Adult Learner Assessment Theresa Ann Hayden, M. A.
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In identifying three concepts pertinent to classroom assessments for adult learners, “assessment procedures can be used for measuring entry performance (placement assessment), monitoring learning progress (formative and diagnostic assessment), or measuring end-of-instruction achievement (summative assessment)” (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009, p. 14). This translates to the classroom as pre-test, or preview (to writing skills, for example); on-the-spot identification of “opportunities for improvement,” feedback and post-testing, whether it’s verbal, written, or another assessment.
Classroom assessment is typically, one of the last steps performed in the education of adult learners. However, assessment of a student’s abilities before, during, and after teaching can also be performed. First, the teacher plans and prepares instructional objectives which are in line with the learning institution, state, and local objectives.
These objectives must also be: Guided by what the students are expected to learn… [while] the instructional objectives are also in harmony with the assessment produced… [these] should also be stated in terms of the student performance to be demonstrated… [and] those observable skills such as speaking, or a product such as a written paper…and typically a rubric, scale, or a checklist of some type is used (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009, pp. 43 - 44). Teacher Effectiveness According to “Effective Classroom Instruction” (2004):
Effective classroom instruction refers to the application of the ‘teacher effectiveness’ variables, that is, those variables that have been demonstrated to bear the strongest relation to student achievement. These variables include time on task, content coverage, pacing, scope and sequence, questioning, feedback, and praise. Systematic application of these elements has been demonstrated to increase academic achievement. Behavioral outcomes are the initial objectives in place before any of the instruction takes place.
In addition, the characteristics of classroom assessment include that it is “learner-centered, teacher-directed, mutually beneficial, formative, context-specific, ongoing, and rooted in good-teaching practice” (Angelo and Cross, 1993, pp. 4 - 6). In layperson’s language, the typical activities of a teacher and where they fit into the characteristics of student-achievement learning include: Teachers will use various techniques and tools to facilitate the learning of the students which is learner-centered.
The teacher will impart knowledge and the student will obtain knowledge is teacher directed. The opportunity for both teachers and adult students to meet in an environment conducive to learning with a common goal of ‘knowledge’; the teacher to impart knowledge and the student to obtain knowledge is mutually beneficial. Using internal and external feedback to modify lessons is formative and ongoing. The assessment on the part of the teacher comes from goal-setting at the beginning of the quarter, semester, etc. ith regard to the quantity and quality of concept and skill knowledge required for the students to learn is context-specific. Teachers will use various techniques and tools (altering these to the ‘microculture’ of the classroom) to facilitate the learning of the students is rooted in good-teaching practice (Angelo and Cross, 1993, pp. 4 - 6). While it may seem obvious, teacher effectiveness is tantamount to meeting and exceeding planning, executing, and analyzing for improvement instructional objectives, assessment instruments, and measuring performance objectives.
When the adult student finds that all of this is relevant to his or her personal and academic objectives, and there are instructional objectives which are interconnected to the personal and academic goals of the student, then there is student achievement and teacher effectiveness. This is illustrated where a diagnosis of sorts occurs by the teacher—this may be a pre-assessment; then the teaching begins; then the teacher may assess the situation by obtaining results from the assessment tool; and whatever adjustments or modifications are needed are determined and then put into place; and they the teacher assesses the learning again. See Appendix, p. 1). This is the visual flow of a teacher’s “work-in-progress” of diagnosing, teaching, and assessing results, and then modifying teaching, and then teaching, assessing, and modifying, and so on. Type and Purpose of the Assessment The type of assessment to be used is a multiple-choice question, true-false question, and short-essay exam. The purpose of the exam will be to determine whether the students have mastered the concepts of ethical theories; this will aid them in making quick decisions in a work environment or in an ethical dilemma. Context and Learning Situation
The class being taught is Ethics which has several different ethical theories available through the textbook Ethics: Theory and Practice textbook. The applications of the different ethical theories and their tenets are applied to different relevant scenarios. The students will participate in class discussion and give their opinions freely in an open-environment. The goal here is to keep the students’ interest in the subject of ethics, as a whole, by using different circumstances, where the student might have to make split-second ethical decisions in the work environment. This shows the adult learner applicability and immediate relevance.
