Era of globalization cultural differences


In this epoch of globalisation in concern environment, companies are spread outing their concern all over the universe, i.e. in different states and each of them with different civilizations. One country in peculiar of turning importance is intercultural direction accomplishments. Culture in international concern presents is recognized to hold a major function to play in the international gross revenues, selling, enlisting, direction and amalgamations.

“ In short, civilization is behind everything we do or state. ”

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Therefore, in the international and multi-cultural concern community, there are really much possibilities of misinterpretations which can hold a negative consequence on the people which will intern impact the productiveness of the organisation. This complexness requires a director to accommodate in order to offer modern solutions to these jobs. ( )

Culture is:

  • Something shared by all or about all members of some societal group.
  • Something older members of a group attempt to go through to younger members.
  • Something ( as in the instance of ethical motives, Torahs, and imposts ) that shapes behaviour, or structures one ‘s perceptual experience of he universe. ”

Therefore civilization is all that one needs to cognize in order to be accepted in a society or an administration which is a sum sum of all the beliefs, values and norms shared by a group of people who have been brought up in a society to believe, experience, construe and respond in a peculiar mode. Or it is a human demand of accommodating to fortunes and conveying these accomplishments and cognition to the following coevalss. It can besides be said as civilization as mental scheduling is besides crystallisation of history in the custodies, heads and Black Marias of the present coevals. ( Hofstede, 2001 ) .

This essay will speak about the cultural difference between India which is my place civilization and UK which is the opposite number. I have chosen UK because I have been to UK for my Supervised Work Experience ( SWE ) and during my stay in UK I ne’er paid attending towards the UK civilization dimensions and would now like to analyse with regard to the different theoretical accounts. But before that Lashkar-e-Taibas have a expression at some imposts or values that are followed in these states:

India – Hindooism

  • Social freedom amongst the sexes is non appreciated.
  • Use of first name to turn to people is avoided.
  • The method of recognizing depends on the societal position of the individual you are run intoing i.e. if a boy is run intoing his male parent normally he greets him by bowing down and touching his pess. Where as educated people, in concern meeting agitate custodies to welcome or recognize each other.
  • If invited for dinner one may merely hold the dinner with the concern spouse and non the whole household and make non acquire disquieted if you host asks you several times to hold some more nutrient. It is Indian usage to do certain that the invitee does non acquire up hungry from the tabular array. Besides at the tabular array 1 should utilize the right manus in go throughing nutrient as Indian consider left manus as impure.

United kingdom:

  • British people are formal, sophisticated, value privateness and are sensitive.
  • Within UK controlled concern environment, maintain decorousness and avoid familiarity in frock and conversation, volume and cheering is excessively forbidden.
  • Family names and first name are preferred.
  • British people are good negotiants as they are tolerant and good hearers.
  • All right manners and good etiquette are expected at all societal occasions.
  • Gift giving is non a normal usage in UK.

( Harris, 2004 & A ; Rodrigues, 2001 )

Hofstede Model

Cross-cultural survey to happen out the differences in national civilizations, this was done by Hofstede across 60 different states which included matched samples of concern employees. These surveies together identified four independent dimensions of national civilization differences. The dimensions explored werePower distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, Individualism verses Bolshevism and Masculinity verses muliebrity.

The first of four dimensions discovered by Hofstede is called power distance. Power distance is the extent to which the less powerful member of an organisation or an establishment accept and expect that the power is distributed unevenly( Hofstede, 2001 ) .The basic job which is prevalent here is to what extent in a civilization the grade of inequality between a less powerful single and a high powerful person is expected and accepted. India stands at the 10/11 place in the study with a mark of 77 whereas Great Britain is on the 42/44 place with a mark of merely 35. ( see appendices- )

For illustration– During my SWE the service operation caput of the whole hotel concatenation was really friendly, who was besides the caput of my section. I used to portion my personal jobs with her and even travel out for dinner. This illustration would be farther analyzed in the competences.

The 2nd dimension is labeled as uncertainness turning away ( UA ) . It refers to the extent a civilization or organisation prepares its members to experience comfy or uncomfortable in an unstructured state of affairs ( Hofstede, 2001 ) . The issue involved here is the degree to which a civilization or society would accept rigorous Torahs and ordinances over uncertainness and hazard. States or civilizations hiting high on UA have long history and the population is homogenous. Risks even calculated are avoided and new thoughts and constructs are hard to present whereas states on low UA tonss are wholly opposite. Although there is non much of a difference in the ranks given by Hofstede but still India scores a higher rank than Great Britain, besides this dimension does non hold a major function in the nucleus competences. ( see appendices- )

The 3rd is individuality and Bolshevism which is the grade to which a civilization emphasis on that right of an person as compared to those of a group. Countries hiting high on individuality live in the “ I ” civilization and strive for personal ends and accomplishments. In such states it is acceptable to prosecute personal ends at the disbursal of other. Whereas a state hiting low in individuality has the “ we ” civilization. Individual desires and end could be suppressed for the good of the group.

