The American Era
The American Era Historical Background * The Filipino revolutionists won against the Spaniards who colonized us for more than 300 years. * The Fil-American war resulted in the defeat of Gen. Miguel Malvar in 1903.
* The American Rule was influenced by two factors: 1. ) EDUCATION- many were given a chance to study and English was used as the medium of instruction. 2. WRITERS- went through stages of development to acquire enough proficiency in the new language – imitative of the style and the subject matters of the American and European authors * Filipino writers went into all forms of literature like news, reporting, poetry, stories, plays, essays, novels, etc. Their writings clearly depicted their love of country and their longings for independence. * Imitation soon faded, writers began to turn to: native ideas and circumstances- inspiration for their writings.
Movement Against the U. S. Colonialism * the printing press was used to block the American culture from entering the Philippine lifestyle * Newspapers in our different dialects flourished all over the archipelago. * *Writers were given the chance to show and prove the true talent of the Filipinos * *Writers during these period drew ideas from the Propaganda Movement and the Revolutionary Characteristics of Literature During American Regime Three groups of writers contributed to Philippine Literature during this period. * Literature in Spanish The inspiration of Filipino writers in Spanish was Rizal. * Rizal’s two novels (Noli and Fili) contained the best qualities of a novel ever written, in English or in Filipino. * Those who were inspired to write in praise of Rizal were Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Ma. Guerrero, Jesus Balmori, Manuel Bernabe, Claro M. Recto, etc. Example: by Manuel Bernabe Recodar! Ay del alma que recuerde! la quiebra que ha sufrido la ilusion la memoria es la fiera que nos muerde el pobre Corazon English translation: To remember! Poor soul that records
The sufferings you underwent in illusion Memory is the fire that snared My poor heart. * Literature in Tagalog * Florante at Laura of Francisco Balagtas and Urbana at Felisa of Modesto de Castro became the inspiration of the Tagalog writers. * The advent of American period includes (1)Tagalog Drama (2)Tagalog Short Story (3)Tagalog Poetry * Julian Cruz Balmaceda classified three kinds of Tagalog poets. They were: * Poet of the Heart (Makata ng Puso) * Poets of Life (Makata ng Buhay) * Poets of the Stage (Makata ng Tanghalan) * Literature in English We can trace the beginnings of Philippine literature in English with the coming of the Americans thus, this period is divided into three time frames, namely: * The Period of Re-orientation: 1898-1910 * By 1900, English came to be used as a medium of instruction in the public schools. From the American forces were recruited the first teachers of English. * By 1908, the primary and intermediate grades were using English. It was also about this time when UP, the forerunner in the use of English in higher education, was founded. Writers of this period were still adjusting to the newfound freedom after the paralyzing effect of repression of thought and speech under the Spanish regime. * The Period of Imitation: 1910-1925 * By 1919, the UP College Folio published the literary compositions of the first Filipino writers in English. They were the pioneers of in short story writing. * They were then groping their way into imitating American and British models which resulted in a stilted, artificial and unnatural style, lacking vitality and spontaneity. * Writers of this folio included Fernando Maramag, Juan F. Salazar, Jose M.