Student Demographics The student demographics include the educational program of Criminal Justice with the adult students and are the following: 1. Ranging in age from 18 to 50 years and beyond. 2. The gender of the group is 55% male and 45% female 3. Currently pursuing an undergraduate degree; an Associate’s of Science degree in Criminal Justice. 4. The academic attainment before entering college of all students includes either a G. E. D. certificate or a high school diploma. 5. Some students have completed prior college coursework; some have other associate’s degrees. . The adult students in this assessment are European-American, Hipic-American, Asian-American, African-American, and Mixed Ethnicities. 7. The students come from Lower Class, Working Class, and Lower Class backgrounds. Hypothetical Learner Subject Taught The subject being taught in this scenario is Ethics, and the students are expected to develop sound ethical reasoning and judgment through the study of practical applications of ethical theories. Topics studied include ethics as it relates to criminal justice, health care and nursing, society, and the environment.
Emphasis is on practical applications of ethical principles and analytic methods. In particular, the students are exposed to different scenarios involving reason and judgment in the context of the degree-seeking program. Learner Outcomes The adult learners are expected to learn the following at the completion of the Ethics class: 1. Apply the Consequentialist (Teleological) ethical theories to different scenarios presented as if a proponent of consequentialism. 2. Apply the Nonconsequentialist (Deontological) ethical theories to different scenarios presented as if a proponent of nonconsequentialism. . Discuss the origins of Virtue Ethics, and explain which cultures might be more predisposed to use this type of ethics due to its origin. 4. Solve ethical problems using Absolutism and Relativism 5. Describe and explain the difference between Determinism and Free Will 6. Perform critical thinking in ethical dilemmas using both Reward and Punishment. Adult Learner Assessment Instruments Any type of assessment should always be congruent with the instructional objectives, as well as the content taught to those instructional objectives (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009).
To assess students properly, the students must be made aware of the instructional objectives, first, at the beginning of the term, while covering the material in the syllabus, and then throughout the term, at the opening of each class meeting. This way, the students are kept “on track” as to what is expected of them to learn, and the daily instructional objectives are in alignment with the overall learning objectives. College and university policies should come into play regardless of the type of assessment (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009), but the assessment instrument can be tailored depending on the type of material which is being measured.
There are different types of skills which can be evaluated in any one college subject. The assessment used in this scenario is at the conclusion of this course will be cumulative, and will assess all of the concepts using criterion-referenced assessment, which asks the question, “Did the student learn the concepts? ” and then also using norm-referenced assessment, which checks for, “How did the student fair when compared to other students’ performance? ” The Adult Learning Scenario
The assessment used to ascertain the adult learners ranging in ages from eighteen to fifty plus, with dominant demographics of 75% Hipic, and 15% European, and 10% African American, will be a Final Project, culminating the quarter’s learning in an Ethics course in an associate’s degree program in Criminal Justice. In addition, of the 75% Hipic students, at least half of them are working as English as a second language learners. This course runs twelve weeks and will cover ten main ethical theories and each of their sub-theories. The Special Needs Student
Overall, the adult learner has many challenges in “going back to school,” the ESL student has even more challenges. The foundation for education and the mindset of all students is aptly stated as: Many students today assume that it is the teacher's job to educate them, tell them what they need to know or give them the answers. Moreover, because they have been taught to be passive learners, they think that their job is to listen without resistance and to try to learn as best as they can, and, in some cases, verbatim what they are taught.