For Example– In UK civilization people ever consider themselves as an Individual, they are more daunted about themselves even if they belong to same household, whereas in India people consider each other as a portion of a group and that ‘s the ground articulation households still exist in Indian society.

The last 1 is maleness and muliebrity which refers to the distribution of function between the two genders i.e. male and female. States with high maleness are observed to hold the undermentioned features i.e. Precedences in life for people are achievement, wealth and enlargement. Normally people settle struggles through aggressive means.Women and work forces have different functions in society. OftenProfessionals in these states work for longer hours and short holidaies. Whereas in counties which are low in maleness the followers is observed. Precedences are the household, relationships and quality of life.Conflicts are normally solved though negotiation.Men and adult females portion equal places in society.

Masculinity/Femininity are every bit powerful but in regard to Hofstede, 2006 research both India and UK portion common Masculinity civilization as in both of these civilizations societal gender functions are clearly distinguishable. ( see appendices )

Hall ‘s Model

The critical differentiation is made by the anthropologist Edward Hall between high and low- context civilizations and how these contexts have an consequence on communicating. In High Context cultures high context communicating: information is either in the physical context or internalized in the individual with small communicating in the expressed words or message and on the other manus a low context civilization communicating most information is contained in expressed codifications, such as words ( Harris, 2004 ) .

High context civilizations depend to a great extent on the external environment, state of affairss, and non-verbal behaviour in making and construing communications. In high context civilizations when persons communicate they try to happen out how much the hearer knows about what is being discussed. Peoples in high context civilizations emphasize on interpersonal relationships, besides developing trust is really of import factor or measure which should be made before get downing a concern. Peoples are collectivized and work on their intuition instead than on grounds and are more indirect every bit good as formal. India is high context civilization.

Whereas in Low Context cultures the environment is less of import, and not -verbal behaviour is frequently ignored. While communicating is traveling on the hearer knows nil or small and need to be told about what is being discussed. Peoples in low context civilizations emphasize legal paperss instead than bury personal relationships or trust. Peoples are individualistic and work based on logical logical thinking and non on intuition, besides they are direct and informal. UK is a low context civilization.

For illustration– During my SWE I was asked by my co-worker to assist her with the work burden. Alternatively of stating I can non, I said it would be hard. The illustration would be analyzed in the competences countries.

The 2nd construct given by Hall was to make with the how different civilizations construction or pull off their clip i.e. polychronic verses the monochronic clip orientation. The polychronic civilizations believe in making many things at one clip and the monochronic civilizations believe in making one undertaking at given point of clip and clip is low-level to interpersonal relationships. UK belongs to monochromic civilization and India is a polychronic civilization.


Another of import factor or variable that the directors in the organisation demand to maintain in head is pigeonholing.“ Stereotypes are set of attitudes that causes us to impute qualities and features to a individual based on the group to which that single belongs. ” ( Harris, 2004 )

It fundamentally involves categorising and doing perceptual experiences about people based on one ‘s experiences and it guides one ‘s behaviour towards that group of people in a peculiar manner.


A squad is a figure of individuals associated in same joint action, while teamwork is described as concerted or co-ordinated attempt on the portion of individuals working together towards the realization of a end ( Harris, 2004 ) . A hotel house can merely last if the employees are ready to work and bring forth an effectual squad. As each and every operation in the cordial reception industry is interrelated to each other. For illustration front office is depended upon housekeeping section for clean suites and eating house is dependent on kitchen for cooking nutrient. Therefore in order to hold a successful multicultural squad member should hold complimentary accomplishments and should believe in favour of the squad. ( illustration see appendices- )


All activities involve communicating. In the planetary epoch different managerial activities like motivation, taking, dialogue interchanging information etc are all based on the director of one civilization to pass on efficaciously and successfully to people of other civilizations. Communication can non merely verbal or written but besides non-verbal i.e. organic structure linguistic communication, looks etc( Adler, 1997 ) .In international Hospitality and Tourism industries linguistic communication plays a really of import function, as both of these industries include direct guest contact ; good linguistic communication and communicating accomplishments can either do or interrupt the feeling of the organisation – particularly hotels. ( illustration see appendices )

Conflict and Negotiation

Conflict- “ A province of inharmoniousness between incompatible or antithetical individuals, thoughts, or involvements ; a clang ”

( www.ANSWER.COM )

Causes of struggle

  • communicating failure
  • personality struggle
  • value differences
  • end differences
  • methodological differences
  • substandard public presentation
  • deficiency of cooperation
  • differences sing authorization
  • differences sing duty
  • competition over resources
  • non-compliance with regulations

( )

These are some of the factors which causes struggle in an on the job environment of an organisation which needed to be resolved through assorted manners and agencies

  • Force
  • Negotiate
  • Bargain
  • Avoid
  • Adjustment and Appease

( Mead 1998:2005 )

