when rain’s drops fall down it effect humans, trees animals etc.
Rapidly growing energy demand, fuel substitution such as high emitting coal and oil, and high-energy intensity are the key factors contributing to air pollution. Some factors contributing to high-energy intensity are transmission nd distribution losses in power generation, fuel prices subsidies on diesel and ageing vehicles, which are primarily diesel powered. Pakistan was ranked as 3rd most air polluted country in 2012. The annual mean PMIO 198 ug per cubic meter. Pakistan Clean Air Network (PCAN) was established in 2005 and is hosted by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IIJCN).
Under an agreement with ADB in 2005, IUCN, a non-city member of Clean Air Asia, helped establish PCAN and serves as its secretariat. PCAN aims to address air quality issues in Pakistan and promote etter air quality management (AQM) practices in urban centers. The approach includes awareness raising, capacity building and provision of a broad knowledge base for AQM. Among the key achievements of the network is the establishment of Clean Air Coordination Committees for Karachi and Peshawar as well as initiating efforts to establish a policy roadmap for upgrading fuel quality for motor vehicles.
As a single person we can play an important role in decreasing air pollution in the country. When possible, walk, bike, carpool or use mass transit. Avoid driving on high ozone days and during peak traffic . Don’t fill your gas tank on high ozone days, and try to refuel after dark. Also, dont overfill or “top-off’ your gas tank, as fumes can escape. Make your voice heard concerning mass transit and highway development. Get involved in local transportation planning boards or agencies to steer land use toward smart growth choices.
Conserve energy to reduce the demand for power plants to produce more electricity by insulating your walls and ceilings, choosing energy-efficient home appliances, and using energy-efficient compact fluorescent light bulbs. Run your washer, drier or dishwasher only when full . Jse a fan and open windows instead of air conditioning in warm weather. Plant trees near your home to provide cooling shade . Avoid using gas-powered lawn mowers or other gardening equipment, especially on high ozone days. Instead, use electric mowers.
Many utilities offer “green” energy options for their customers. As an electricity consumer, research and choose “green” energy options for your home. Water Pollution Water is essential for the survival of all living things. Without water, humans would die in a few days, crops would not grow and food would run short. In Pakistan, due to he increase in population, per-capital water resources estimated at the time of Partition at 5000m3/year are expected to fall below 1000m3/year in the near future. Pakistan will shortly become a water- stressed country.
It is crucial, therefore, to water itself. The health and economic effects of polluted water are well-documented. It leads to illness, ailment and even death. Mortality and morbidity impose costs on individuals and families which, above the direct costs of treatment and medicine, may include loss of earning and impaired productivity. The Supreme Court of Pakistan has declared, not only that the fundamental right to life includes a clean and healthy environment, but that access to unpolluted water is the right of every person wherever he lives.
The Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, which launched its National Water Quality Monitoring Program in 2001, documents the water quality situation throughout Pakistan and submitted its fifth and final Report in 2007. The report examines the water quality of 357 samples taken from 23 major cities, eight rivers, six dams, four lakes, two canals and one reservoir to analyse ontaminants against an array of quality standards. Every major city reported unsafe drinking water. None of the water sources tested in Bahawalpur, Kasur, Multan, Lahore, Sheikhupura and Ziarat was safe for drinking purposes.
All of the 22 surface water bodies evaluated in the report were found to be contaminated with coli forms and E. Coli; 73 per cent had a high level of turbidity, three had high concentrations of irons and 27 per cent showed excessive concentrations of iron and fluoride. Approximately, 60 per cent of Pakistanis get their drinking water from hand or motor umps (in rural areas, this figure is over 70 per cent). It is estimated that as many as 40 million Pakistanis depend on the supply of irrigation water for their domestic use.