Many students, in fact, accept everything they read as factual information (Baitlinger, 2005, p. 1). Adult Learners in the Southwest region of the United States, whose first language is typically Spanish, and English is their second language, are in good company. Often times, classrooms of adult learners are filled with several different students of many ethnicities and cultures. This is one of the beauties of living in the Southwest; there are typically Spanish speaking people who are the majority of bilingual speakers in cities such as Vista, which is a suburb of San Diego, California, where the Ethics class is located.
In this particular classroom of thirty-two, about 24 (75% of the class) will speak Spanish fluently; some will speak English fluently, but there is also a large population who have been in the United States for only a few years, and there are challenges as an adult when it is tempting to stay in the native language with friends, but whose assignments and assessments are all either spoken, written, or lectured in English. These following are some of the challenges that both teacher and student face when the student is English as a Second Language (ESL) learner.
As far as the educating of these adult learners whose English language is still in the practice stage, there are many students who are very open and willing to learn the new culture, the new language, and the new academia. However, there are challenges that face many who are not so approachable due to emotional issues such as embarrassment, shame, or resistance, which can even turn into stubbornness. The Teaching Strategies The administrator will use the following teaching strategies throughout the course: 1. Lecture 2.
Board work 3. Demonstration 4. Classroom exercises 5. Class discussion 6. Textbook exercises 7. Practice quiz questions 8. Case studies and reading assignments 9. Guest speakers 10. Group and pair work 11. Verbal presentations 12. Pencil and paper examinations In addition, all students will be required to demonstrate proper use and application of the computer and the different software required, and the materials located in the Learning Resource Center throughout the course. The Teaching Strategies for Special Needs Students
The teaching strategies for the special needs students which are comprised of 75% of this class’ population will include not only accommodation for the ESL student in the teaching stage, but also in the assessment stage. This will be accommodations for the assessment will be covered later in the paper. Many lessons may need to be repeated; the teacher may need to work tenaciously side-by-side at the desk with the ESL student until he/she understands the material; the teacher may exercise unlimited patience; and also need to use metaphors or analogies in order to find other avenues of reaching the student.
Professors can be challenged to their limit when grading an ESL adult student’s written paper. Many times, there are words which are used which are not words at all in forming sentences. For example, a student who has only heard the word “limelight” in observing his non-ESL counterparts, may mistake it for the word “live light. ” This type of error can perplex a professor who is unsure of what the student is trying to convey. It isn’t serious, but the point is, in order to build an assessment, the teacher must first teach, and the student must first have lots of practice and drill with reinforcement by the teacher.
Another challenge for ESL adult learners is learning how to conjugate verbs; many bilingual and multilingual adults have experienced this. For example, if an adult learner, who spoke English first, and he or she were attempting to learn Spanish, the result is the same with conjugation of verbs. If a child grows up with correction by his mother or father when he says, “I ‘goed’ to the store,” with the parent saying, “No, Honey, you say, ‘I went to the store,” then this child has at least twenty years of practice.