The most of import tool is negotiation which ‘s is used to decide struggle

“ Negotiation is a procedure in which two or more entities come together to discourse common and conflicting involvements in order to make an understanding of common benefit ”( Harris, 2004 ). In international concern dialogue, there can be misconstruing due the difference in the civilization to civilization in linguistic communication, cultural conditioning, dialogue manner, attack to job work outing etc. Negotiation plays a really of import function in Hospitality and Tourism Industries, such as dialogue on room rate with invitees and travel agents in different states etc. As India belongs to polychromatic civilization, while taking determinations people from India tend to affect other people ( co-workers ) into the dialogue procedure which makes the procedure longer. This besides confirms the stereotype associated with them. This besides happens as India a leftist and high PDI state. Whereas UK which is monochromatic civilization they see clip as an plus and measure to be scheduled, they emphasize on doing dockets and complete the work or taking the determination in clip. Negotiation can besides be effected by the communicating manner of the state i.e. as explained earlier the construct of high and low context civilizations i.e. misconstruing due to miss of lucidity amongst the two civilizations therefore taking to unsatisfactory consequences of dialogue.

Measuring myself- Me, As a director

After finishing my brooding pattern assignment and following up the undertakings given to us. After making the Hofstede ‘s mensurating cultural differences approach theoretical account or exercising and I found that I measured maleness more than muliebrity which clarifies that the occupation which is given or I undertake is done to acquire personal sense of achievement and I look for new and ambitious chances for a high success.I would depict my ego as low power distance human being as I would wish to work with those troughs which makes determination by sing all the employees view points instead doing their ain personal determination I would focused more on Bolshevism instead on Individualism as I look for more chances to better upon my accomplishments and develop new accomplishments by accommodating to new on the job conditions ( see appendices- )

Cultures are usually attributed to groups of people but, within group each person has his/her ain person characters which make the individual stand out from others. I would depict my ego as a good hearer, good perceiver, concerted with employees, Flexible and competitory ( see appendices- ) . These single features make me stand out from other members of different civilizations. The consequences of CCAI indicate that my strongest are is Personal Autonomy and my weakest country is Flexibility/Openness. While tonss in Emotional Resilience and Perceptual Activity about the same. ( see appendices- ) The country in which I lack the most is communicating among different civilizations ; while I can easy manage state of affairss in which things do non travel as per program or state of affairss and in which emphasis and tolerance occurs. I lack in country where I am expected to pass on among different civilizations, despite of the fact that, I would love to pass some clip with people from different civilizations. By bettering my intercultural accomplishments such as communicating i.e. how to respond on different thoughts, people and experiences and I should non concentrate on what other people are stating and making instead do my ain determinations. This will do me a better individual while I am in different civilization and in my ain civilization. Besides I should larn to appreciate different people and disbursals.

In the following six months by following up the action program I would better on my communicating accomplishment by reading novels and newspapers and besides at the same clip seek interact and discourse on different issues with people in college whom I usually do n’t interact with, as it will besides assist me in appreciating different people as good. Completing this exercising would assist me in covering with different people at my hereafter work topographic point and besides pass oning efficaciously with them. ( see appendices- )

Decision and Recommendations

The chief focal point of this essay was to analyse similarities and unsimilarities among Indian and UK civilizations. This was done though usage of two theoretical accounts of cultural analysis done by Hofstede and Hall. It was realized that both the civilizations are excessively different from each other. As cordial reception and touristry industry are turning at a rapid graduated table and due to globalisation of the concern, the demand for multicultural employees is increasing, but pull offing employees from wholly different civilizations like in India or UK would be great challenge faced by the directors in the industry. Besides international visitants frequently expect that service suppliers should understand and esteem their imposts, beliefs and civilizations, if non it may take to traverse cultural struggles. Following are the recommendations for UK and India based directors:

  • Cross cultural preparation should be provided to the employees so that they can set in new civilizations. Information about other civilizations should be provided which will take to better understanding amongst the employees and enhanced teamwork.
  • While pass oning with Britishers, Indian people should utilize simple words which are grammatically right should be used and direct communicating should take topographic point as British people belong to a low context civilization and prefer messages/communication to be structured straight, that they get immediate to the point and province decisions and bottom line.
  • Proper apprehension of other civilizations and taking appropriate dialogue procedure can bring forth effectual and utile dialogue. A director must happen out the common and the uncommon values of his and opposite numbers civilization in order to carry on effectual and successful dialogue. While negociating between UK and Indian civilizations, directors should take attention of the organic structure languages, Gestures and usage of grammatically right linguistic communication for communications should be used besides, importance of clip should be taken into consideration.
  • Cross cultural preparation should be provided to the employees so that they can set in new civilizations. Information about other civilizations should be provided which will take to better understanding amongst the employees and enhanced teamwork.
  • Another consideration for planetary directors is that they should have/develop good hearing accomplishment.


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