Hernandez, Vicente del Fierro and Francisco Tonogbanua. * The Period of Self-Discovery: 1925-1941 * By this time, Filipino writers had acquired the mastery of English writing. * They now confidently and competently wrote on a lot of subjects although the old-time favorites of love and youth persisted. * They went into all forms of writings like the novel and the drama. Other Forms of Literature * Ilocano Literature * Pedro Bukaneg: Father of Ilocano Literature. His name was derived from the word Bukaneg meaning Balagtasan. * Claro Caluya: Prince of Ilocano Poets. Known as poet and novelist. Leon Pichay: known as the best Bukanegero (from Bukaneg). Also a poet, novelist, short story writer, dramatist and essayist. * Literature of the Kapampangans (Pampango Literature) * Juan Crisostomo Soto: (Father of Kapampangan Literature). The word CRISOTAN (meaning Balagtasan) in Tagalog is taken from his name. * Aurelio Tolentino: He truly proved his being a Kapampangan in his translation of KAHAPON, NGAYON AT BUKAS into Kapampangan which he called NAPON, NGENI AT BUKAS. * Visayan Literature * Eribert Gumban: (Father of Visayan Literature) He wrote a zarzuela, a moro-moro and a play in Visayan. Magdalena Jalandoni: She devoted her talent to the novel. She wrote ANG MGA TUNUK SAN ISA CA BULACLAC. LITERARY GENRES POETRY * Written in 3 languges (Filipino, Spanish, English and in the different dialects) * Some known poets were: Maximo KalawPaz Marquez Benitez Carlos P. RomuloMaria Agoncillo Carlos Bulosan Salvador P. Lopez * There were three collection of poems printed, namely: * Filipino Poetry edited by Rodolfo Dato * The English German Anthology of Poets edited by Pablo Laslo * a pre-war collection by Carlos Bulosan ESSAYS Essays during this period improved with years in quality and quantity, in content, in subject and style. * The notable writers of essay during this period were: * Political, social reflective essays * Critical essays * Personal or Familiar essays * The notable writers of essay during this period were: * 1940: Salvador P. Lopez’ Literature and Society * 1940: Camilo Osias – The Filipino Way of Life * 1941: F. B. Icasiano (Mang Kiko) were reprints of the best of Icasiano’s essays in the Sunday Times Magazine under the column From My Nipa Hut. SHORT STORY Short stories in English of early Filipino fictionists are marked with American style * changed with the founding of the UP Writers Club (1926) whose aim was to enhance and propagate the “language of Shakespeare” * “Dead Stars” by Paz Marquez Benitez- was made the landmark of the maturity of the Filipino writer in English * Many writers followed Benitez like: Icasiano Calalang Manuel Arguilla Arturo Rotor * Paz Latorena *STARTED PUBLISHING STORIES MANIFESTING SKILLS IN THEUSE OF THEFORIEGN LANGUAGE & AKEEN FILIPINO SENSIBILITY * The combination of the foreign language and the culture of a Filipino enabled fictionists to roduce great literary works * The public can now relate to the story because the public also experiences what the story has to say and they can now understand the language being used by the writer. Works like: * His Native Soil by Juan C. Laya * How My Brother Leon Brought Home a Wife by Manuel Arguilla * many other stories which depicted the Filipino life NOVEL * With the founding of the Philippine Writers League in 1936, Filipino writers began discussing the value of literature in the society they lived in. * this move was led by: Salvador P.
Lopez whose works centered on proletarian literature * Other novelists of this period are: * Jose Garcia Villa * Francisco Arellana * Fernando Maria Guerrero * Amador Daguio * Sinai Hamada * Ilokano novelists: * Leon Pichay * Hermogenes Belen * Mena Pecson Crisologo (whose “Mining wenno Ayat ti Kararwa” is considered to be the Ilokano version of Noli Me Tangere) SARSWELA * During this period, SARSWELA GAINED POPULARITY * Most of the sarswelas if not all, are directed against he American imperialists. * Equally remarkable sarswelas durong the period are the works of: * Severino Reyes “Walang Sugat” Patricio Mariano “Anak ng Dagat” * Other noted sarswelitas: * Aurelio Tolentino * Juan Abad * Juan Matapang Cruz * Juan Crisostomo Sotto BALAGTASAN * named after Francisco F. Balagtas * a debate in verse; a political joust * done almost spontaneously between protagonists who debate over the pros and cons of a certain issue * The first ever Balagtasan was held on March 1924 at the Instituto de Mujeres, with Corazon de Jesus and Florentino Collantes as rivals. * Jose Corazon de Jesus as the first ever king of the Balagtasan.