This is another challenge when grading any type college papers; many ESL adult learners will use substantially incorrect verb tenses. In addition to these challenges, most ESL learners do not have the immense vocabulary in English that many lifelong English speakers do; of course, this is the same for the inverse relationship and any other languages where the learner speaks a different first language and is learning another language. The estimated recognition vocabularies of fluent readers range from 10,000 to 100,000 words (Johnson and Steele, 1996 cite Nagy and Herman, 1987, p. 48); English or Composition teachers understand that reading, writing, and speaking are all related. In fact, students build a vocabulary by doing all of the above. Because reading is fundamental to all education and it follows that being able to write and speak the language; ESL students know this because their challenges “snowball into one another. ” The Course Outcomes The course outcomes which align directly with the instructional objectives in each unit are what the student is expected to perform to upon completion of the course. The students should be able to: 1. nvestigate the importance of sound ethical judgment and reasoning for responsible living; 2. analyze significant case studies using key ethical concepts; 3. debate significant ethical issues using respectful, clear, and incisive argumentation; 4. explain, defend, and assess personal ethical perspectives on issues of significance in their own lives; 5. discuss application of course knowledge in professional settings in the criminal justice arena. The Course Outline The course outcomes will be achieved by the following outline of topics: 1. Unit One: Introduction to Ethics and Morality . Unit Two: Consequentialist and Non-Consequentialist Theories of Morality 3. Unit Three: Virtue Ethics, Absolutism, and Relativism 4. Unit Four: Freedom, Determinism, Rewards, and Punishments 5. Unit Five: Setting Up a Moral System 6. Unit Six: Ethical Applications: Dishonesty 7. Unit Seven: Ethical Applications: Personal Relationships, Business, and the Media 8. Unit Eight: Ethical Applications: Abortion and Bioethics 9. Unit Nine: Ethical Applications: Life and Death 10. Unit Ten: Ethical Applications: Environmental Ethics and Course Reflection The Assessment Instrument
The actual student assessment handout (See Appendix, p. 2) that is developed by the educator is a Final Project, which is written in a research paper format; this paper should incorporate each of the ten main ethical theories, as well as each sub-theory which belongs under the main ethical theory presented. The theories, along with their sub-theories, are covered, as well as the students must show that they can apply each theory to a real-life criminal justice situation, albeit hypothetical, but realistic to a situation they might find themselves in as a law enforcement officer.
Directions for the Students The student must use and reference the text book, Ethics: Theory and Practice, 10th edition, by Thiroux and Krasemann. The expected deliverables must be in American Psychological Association (APA) formatted paper; it must be between ten to twelve pages in length; it must have a cover page; a references page; there must be no less than twenty resources used, with at least three print books (including the textbook), and at least two peer-reviewed journal articles; and lastly, there must be fifteen in-text citations.
In addition, the paper must be in Arial, 12 point font, double-spaced, and written in third-person perspective; there must be a thesis statement at the beginning of the paper, and to categorize the topics, there must be bold and centered sub-headings. The Page minimum and Resource minimum are non-negotiable; if the project does not meet these particular criteria, then the paper will not be graded. This project is worth 30% of the student’s overall course grade.
The content must include each of the ethical theories, including the sub-theory; and each should be first outlined with a definition of the theory or sub-theory, and at least three examples of how this theory can be applied. Following the definition and basic application of the theory, the student will produce an ethical dilemma in a complex scenario which might occur in the life of a law enforcement officer, where each of the theories are applied as though the student is taking on the role of the decision-maker exercising ethical judgment as a Consequentialist, Determinist, etc.
Essentially, the students are putting themselves in the place of each type of ethical theorist. The student must perform this decision-making for each theory and sub-theory; these theories are shown in the following paragraph. The Ethical Theories The theories with their sub-theories are as follows as cited in Thiroux and Krasemann, (2008): 1. Consequentialism (Teleological) a. Psychological Egoism b. Ethical Egoism c. Utilitarianism d. Care Ethics 2. Nonconsequentialism (Deontological) a. Act Nonconsequentialism b. Rule Nonconsequentialism 3. Virtue Ethics a. Aristotle’s Nichomachean Ethics b. Confucius’ Ethics . Absolutism 5. Relativism 6. Freedom and Free Will 7. Fatalism 8. Determinism a. Hard Determinism b. Soft Determinism 9. Reward 10. Punishment Directions for Special Needs Students The special needs student who is an English as a second language learner will have the same expectations for tangible deliverables as any other student. However, there will be some accommodations made. The ESL student will more time to complete the final project paper due to a slower reading-comprehension speed; these students are bright, they just have a special need, and if more time is necessary, then that is also possible.
For example, if it is warranted, the special needs student will be given the final project specifications “cut sheet” up to two class periods sooner than the other students. This is so that the teacher has time to explain verbally each of the instructions in a more step-by-step fashion. If a teacher has a student who is truly struggling, then it is possible for that student to be assigned additional practice assignments so that he or she can practice the concepts.
Another accommodation might be to assign daily dictionary readings by the student (along with their own language dictionary), so that the student’s vocabulary increases, and he or she practices reading. This also works with children’s books; assign the student stories to read out loud to the teacher after class; this will enable the student to practice his or her “American accent” and will help acculturate the student to the English-speaking, reading, writing environment.
Prior to the final project assignment, the teacher can take the ESL student aside to check for understanding of the directions. The teacher can also read the final project specifications to the student with an English-Spanish interpreter so that any challenging words are truly understood. In addition, the teacher can show samples of quality papers to the ESL students so that they understand the format and comprehensiveness of the assignment given them. Lastly, the ESL adult student still needs lots of encouragement.
While a teacher insists on keeping this fair amongst all students in the class, it doesn’t hurt to encourage these ESL students in the hall, in private, and in front of his or her peers. Direction for Assessment Administrator Since the assessment will be administered by the educator, the direction that she will follow includes: 1) checking for each component required of the students as outlined in the directions to the students, 2) verifying the adherence to the APA format standards using The Official Pocket Style Guide From the American Psychological Association 6th ed. Concise Rules of APA Style, in every aspect of the paper 3) confirming that the students used all of the ethical theories and sub-theories as outlined in the directions to students, by comparing to those in the textbook, Ethics: Theory and Practice, by Thiroux and Krasemann, 2009, to those that the student outlined in the paper, 4) Making certain that the definitions and applications for each theory is, in fact, correct, and 5) attesting that the scenario produced and the ethical decisions made are aligned with those made by each of the ethical theories and sub-theories.
Assessment Items Linked to Learning Objectives The assessment items linked to the learning objectives are in table-format and illustrate each assessment item in the final project assigned and its link to the learning objectives or course outcomes outlined above. (See Appendix, p. 3 - 4) Assessment Consistent with Learning Environment The assessment chosen, the final project which is written as a comprehensive paper by the student is aligned with the course outcomes, as well as the course outline of units covered.
In addition, the adult learners’ environment, whether it be in a face-to-face classroom or an online course is conducive to a comprehensive written paper, as this is the medium for showing definition, application, and creativity in producing scenarios, in which the concepts learned can be used in immediate, relevant, and real-world situations. This is directly in line with Angelo and Cross (1993) states, “Creative thinking is the ability to interweave the familiar with the new in unexpected and stimulating ways” (p. 81). It is also consistent with Knowles’ assumptions of adult learners where: An adult accumulates a growing reservoir of experience which is a rich resource for learning…the readiness of an adult to learn is closely related to the developmental tasks of his or her special role…adults need to know why they need to learn something (Knowles, 1984; 1980; 1968, as cited in Merriam, Caffarella, and Baumgartner, 2007).
In fact, a final project in the form of a written paper is the best format to use the adult learners’ life while utilizing a performance instrument that is closely related to his or her special role. Above all, adults will find that the instrument is relevant to something they need to learn for their upcoming professions in criminal justice. Interpretation of Results
Interpretation of a course assessment is the last step after administering a classroom assessment technique; it is the step that the teacher is most interested in after providing the instruction; adequate opportunities for practice and drill of concepts; planning and implementing procedures which are equitable to all; formulating the criteria for constant observation and timely and detailed one-to-one student coaching; and the analysis of each student’s improvement or the necessity for review; and then the assessment tool is administered (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009).
Only then can the interpretation of the assessment be articulated. “In the interpretation step, the teacher seeks answers to the ‘why’ questions of the students’ [incorrect] responses” (Angelo and Cross, 1993, p. 54). Because interpretation is the “goal” of all teaching by teachers, and the learning by students, then it is crucial that the foundation of the teaching, the tasks and tools used, and the learning objectives are all synchronized with the assessment tool, and the interpretation of the results should align with the learning objectives.
As outlined in Gronlund and Waugh (2009), assessment is an integral part of the teaching-learning-assessment process. Assessment Development and Use For the Ethics class presented, the assessment tool used is a research paper which offers the culmination of the entire course. This type of assessment is a criterion-referenced instrument due to the nature of the course subject, and “criterion-referenced interpretation is especially important for instructional uses of assessment results” (Gronlund and Waugh, p. 27).
This assessment will suggest results which correlates to each individual student’s learning of the ethical concepts; the application of said concepts to invented scenarios; the application to realistic criminal justice events; the proper use of the American Psychological Association (APA) format; and the students’ research, organization, paragraph construction, and mechanics skills in using written communication. This final paper is a hybrid between the supply-response [assessments] which are higher in realism… [and] can measure the ability to originate, integrate, and express ideas... and] the summative assessment… [which] checks the extent to which the students have achieved the intended outcomes of the course instruction… [and] performance assessments using extended response which includes a high degree of realism (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009, pp. 9 – 10; 27). The supply-response speaks to the format of the final paper which is written using research, but the students must also integrate their own ideas.
The summative portion is the overall assimilation of ideas and concepts to the made-up scenarios, and lastly, the performance assessment illustrates the knowledge and skills necessary to perform on-the-job in a criminal justice capacity. The assessment will gauge not only the students’ understanding of the concepts presented, but will also measure the ability of the student to develop everyday scenarios, and ultimately, devise realistic events in which the different concepts can be applied.
This may ensure ethical stability on the part of student-then-officer while enhancing his or her decision-making ability when faced with ethical dilemmas where the law and ethics may overlap, run parallel, or do neither in some cases. In addition, the student would be assessed on his or her written communications skills which include formatting the paper in its entirety in the APA format. The other skills which would come into play include research, organization, paragraph construction, and the overall mechanics of the paper.
The quality of the content and the application of the concepts and principles would be weighted more heavily at 75% of the total assessment, with the APA format, paragraph construction, and mechanics would be weighted less at 25%. Assessment Interpretation and Grading According to Gronlund and Waugh (2009), “criterion-referenced interpretation is facilitated by assessment tasks that provide a detailed description of student performance…in performance-assessment this means performance tasks that make clear what the student can and cannot do” (p. 5). Since the students have been given the final project subject, the directions for completing the final project in paper-form, the expectations for deliverables, the grading rubric, and the assignments and tasks throughout the course have been tailored to learn the concepts and application necessary, then there should be no issues with what the criterion are for performing in a superb manner.
Although a grading rubric is considered an assessment tool used to grade using subjectivity, it can have a set of criteria and specific metrics which link it to students’ learning objectives, which in this case, measure the student’s performance using a final project in research paper format. Because assessment is an ongoing process with a student in a degree-seeking program, the rubric is aimed at accurate and fair assessment for all students, by fostering understanding, and indicating the way to proceed with subsequent learning, re-learning, and teaching and re-teaching.
This is the integration of performance and feedback which occurs prior to each assessment, and during the course of the class term, so that by the time the student is nearing the end of the quarter term, he or she should be able to articulate the items presented in the rubric using the final project directions adhering to the expectations for deliverables. According to Flash (2009), when students are apprised of grading criteria from the start, they can be more involved in the process of working toward success.
According to Mansilla, Duraisingh, Wolfe, and Haynes, 2009: Rubrics are generally thought to promote more consistent grading and to develop self-evaluation skills in students as they monitor their performance relative to the rubric. However, rubrics are not without their critics who are concerned that rubrics can never truly capture the complexity of written work. If rubrics are to be useful, they must capture all the actual objectives of an assignment (p. ). In this case, the rubric (See Appendix, p. 5 - 6) is given to the students at the third week of the quarter term; the directions are explained in detail with opportunity for questions answered, with the actual objectives outlined in the rubric along with final project specifications. As mentioned previously, this rubric, along with the final project specifications, is given to the student at the third week of the quarter. Conclusion
In summarizing adult learner assessment, first, it is recognized that the adult learner is motivated differently than other learners. Therefore, the teacher who teaches adult learners must be aware of not only the learner’s diversity and culture, but also his or her motivators. Then, the teacher must identify the initial abilities of his or her class; align the course objectives along with the teaching activities; verify that the teaching is aligned with the assessment instruments; then, analyze the results.
After completion of this “cycle,” the educator can them adjust or modify the teacher, or the re-teaching, in this case; and then the “cycle” starts all over again. In summarizing assessment procedures, an assessment, in and of itself, is the procedure which measures the entire student learning during a course, and the teacher’s teaching, facilitating, observing, and coaching, it is the interpretation of those performance results which are invaluable.
As long as the educator plans for assessment during the planning of the learning, then it probable that the assessment will gauge student learning, and will meet the instructional objectives (Gronlund and Waugh, 2009). In this case, the final project is one of the best assessment tools when measuring students’ cumulative learning, this is as long as several mini-assessments are given throughout the quarter, and adjustments are made to teaching, if the students do not understand the material. In addition, an verall assessment is done on the student’s writing skills, as well as his or her attention to the proper writing format. However, it is possible that the “assessment often generates more questions than it answers,” (Angelo and Cross, 1993, p. 54) and it is incumbent upon the educator to answer these questions of “why…the students respond the way they [do]” (p. 54), during all of the previous assessments administered throughout the quarter term, so that there are few to none, by the time the final project is due.
Lastly, in reflecting how the process of interpreting assessments will impact teaching, it is important to note that in teaching, “the whole is greater than the sum of its parts,” meaning, in this case, that without analyzing the end product of learning; then it is difficult to choose an assessment tool and the types of results that can occur; which makes it nearly impossible to understand how to assess students after teaching has occurred; it will be fruitless to set initial learning objectives; if it is not understood what it is the educators would like to teach the students; and to diagnose when they build the student pre-assessments.
Each section is bound to the other in seamless alignment, with the opportunity for improvement at each juncture; it is in this way that goals and classroom assessment drive everything in education, and in learning, in general. In teaching, there can be no greater impact than to learn that each of these components is critical to the goal of facilitating the obtainment of knowledge, and it is a bright insight to teachers of all philosophies, experiences, and tenure. References American Psychological Association. (2010). The official pocket style guide from the American Psychological Association: Concise rules of APA style (6th ed. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Angelo, T. A. , ; Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom assessment techniques: A handbook for college teachers (2nd ed. ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Baitlinger, K. (2005). Engaging adult learners in writing/ESL Classroom. College Quarterly, 8(1),1. Create Rubrics for your Project-Based Learning Activities. (2000 – 2008). Rubistar. Retrieved from http://rubistar. 4teachers. org/index. php? screen=NewRubric;module=Rubistar Effective Classroom Instruction. (2004). Encyclopedia of applied psychology. Retrieved from http://www. redoreference. com. library. capella. edu/entry/estappliedpsyc/effective_classroom_instruction Flash, P. (2009). Grading writing: Recommended grading strategies. Retrieved from http://writing. umn. edu/tww/responding_grading/grading_writing. html Gronlund, N. E. , ; Waugh, C. K. (2009). Assessment of student achievement (9th ed. ) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education. Johnson, D. , ; Steele, V. (1996, February). So many words, so little time: Helping college ESL learners. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy. 39, 5; ProQuest Education Journals. . 348. Mansilla, V. , Duraisingh, E. , Wolfe, C. R. , ; Haynes, C. (2009). Targeted assessment rubric: An empirically grounded rubric for interdisciplinary writing. Journal of Higher Education. 80(3), 334-353. Merriam, S. , Caffarella, R. , ; Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in adulthood: A comprehensive guide (3rd ed. ). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Thiroux, J. P. , ; Krasemann, K. W. (2008). Ethics: Theory and practice (10th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall
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